Triple Negative Breast Cancer Recurrence & Survival Data
Patient & treatment characteristics Likelihood of outcomeTriple negative breast cancer with standard treatment
- Standard of care treatment 72% to 77% five-year progression-free survival
Degree of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy
- Pathologic complete response or minimal residual cancer burden 85% to 92% five-year progression-free survival
- Moderate residual cancer burden 68% five-year progression-free survival
- Extensive residual cancer burden 28% five-year progression-free survival
- Residual Stage II/III disease 57% five-year distant progression-free survival
Type of surgery
- Early-stage disease. Breast conserving treatment 87% to 94% five-year distant progression-free survival
- Early-stage disease. Mastectomy 80% to 85% five-year distant progression-free survival
BRCA mutation status
- BRCA1 mutation carrier 82% 2.5-year progression-free survival
- BRCA2 mutation carrier 71% 2.5-year progression-free survival
- No harmful BRCA mutation 74% 2.5-year progression-free survival
Lobular breast cancer
- Invasive triple negative lobular carcinoma 47% five-year progression-free survival
Ethnicity U.S. population
- Non-hispanic black 79% three-year overall survival
- Non-hispanic white 83% three-year overall survival
- Hispanic 86% three-year overall survival
- Asian American 87% three-year overall survival
Old age at diagnosis
About Huntsman Cancer Institute At The University Of Utah
Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah is the official cancer center of Utah and the only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center in the Mountain West. The campus includes a state-of-the-art cancer specialty hospital and two buildings dedicated to cancer research. Huntsman Cancer Institute provides patient care, cancer screening, and education at community clinics and affiliate hospitals throughout the Mountain West. It is consistently recognized among the best cancer hospitals in the country by U.S. News and World Report. The regions first proton therapy center opened in 2021 and a major hospital expansion is underway. Huntsman Cancer Institute is committed to creating a diverse and inclusive environment for staff, students, patients, and communities. Advancing cancer research discoveries and treatments to meet the needs of patients who live far away from a major medical center is a unique focus. More genes for inherited cancers have been discovered at Huntsman Cancer Institute than at any other cancer center, including genes responsible for breast, ovarian, colon, head and neck cancers, and melanoma. Huntsman Cancer Institute was founded by Jon M. and Karen Huntsman.
Basal Cell Breast Cancer
Basal cell breast cancer is a type of breast cancer with a clear pattern of changes in proteins in the cells.
Cancer doctors recognise basal cell breast cancer when they examine the cancer cells under a microscope. It is often linked with triple negative breast cancer.
Basal cell breast cancers are usually triple negative. And most triple negative breast cancers are basal cell cancers. They are similar types of breast cancer, but not exactly the same.
The symptoms of triple negative breast cancer are the same as for other breast cancer types.
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A New Era Of Hope For Patients With Triple
Triple-negative breast cancer is a particularly devastating subtype of breast cancer, as it is often diagnosed in young women and is associated with an exceptionally poor prognosis. The triple-negative designation indicates that the three key features driving most breast cancers are lacking, but it provides no clues as to potential biologic drivers. In the absence of any biologic insights, tailored, targeted treatment decisions have historically not been possible.
Consequently, until as recently as 2018, we have relied exclusively on nonselective cytotoxic agents, with modest success. For example, conventional neoadjuvant chemotherapy confers a pathologic complete response in just 50% to 55% of patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer,1-4 and among those who do not achieve a pathologic complete response, approximately one-third will die within 3 years.5 Moreover, patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer treated with conventional chemotherapeutics have a median survival of 12 to 18 months and an estimated 5-year overall survival of 11%.6 Thus, therapeutic innovation for early and late triple-negative breast cancer has been desperately needed.
Biologic Insight Leads to Therapies
From biologic insight springs hope for therapeutic innovation. Heather L. McArthur, MD, MPHTweet this quote
Immune Modulation Via Checkpoint Blockade
Forecast Finally Changing in Triple-Negative Disease
How Can I Reduce The Side Effects Of Capecitabine
Eating several small meals, not eating before treatment, or limiting activity may help lessen some of these effects. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Diarrhea is a common side effect of this medication. Drink plenty of fluids unless directed otherwise.
Does capecitabine cause hair loss?
Hair loss. When used on its own, capecitabine occasionally causes some temporary hair thinning. It very rarely causes complete hair loss. If capecitabine is taken in combination with another chemotherapy drug, most people will lose all their hair including eyebrows, eyelashes and body hair.
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What Are The Risks Of Brca1 And Brca2
Harmful variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk of several additional cancers. In women, these include fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer , both of which start in the same cells as the most common type of ovarian cancer. Men with BRCA2 variants, and to a lesser extent BRCA1 variants, are also at increased risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer . Both men and women with harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants are at increased risk of pancreatic cancer, although the risk increase is low .
Chemotherapy For Early Tnbc
Early TNBC is treated with chemotherapy. People with TNBC tend to get more treatment benefit from chemotherapy than people with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers do .
Some people get chemotherapy before breast surgery. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
For people with TNBC who have cancer remaining in their breast after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treatment with the chemotherapy drug capecitabine may lower the risk of recurrence and improve survival .
Learn more about chemotherapy.
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Recurrence Of Metastatic Breast Cancer
Metastatic breast cancer is considered a chronic disease, so it doesnt go away and recur.
But in recent years, people under age 50 have seen a particularly strong decline in death rates due to breast cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
These declines are due in part to improved screening and treatment for the disease.
There are a few general facts that are helpful to know about breast cancer outlook:
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in the United States, according to the
Stages Of Breast Cancer
The stage of breast cancer is based on the size and location of the tumor, as well as whether the cancer has spread beyond the part of the breast in which it originated. To determine the stage of breast cancer, healthcare professionals use a scale of stage 0 to stage 4.
Stage 0 breast cancers are isolated in one part of the breast, such as a duct or lobule, and show no sign of spreading into other tissue.
Stage 1 is typically localized, although further local growth or spread may cause the cancer to move into stage 2.
In stage 3, the cancer may be larger and has affected the lymph system. Stage 4 cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes, and into other organs and tissues of the body.
In addition to stages, breast cancers are given grades based on the size, shape, and activity of the cells in the tumor. A higher-grade cancer means a greater percentage of cells look and act abnormal, or they no longer resemble normal, healthy cells.
On a scale of 1 to 3, with 3 being the most serious, TNBC is often labeled grade 3.
American Cancer Society , the symptoms of TNBC can be the same as those for other types of breast cancer. ACS recommends regular screenings such as mammograms to detect breast cancer before symptoms appear, the time when treatment is most effective.
Other signs of breast cancer include:
Any of these signs can be caused by other conditions. But it is always good to have them checked out by your healthcare professional.
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Who Is Most At Risk For Breast Cancer
The most important risk factors for breast cancer are:Being a woman.Aging.Over 70 percent of women who develop the disease have only these two risk factors. The risk of breast cancer increases as a woman gets older. This is even more important after the age of 50. Most breast cancers are found in women 55 and older.
A Note About Statistics
Survival rates are statistics. As such, they tend to tell us how the average person will do with an average triple-negative breast cancer. But people and tumors arent statistics. Some people will do better, and some people will do worse.
Very importantly, statistics are usually several years old. In order to calculate five-year survival rates, a person would have to have been diagnosed at least five years prior, and there is lag time. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is changing, and new drugs have been approved.
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What Are The Risks Of Brca1 And Brca2 Mutation
Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation also have an increased risk of developing ovarian, colon, and pancreatic cancers, as well as melanoma. In the GeparSixto study, 315 women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive either: standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus carboplatin.
Targeting Tumor Microenvironment For Tnbc Therapy
The development of TNBC has strong association with the physiological state of TME. TNBC has been characterized with unique TME and is different from other subtypes . TME has strong association with induction of angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis inhibition, suppression of immune system and resistance to drugs . The exosomes function as promising nanovesicles that directs TME orchestration by communicating cells within TME milieu . The different components of TME particularly the soluble factors, transformed extracellular matrix, immune suppressive cells, re-programmed fibroblasts and epigenetic modifications altogether helps in TNBC progression and metastasis . Hence, TME is regarded as a good therapeutic target. The different TME targets for therapeutic intervention is schematically presented in Figure 5.
FIGURE 5. Different TME targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Clinical Trial
Ongoing clinical trial tried to investigate effectiveness and safety of different possible treatment for future use and also has several clinical trials in the pipeline. The patient can also enroll their name in these trials to get novel therapies and also assist in research by providing the data to the research team. The different research aim is different, some are investigating new therapies to treat the patient, whereas some drugs may use in preventive therapy. Name registration for a clinical trial is the first step to enrolling name to the research3,4.
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What Makes It Triple
Triple-negative refers to the fact that this type of breast cancer is not fueled by certain substances such as hormones or growth proteins in the body.
Estrogen and progesterone receptors are found in some types of breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer doesnt show hormone receptors on the cancer cells and most likely wont respond to breast cancer treatments using hormone blockers to slow the growth of cancer cells like many other types of breast cancer.
Another feature important for classifying breast cancer is the presence of the HER2 protein. Healthy cells have some HER2, but about 20% of breast cancer diagnoses have an excess of this protein, signaling the cells to grow and divide rapidly. Cancers that test positive for an excess of HER2 protein may be effectively treated using targeted therapies that disrupt the function and growth of HER2. Triple-negative cancer patients do not have a significant amount of HER2 protein fueling the cancer.
Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer A Death Sentence
Triple negative breast cancer is not a death sentence, as many treatments have allowed patients to thrive after being diagnosed. The disease is also particularly sensitive to chemotherapy, and clinical trials are available when standard treatments are ineffective. Power makes it easy to find triple negative breast cancer clinical trials tailored to your condition, treatment, or location. Anonymous Online Contributor
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Risk Factors For Triple
Doctors aren’t sure what makes you more likely to get triple-negative breast cancer. Not many women do — it only affects up to 20% of those who have breast cancer. You’re most at risk for triple-negative breast cancer if you:
- Are African-American or Latina
- Have what your doctor will call a BRCA mutation , especially the gene BRCA1
When Should I Go To The Emergency Room
You might also have unusually strong side effects from your cancer treatment. While your healthcare provider likely gave you medication to help control your side effects, you should go to the emergency room if your side effects continue despite medication.
Many cancer treatments affect your immune system, increasing the chance you will develop infections. Symptoms that might require an emergency room visit during treatment are:
- Fever of 100.5 and above.
Patient And Treatment Characteristics
One hundred ten of the 992 patients were triple negative. The median age was 50 and 50 in the TNBC and non-TNBC groups, respectively. The median follow-up was 73.57 months . Also, 47.4% of our patients were postmenopausal. The characteristics of the patients and the treatments are summarized in Table1 and Table 2. The most common histology in the TNBC group was invasive ductal carcinoma . The medullary carcinoma subtype was observed more frequently than non-TNBC group. The TNBC group had more grade 2-3 tumors , a higher ki-67 value , more metastasis presence and more exitus than the non-TNBC group. Also, local recurrence was higher in the TNBC group, although it was not statistically significant. When the patients with metastases were evaluated, visceral and bone metastases were not different between the groups, while brain metastases were observed to be more common in the TNBC group .
Taking Care Of Yourself
After your treatment is over, your doctor will want to see you often to make sure the cancer doesn’t return. For the first 3 years, you’ll likely see them every 3 to 6 months. For 2 years after that, you’ll probably visit every 6 to 12 months. Once you’ve been cancer-free for 6 years, you’ll probably go back only once a year. Tell the doctor right away if you get any new symptoms or if you have pain or other problems that relate to your breasts.
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What Percent Of Breast Cancers Are Brca Positive
Having a BRCA mutation means you have a likelihood of 45% to 85% for developing breast cancer in your lifetime, along with a 10% to 46% chance of ovarian cancer, Euhus says. Thats considerably more than the probability of breast cancer among the general population, which is about 12%, or about one in eight.
Survival Rates And Prognosis
The outlook for breast cancer is often described in terms of relative survival rates.
Relative survival rates are an estimate of the percentage of people who will survive their cancer for a given period of time after diagnosis. Survival among people with cancer is compared to survival among people of the same age and race who have not been diagnosed with cancer.
Five-year relative survival rates tend to be lower for triple-negative breast cancer than for other forms of breast cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for TNBC is . However, an individuals outlook depends on many factors, including the stage of the cancer and the grade of the tumor.
Your healthcare professional will be able to give you a more precise outlook based on:
- the stage of your TNBC
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What Is The Risk For Triple
The disease can affect anyone, but is more likely to show up in those who are:
- Younger than age 50 .
- Black or Latinx.
- Living with a genetic condition called BRCA mutation that increases the risk for breast cancer and other forms of cancer. Most cancers diagnosed in people with the BRCA1 mutation are triple negative.
How Do You Know If You Have The Brca1 Gene
The BRCA gene test is most often a blood test. A doctor, nurse or medical technician inserts a needle into a vein, usually in your arm, to draw the blood sample needed for testing. The sample is sent to a lab for DNA analysis. In some cases, other sample types are collected for DNA analysis, including saliva.