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Are There Different Kinds Of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Survival Rate

Are there different types of breast cancer?

Breast cancer survival rates vary widely based on many factors.

Two of the most important factors are the type of cancer you have and the stage of the cancer at the time you receive a diagnosis. Other factors that may play a role include your age, gender, and race.

shows theres a higher mortality rate in non-white people diagnosed with breast cancer compared with white people. One reason for this may be healthcare disparities.

The good news is breast cancer survival rates are improving.

According to the ACS , in 1975, the 5-year survival rate for breast cancer in women was 75.2 percent. But for women diagnosed between 2008 and 2014, it was 90.6 percent.

Five-year survival rates for breast cancer differ depending on stage at diagnosis, ranging from 99 percent for localized, early stage cancers to 27 percent for advanced, metastatic cancers.

Kinds Of Breast Cancer

The most common kinds of breast cancer are

  • Invasive ductal carcinoma. The cancer cells begin in the ducts and then grow outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma. Cancer cells begin in the lobules and then spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by. These invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body.

Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Part of the current knowledge on breast carcinomas is based on in vivo and in vitro studies performed with cell lines derived from breast cancers. These provide an unlimited source of homogenous self-replicating material, free of contaminating stromal cells, and often easily cultured in simple standard media. The first breast cancer cell line described, BT-20, was established in 1958. Since then, and despite sustained work in this area, the number of permanent lines obtained has been strikingly low . Indeed, attempts to culture breast cancer cell lines from primary tumors have been largely unsuccessful. This poor efficiency was often due to technical difficulties associated with the extraction of viable tumor cells from their surrounding stroma. Most of the available breast cancer cell lines issued from metastatic tumors, mainly from pleural effusions. Effusions provided generally large numbers of dissociated, viable tumor cells with little or no contamination by fibroblasts and other tumor stroma cells.Many of the currently used BCC lines were established in the late 1970s. A very few of them, namely MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3, account for more than two-thirds of all abstracts reporting studies on mentioned breast cancer cell lines, as concluded from a Medline-based survey.

Metabolic markers

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    Medullary Carcinoma Of The Breast

    Medullary carcinoma of the breast is another rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma . It accounts for around less than 5 percent of all breast cancer cases.

    The tumor is typically a soft, fleshy mass rather than a lump in the breast tissue. The mass most often develops in the middle of the breast and is most often found in women with the BRCA1 mutation.

    Although these cancer cells often have an aggressive appearance, they dont grow quickly and usually dont spread to the lymph nodes. This makes it easier to treat than some other types of breast cancer.

    • the patients preference

    Possible treatment options for breast cancer include:

    Regular breast self-examinations, and mammograms help detect breast cancer in its early stages. Finding breast cancer that has not yet spread gives you the best chance of remaining healthy and cancer-free for many years.

    According to the , on average, when your breast cancer is treated before it has spread, youre 99 percent as likely to be alive in 5 years as someone who does not have breast cancer.

    Other steps you can take to lower your risk of getting breast cancer include the following:

    • Limit alcohol to no more than one drink a day.
    • Maintain a moderate weight throughout your life.
    • Stay physically active.

    What Is Breast Cancer

    Types of Breast Cancer

    Click to see larger diagrams of the anterior viewimage icon and cross-section viewimage icon of the breast.

    Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer.

    Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules are the glands that produce milk. The ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. The connective tissue surrounds and holds everything together. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules.

    Breast cancer can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is said to have metastasized.

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    What Are The Different Stages Of Breast Cancer

    In addition to breast cancertype, breast cancers are also characterized by their stage. The stage helps describe where the breast cancer has spread in the body, what treatment might be needed, and what the prognosis may be.

    There are five stages of breast cancer, from Stage 0-IV. Stage 0 is the earliest stage of breast cancer and means it hasnt spread. Stage IV is the most advanced stage and means the breast cancer is invasive and has spread to other parts of the body.

    Prognostic Impact Of Tumor

    It has been previously reported that tumor-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase , in the mevalonate pathway is associated with more favorable tumor parameters in breast cancer. In the present study, it is examined the prognostic value of HMG–CoAR expression in a large cohort of primary breast cancer patients with long-term follow up.

    Read Also: Can Stage 1 Breast Cancer Be Cured

    Breast Exam By Your Doctor

    The same guidelines for self-exams provided above are true for breast exams done by your doctor or other healthcare professional. They wont hurt you, and your doctor may do a breast exam during your annual visit.

    If youre having symptoms that concern you, its a good idea to have your doctor do a breast exam. During the exam, your doctor will check both of your breasts for abnormal spots or signs of breast cancer.

    Your doctor may also check other parts of your body to see if the symptoms youre having could be related to another condition.

    What Are Some Common Side Effects Of Chemotherapy Used In Breast Cancer

    Are There Different Kinds of Breast Cancer?

    Chemotherapy attacks cancer cells, but it can also attack healthy cells in your hair and gut. Chemotherapy side effects depend on the individual, the type of chemotherapy, the dosage and schedule, and the chemotherapy regimen being used.

    In addition to some of the side effects mentioned above, chemotherapy used in breast cancer can cause the following more common side effects:

    • Hair loss

    • Easy bruising or bleeding

    • Fatigue

    Chemotherapy effects can be bothersome, but sometimes necessary to receive effective treatment. Thankfully, however, there are other medications and strategies that can be used to help manage certain side effects. If youre receiving chemotherapy and you experience a bothersome side effect, make sure to mention it to your cancer specialist so they can help manage it.

    If side effects are too bothersome or cannot be tolerated, your chemotherapy regimen may be altered, paused, or completely stopped.

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    How Can I Protect Myself From Breast Cancer

    Follow these three steps for early detection:

    • Get a mammogram. The American Cancer Society recommends having a baseline mammogram at age 35, and a screening mammogram every year after age 40. Mammograms are an important part of your health history. Recently, the US Preventive Services Task Force came out with new recommendations regarding when and how often one should have mammograms. These include starting at age 50 and having them every two years. We do not agree with this, but we are in agreement with the American Cancer Society and have not changed our guidelines, which recommend yearly mammograms starting at age 40.
    • Examine your breasts each month after age 20. You will become familiar with the contours and feel of your breasts and will be more alert to changes.
    • Have your breast examined by a healthcare provider at least once every three years after age 20, and every year after age 40. Clinical breast exams can detect lumps that may not be detected by mammogram.

    How Do Tamoxifen Raloxifene Anastrozole And Exemestane Reduce The Risk Of Breast Cancer

    If you are at increased risk for developing breast cancer, four medications tamoxifen , raloxifene , anastrozole , and exemestane may help reduce your risk of developing this disease. These medications act only to reduce the risk of a specific type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. This type of breast cancer accounts for about two-thirds of all breast cancers.

    Tamoxifen and raloxifene are in a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators . These drugs work by blocking the effects of estrogen in breast tissue by attaching to estrogen receptors in breast cells. Because SERMs bind to receptors, estrogen is blocked from binding. Estrogen is the fuel that makes most breast cancer cells grow. Blocking estrogen prevents estrogen from triggering the development of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Anastrozole and exemestane are in a class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors . These drugs work by blocking the production of estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors do this by blocking the activity of an enzyme called aromatase, which is needed to make estrogen.

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    Nanotechnology In Breast Cancer

    The field of nanotechnology has rapidly evolved as evidenced by the fact that there are more than 150 ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of nanotechnology based drug delivery carriers targeting cancer. Various liposomal doxorubicin formulations were developed in an effort to improve the therapeutic index of the conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy while maintaining its anti-tumor activity. For example, the efficacy of three liposomal doxorubicins are currently being used: liposomal daunorubicin , liposomal doxorubicin , and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin . Generally, these agents exhibit efficacies comparable to those of conventional doxorubicin, except with better safety profiles and less cardio toxicity. In addition to liposomal doxorubicin, albumin-bound paclitaxel is another example of an E PR based nanovector application for breast cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel is highly hydrophobic and dissolved in cremophor to prevent paclitaxel precipitation. However, cremophor-associated toxicities are severe and challenge the application of paclitaxel. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was developed to improve the solubility of paclitaxel

    Types Of Breast Cancer

    Breast Cancer Awareness

    Ductal Carcinoma in Situ refers to abnormal cells found within the milk ducts that are considered non-invasive as the cells have not spread from the ducts to the surrounding breast tissue. This is an early form of cancer that in some cases could potentially become invasive and spread to other tissues.

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    Does A Benign Breast Condition Mean That I Have A Higher Risk Of Getting Breast Cancer

    Benign breast conditions rarely increase your risk of breast cancer. Some women have biopsies that show a condition called hyperplasia . This condition increases your risk only slightly.

    When the biopsy shows hyperplasia and abnormal cells, which is a condition called atypical hyperplasia, your risk of breast cancer increases somewhat more. Atypical hyperplasia occurs in about 5% of benign breast biopsies.

    What Are The Stages Of Breast Cancer

    There are two different staging systems for breast cancer. One is called anatomic staging while the other is prognostic staging. The anatomic staging is defined by the areas of the body where the breast cancer is found and helps to define appropriate treatment. The prognostic staging helps medical professionals communicate how likely a patient is to be cured of the cancer assuming that all appropriate treatment is given.

    The anatomic staging system is as follows:

    Stage 0 breast disease is when the disease is localized to the milk ducts .

    Stage I breast cancer is smaller than 2 cm across and hasn’t spread anywhere including no involvement in the lymph nodes.

    Stage II breast cancer is one of the following:

    • The tumor is less than 2 cm across but has spread to the underarm lymph nodes .
    • The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm .
    • The tumor is larger than 5 cm and has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arm .

    Stage III breast cancer is also called “locally advanced breast cancer.” The tumor is any size with cancerous lymph nodes that adhere to one another or to surrounding tissue . Stage IIIB breast cancer is a tumor of any size that has spread to the skin, chest wall, or internal mammary lymph nodes .

    Stage IV breast cancer is defined as a tumor, regardless of size, that has spread to areas away from the breast, such as bones, lungs, liver or brain.

    Also Check: Malignant Breast Cancer Survival Rate

    Paget Disease Is A Rare Type Of Breast Cancer

    • Approximately accounts for 1% of all breast cancers
    • Cancer starts in the breast ducts, then spreads to the skin of the nipple, and areola
    • Usually associated with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma
    • Symptoms may consist of the nipple and areola being: Crusted, scaly, red, bleeding, oozing, burning, or itching
    National Breast Cancer AssistanceAccess For All

    ABCF makes access to breast health care and services easier for everyone. By eliminating barriers for screenings and increasing the availability of other medical resources, we are helping women and men detect breast cancer at its earliest stage.

    What Are Lobular Carcinoma In Situ And Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia

    Types of Breast Cancer

    Lobular carcinoma in situ is not considered breast cancer or a precancer because it doesnt turn into invasive cancer if untreated. LCIS and atypical lobular hyperplasia , a similar noncancerous condition, are subtypes of lobular neoplasia, a disorder marked by abnormal cells in the breasts lobules . Since LCIS and ALH raise your risk for breast cancer in the future, if youve been diagnosed with either of them, talk to your doctor about how often you should be screened for breast cancer and whether you should have any additional screening tests.

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    How Is Breast Cancer Treated

    If the tests find cancer, you and your doctor will develop a treatment plan to eradicate the breast cancer, to reduce the chance of cancer returning in the breast, as well as to reduce the chance of the cancer traveling to a location outside of the breast. Treatment generally follows within a few weeks after the diagnosis.

    The type of treatment recommended will depend on the size and location of the tumor in the breast, the results of lab tests done on the cancer cells, and the stage, or extent, of the disease. Your doctor will usually consider your age and general health as well as your feelings about the treatment options.

    Breast cancer treatments are local or systemic. Local treatments are used to remove, destroy, or control the cancer cells in a specific area, such as the breast. Surgery and radiation treatment are local treatments. Systemic treatments are used to destroy or control cancer cells all over the body. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy are systemic treatments. A patient may have just one form of treatment or a combination, depending on her individual diagnosis.

    Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of Cancer

    In general, cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.

    Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.

    Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.

    • Music therapy, meditation, stress management, and yoga for reducing anxiety and stress.

    • Meditation, relaxation, yoga, massage, and music therapy for depression and to improve other mood problems.

    • Meditation and yoga to improve general quality of life.

    • Acupressure and acupuncture to help with nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy.

    Read Also: Estrogen Induced Breast Cancer

    What Is The Survival Rate For Each Type

    Survival rates for breast cancer can give estimates of survival over a certain period of time. This is based on other people who have had a similar cancer type and stage. It can help give a sense of how treatable your cancer may be. However, everyone is unique, and it cant predict what your experience will be.

    Localized breast cancer that hasnt spread beyond the breast has nearly a 100% 5-year survival rate. When breast cancer starts to spread outside of the breast, this number begins to decrease. Overall, breast cancer survival is improving as people are diagnosed earlier and treatments improve. Your own healthcare providers are the best people to talk to about what these estimates mean for you.

    Why Are Chemotherapies Divided Into Different Classes

    Breast Cancer

    Chemotherapies are divided into different classes based on how they affect the DNA in our cells. Disruption or harming the DNA of cancer cells causes them to die and prevents them from growing.

    In many cases, a combination of two or more chemotherapy medications or a chemotherapy regimen will be used. A combination of medications is usually recommended to treat breast cancer because they affect DNA differently. A combination can attack breast cancer in different ways, raising the chance for a successful treatment.

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