What Is Stage 1 Cervical Cancer
Stage 1 cervical cancer is the most local stage of cervical cancer. In stage 1, cancer cells:
- Grow from the surface of the cervix into deeper tissues of the cervix.
- Have not spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Have not spread to distant sites
Stage 1 is split into A and B, which are further divided.
- 1A: Cancer is microscopic.
- 1A1: The area of cancer is less than 3 mm deep.
- 1A2: The area of cancer is between 3-5 mm deep.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor About Her2
- What are my treatment options?
- What is the best course of treatment for my cancer, and why?
- Whats the overall goal of treatment in my case?
- When should I start treatment?
- Can I still work and manage my regular activities during this time?
- How often will I be coming in to see you for treatment?
- Will I be coming here for all my visits and treatments, or going elsewhere?
- What short-term side effects and long-term risks are associated with my treatment?
- What are the next steps if the desired treatment doesnt work?
- How likely is it for my cancer to come back in the future? What symptoms should I be aware of?
- What is the cost of my treatment?
- What should I discuss with my insurance company?
What Is The Survival Outlook For Breast Cancer
According to the National Cancer Institute , the percentage of patients surviving five years after diagnosis is:
- 99 percent for breast cancer that is still local to the breast
- 86 percent for breast cancer that has spread just outside the breast
- 29 percent for breast cancer that has spread to more distant parts of the body
The NCI also lists the five-year survival rate for breast cancer overall as 90.6 percent for women and 83 percent for men.
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What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares women with the same type and stage of breast cancer to women in the overall population.For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of breast cancer is 90%, it means that women who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as women who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
Stage 4 Survival Rates
To get a perspective on the difference in survival rates during different stages of cancer, according to the American Cancer Society the rate of survival after diagnosis is:
- For those at stage 2 there is an expected five-year survival rate of over 90%.
- For those at stage 3 there is an expected five-year survival rate of 72%.
- For stage 4 there is an expected five-year survival rate of 22%.
Because the earlier stages of breast cancer have much longer survival rates, early detection and treatment are important.
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What Are The Stages Of Breast Cancer And Their Treatment Options
Compared to most other cancers, staging breast cancer is more complex and that has to do with the number of breast cancer stages and differences in how breast cancer can develop.
How many stages of breast cancer are there? There are five stages, beginning at Stage 0 and going up to Stage 4. Within some stages there are additional categories based on the location and formation of the cancer.
So when it comes to treating breast cancer, there isnt a one-size-fits-all approach. Your treatment plan should be created especially for you and be coordinated across specialists and thats where your cancer care team comes in.
At HealthPartners, we believe cancer treatment and care is best managed by a group of doctors and specialists in whats known as multidisciplinary conferences. This is where breast surgeons, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and other members of your care team gather to discuss the best treatment sequence for you.
Below we dive into the treatment options your care team might recommend at various breast cancer stages.
Types Of Cervical Cancer
There are several different types of cervical cancer, but the most common types include:
- Squamous cell cancer that affects the flat cells that cover the outside of the cervix. Squamous cell cancer affects 70-80% of those who are diagnosed.
- Adenocarcinoma is the second most likely form of cervical cancer and starts in the glands that produce mucus. The cervix has mucous producing cells along the inside of the passage that runs to the uterus. While only 20% of cervical cancers are adenocarcinoma-based, this form has become more common in recent years.
- Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare tumor, affecting about 5-6%. Cancer treatment for adenosquamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer are the same.
- Small cell cancer is rare and proliferates. Other types of cervical cancer, like lymphomas and sarcomas, rarely occur. These types, combined with small cell cancer, are treated differently.
Cervical cancer cells are classified according to the degree of abnormality of the cells under a microscope. Cells are graded from 1 to 3. Grade 1 looks the most like normal cells, while 3 looks very abnormal.
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Factors That Affect Outlook
When considering your outlook, your doctor must analyze many other factors as well. Among them are:
- Stage at diagnosis. Your outlook is better when the breast cancer hasnt spread outside the breast or has spread only regionally at the start of treatment. Metastatic breast cancer, which is cancer that has spread to distant areas of the body, is harder to treat.
- Size and grade of primary tumor. This indicates how aggressive the cancer is.
- Lymph node involvement. Cancer can spread from the lymph nodes to distant organs and tissues.
- HR status and HER2 status. Targeted therapies can be used for HR-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers.
- Overall health. Other health issues you may have may complicate treatment.
- Response to therapy. Its hard to predict whether a particular therapy will be effective or produce intolerable side effects.
- Age. Younger women and those over age 75 may have a worse outlook than middle-aged women, except for those with stage 3 breast cancer, according to a .
Stage 3a Versus 3b Non
Stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer is subdivided into 3A and 3B. Stage 3A refers to cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes in the chest, but only on the same side as the affected lung. Stage 3B refers to cancer that has spread to the neck or lymph nodes on the other side of the chest, or to other organs. Although stage 3A cancer has spread, it has a better prognosis than 3B because it has not spread as far.
Life expectancy with cancer is broken down into overall survival after a set number of years. A large study of over 81,000 patients with lung cancer found 19% to 24% of patients with stage 3A and 7% to 9% of patients with stage 3B were alive five years after they were diagnosed. And according to the American Lung Association, the five-year survival rate for lung cancer overall is 55% if it is diagnosed when it is still confined to the lungs. However, once it has reached stage 3 and has begun to spread, the five-year survival rate ranges between 4% and 16%, depending on how much it has spread.
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What Increases The Risk Of Breast Cancer In Men
- Age. Most men who get breast cancer are over 60, although younger men can be affected.
- High oestrogen levels. High oestrogen levels can increase the risk. High oestrogen can happen with chronic liver damage, obesity and some genetic conditions.
- Obesity. Being very overweight seems to increase the risk of male breast cancer, especially for men over 35 years of age.
- Kleinfelters syndrome. This is a rare genetic condition where a man is born with an extra female chromosome. For men who have this syndrome the risk of breast cancer is 20 times greater than the average.
- Radiation. Men who have had repeated and prolonged exposure to radiation can be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. For example, radiotherapy treatment to the chest wall, particularly at a young age.
- Significant family history or genetic link. Men with a significant family history of female breast cancer are also at a higher risk of breast cancer. This includes a mother or sister, particularly if the relative was under the age of 40 when diagnosed. Read more about cancer and genes.
Evaluation Of Chemotherapy Responses And Toxicities
The clinical response was assessed based on a physical examination, mammography, ultrasonography, MRI and CT according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 criteria . A clinically complete response was defined as the disappearance of all known lesions a clinically partial response was defined as a 30% reduction in the sum of the longest diameter of the primary lesion progressive disease was defined as a 20% increase in the sum of the LD of the primary lesion and stable disease was defined as neither sufficient shrinkage to qualify for cPR nor sufficient increase to qualify for PD. The efficacy of NAC was examined in the surgical specimens, while the Ki-67 labeling index was examined in the pre-treatment biopsy specimens. The pathological response was assessed based on the histological changes in the invasive area by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society criteria . A pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast tissue, regardless of the ALN status, while the grade 0 response indicated no cancerous degeneration. A grade 2 response was defined as 2/3 cancerous degeneration or a small amount of invasive cancer in the specimen, while a grade 1 response was defined as < 2/3 cancerous degeneration in the specimen. The number of involved ALNs was confirmed in the dissected ALN specimen by the pathologist. In addition, toxicities of the NAC were graded by the ECOG common toxicity criteria.
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Breast Cancer Survival Rates By Stage And Age
The relative 5-year survival rate for breast cancer is 91%. This means that those who have breast cancer are, on average, 91% as likely as those who dont have the disease to live for at least 5 years after their diagnosis. The survival rate is an estimate across the population, and an individuals chance of survival is dependent on their specific characteristics and the nature of the tumour, such as the stage of the breast cancer at diagnosis, the age, gender and the subtype of the breast cancer .
The 5-year survival rate for Stage 1 breast cancer is, on average, 100% and Stage 2 is 95%. For locally advanced cancers the survival rate is 81%, while the 5-year survival rate for Stage 4 is significantly lower at 32%.
The 5-year survival rate also differs depending on the age group. For those aged over 85, the 5-year survival rate is 75%, while for those between 40 and 44 years of age it is 93%.
While the 5-year survival rate post-diagnosis is 91%, the survival rate 10 years after diagnosis of breast cancer is 86%.
Want To Learn More About Your Breast Cancer Treatment Options Were Here For You
Whether you just received your diagnosis or youre looking for new treatment options, were here to help.
If youve just been diagnosed with breast cancer, your next stop will be to meet with a nurse navigator or breast surgeon, depending on your initial diagnosis, and start building your treatment plan. We offer cancer care clinic locations across the Twin Cities and western Wisconsin, so get started by selecting a location to make an appointment at.
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What Does Stage 3 Mean
Because stage 3 breast cancer has spread outside the breast, it can be harder to treat than earlier stage breast cancer, though that depends on a few factors.
With aggressive treatment, stage 3 breast cancer is curable however, the risk that the cancer will grow back after treatment is high.
Doctors further divide stage 3 cancer into the following stages:
Factors Influencing Metastatic Breast Cancer Prognosis
There are several factors that can impact the prognosis of metastatic breast cancer, these include:
- Hormone receptors on cancer cells
- The type of tissue involved
- The number of tumors/extent of metastasis
- A persons overall attitude and outlook on the prognosis
Of course, no factors can accurately predict the exact prognosis for a person with metastatic breast cancer. These statistics are based on many clinical research studies, looking at survival rates for people diagnosed with breast cancer at all stages. But the prognosis of each person is different, regardless of what the statistics indicate.
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What Can I Do To Reduce My Risk
If several members of your family have had breast or ovarian cancer, or one of your family members has a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, share this information with your doctor. Your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. In men, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
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What Is The Life Expectancy Of Stage 3 Cancer
According to the American Cancer Society data derived from a database of people diagnosed with lung cancer between 1999 and 2010, the five-year survival rate for stage 3A NSCLC is about 36 percent. For stage 3B cancers the survival rate is about 26 percent. For stage 3C cancers the survival rate is about 1 percent.
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What Is The Staging For Breast Cancer
Stage I and II breast cancers
- Early-stage localized breast cancer
- Tumor is less than 2 cm in size and is node negative
- Stage II tumors have spread to the axillary lymph nodes and/or a tumor size larger than 2 cm but smaller than 5 cm
Stage III breast cancers
- Locally advanced breast cancer
- Large breast tumors
- Extensive axillary lymph node involvement , nodal involvement of both axillary and internal mammary nodes at diagnosis, or nodal involvement of the soft tissues above or below the collarbone
- A tumor is also considered to be stage III if it extends to underlying muscles of the chest wall or the overlying skin
- Inflammatory breast cancer is at least stage III even if it is small and does not involve lymph nodes
Stage IV breast cancer
- Metastatic breast cancer
- Tumors have spread to areas outside the breast and lymph nodes to the bones, lungs, liver, or other organs
- The primary tumor in the breast may be any size, and there can be any number of affected lymph nodes
What Are The Stages Of Stage 3 Breast Cancer
Your care team will determine breast cancer stage based on many factors, starting with a system called TNM:
- T is for the tumor size
- N is for the number of lymph nodes affected
- M is whether it has metastasized, or spread to other parts of the body, which is not the case with stage 3 breast cancer
Lymph nodes are small pockets of tissue that filter a clear fluid called lymph. Theyre key points along the lymphatic system, which runs throughout the body. The lymphatic system is one route that cancer takes to spread.
Both tumor size and the number and location of affected lymph nodes are used to determine whether stage 3 breast cancer is stage 3A, 3B or 3C. Testing will determine whether cancer is detected in four key areas of lymph nodes:
- Axillary lymph nodes, which are around the armpit
- Lymph nodes by the breastbone
- Lymph nodes under the collarbone
- Lymph nodes above the collarbone
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How Life Expectancy And Relapse Differ From Positive Tumors
Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.
Questions about the survival rate and recurrence rate are very common when someone is diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. While prognosis is, on average, poorer than with hormone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive tumors, triple-negative breast cancer is a very diverse disease.
On a positive note, and unlike hormone-positive tumors that commonly recur late , late recurrence is less common with triple-negative tumors. The recent approval of immunotherapy only for triple-negative disease is also optimistic.
This article looks at factors that may affect survival or recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer, as well as the statistical rates of both. It also discusses life expectancy with stage 4 and recent case reports of some longtime survivors.
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The Tnm System For Staging Breast Cancer
The AJCCs addition of the letters T, N, and M for anatomic breast cancer staging adds more information to a breast cancer diagnosis. Heres what they mean:
- T : The tumor grade shows a higher number for a larger size or density.
- N : Nodes refers to lymph nodes and uses the numerals 0 to 3 to give information about how many lymph nodes are involved in the cancer.
- M : This refers to how the cancer has spread beyond the breast and lymph nodes.
The AJCC also added clarifications in staging for ER, PR, and HER2 expression and also genetic information.
Ultimately, this means someone diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer can receive more information from their breast cancer staging than ever before.
No matter the stage, the best source of information about your individual outlook is your own oncology team.
Getting the right treatment and the support you need can help you navigate the challenges of being diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer.