Having Radiation To Your Chest
Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This risk depends on their age when they got radiation. The risk is highest for women who had radiation as a teen or young adult, when the breasts are still developing. Radiation treatment in older women does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.
Women With Breast Cancer
Consider a very simple family history H: a 30-year-old woman has just been diagnosed with breast cancer. Suppose that her ovarian cancer status is unknown and temporarily ignore the information from other members of her family. The numerator P of the LR is the probability that a carrier would be diagnosed with breast cancer at age 30 years. This is the incidence of breast cancer among 30-year-old carriers, which we estimate as follows.
Easton et al. give estimates of the cumulative proportion of BRCA1 carriers who have been diagnosed with breast cancer depending on age. A smoothed version is shown in . We denote this as BM. The second curve in this figure shows the corresponding proportion with ovarian cancer, OM. Age-specific incidence, bM, is the increase in the cumulative proportion at that agethe derivative of BM. This is shown in , along with the corresponding age-specific incidence for ovarian cancer, o M .
The numerator of LR is then bM, which from , is about 0.0088.
The denominator P of LR is the probability that a noncarrier would be diagnosed with breast cancer at age 30 years, which is just the incidence of breast cancer among 30-year-old noncarriers. We denote this as b N . This is found in the same way as for carriers. , shows the cumulative proportions of breast and ovarian cancers among noncarriers, B N and O N . , gives the corresponding age-specific incidences for noncarriers, b N and o N . From this figure, b N is about 0.00016.
Ovarian Cancer And Brca
- Most women in the UK have a one in 54 chance of developing ovarian cancer in their lifetime,
- BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that help repair damage to the DNA in our cells. If people inherit a mutated version of either of these genes it puts them at greater risk of certain cancers.
- BRCA 1 mutation gives women a lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of 40-50%.
- If women know they have BRCA gene mutations, they can choose to take action before cancer develops.
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Scientists Reveal Which Genes Come From Your Mom And Which You Get From Your Dad
If youve heard someone tell you something like, You are a copy of your mother, you should know that this is a false statement. In fact, we are more like our fathers, and not our mothers. Besides, there is a theory that a fathers lifestyle before the conception of the baby, including the food he eats and how he feels, are the basis of the future health of the baby. This article will tell you about the traits that are inherited from the father and which are from the mother.
Bright Side wants you to remember that even if you have good genes, you should still maintain a healthy lifestyle. Because, in the end, your lifestyle is the key factor to how you will look and feel.
Most of the time, children inherit the shape of the tip of their nose, the area around their lips, the size of their cheekbones, the corners of their eyes, and the shape of their chin. These are the key areas highlighted during facial recognition, and people whose have similar-looking areas that we mentioned above, will appear almost identical to us.
And the area between the eyebrows is often very different.
Reese Witherspoons daughter inherited her mothers blue eyes, the shape of cheekbones, chin, and nose tip.
Mothers genes are usually 50% of a childs DNA, and fathers genes are the other 50%. However, male genes are much more aggressive than female ones, thats why they are usually more prominent. So, there are usually 40% of active female genes and 60% of active male genes.
Talking To Your Family About Your Breast Cancer Risk
If youre at an increased risk of breast cancer, this will mean that other members of your family will also be at an increased risk. Its important to talk to your family so that they are aware of this. They then have the chance to make choices about having their own risk assessed and managing their risk.
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Red Flags For Hereditary Breast Cancer
People who have, or have a family history of, anything from the list below are considered high risk. Close blood relatives to consider in your familys medical history should include first, second or third-degree relatives in the maternal or paternal lineage.
- Breast cancer diagnosed by age 50 or younger
- Ovarian cancer at any age
- Two primary breast cancers
- Triple negative breast cancer
- Three or more HBOC-associated cancers on the same side of the family at any age
- A previously identified HBOC syndrome mutation in the family
- Individual history of breast biopsy with atypical cells
- Male breast cancer at any age
- Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry
If any of the red flags apply to you, you could have an inherited risk of breast cancer, which means you are a good candidate for genetic testing and counseling. Knowing you have a genetic mutation allows you and your physician to take steps to manage your cancer risks. These steps could include increased surveillance, risk-reducing medication or preventive surgery.
INTEGRIS Breast Health Services includes a High Risk and Genetics Clinic that offers comprehensive services to determine a persons likelihood of developing breast cancer based on his or her unique risk factors. The services are provided by Jeneice Miller, Certified Nurse Practitioner and Advanced Genetics Nurse-Board Certified. She can be reached at 405-552-0400.
Upper Paleolithic Or The Late Stone Age
Victorian naturalist Charles Darwin was the first to propose the out-of-Africa hypothesis for the peopling of the world, but the story of prehistoric human migration is now understood to be much more complex thanks to twenty-first-century advances in genomic sequencing. There were multiple waves of dispersal of anatomically modern humans out of Africa, with the most recent one dating back to 70,000 to 50,000 years ago. Earlier waves of human migrants might have gone extinct or decided to return to Africa. Moreover, a combination of gene flow from Eurasia back into Africa and higher rates of genetic drift among East Asians compared to Europeans led these human populations to diverge from one another at different times.
Australian Aboriginals living in the Central Desert, where the temperature can drop below freezing at night, have evolved the ability to reduce their core temperatures without shivering.
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Understanding Your Level Of Risk After A Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer
If youve been diagnosed with breast cancer, your specialist will discuss the risk of the cancer coming back .
Having had breast cancer also slightly increases your risk of developing a new primary breast cancer and your family history may increase this risk further.
If your family history puts you at moderate or high risk, you will continue to have increased screening after your follow-up period ends to check for signs of a new primary breast cancer.
If you are at high risk, your specialist may discuss the possibility of additional surgery to reduce the risk of developing a new primary breast cancer. If you are found to be a gene carrier, your specialist may also discuss surgery to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Find out more about risk-reducing surgery.
Inclination For Mental Illness
With age, the quality of sperm decreases. This is why elderly people can pass on mutated genes to their children. This increases the risk of developing mental illnesses, autism, hyperactivity, or bipolar disorder. Also, children born to fathers who are over 45 years old or more are more likely to be suicidal and have learning difficulties.
At any age, men who have coronary heart disease are likely to pass it on to their sons. And men who were infertile and the conception was done artificially, often have sons with the same problem.
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Targeted Violence Against Girls
Under natural conditions, mortality rates for girls under five are slightly lower than boys for biological reasons. However, after birth, neglect and diverting resources to male children can lead to some countries having a skewed ratio with more boys than girls, with such practices killing an approximate 230,000 girls under five in India each year. While sex-selective abortion is more common among the higher income population, who can access medical technology, abuse after birth, such as infanticide and abandonment, is more common among the lower income population. Female infanticide in Pakistan is a common practice.Methods proposed to deal with the issue are baby hatches to drop off unwanted babies and safe-haven laws, which decriminalize abandoning babies unharmed.
Female genital mutilation
Sexual initiation of virgins
A tradition often performed in some regions in Africa involves a man initiating a girl into womanhood by having sex with her, usually after her first period, in a practice known as “sexual cleansing”. The rite can last for three days and there is an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections as the ritual requires condoms not be worn.
Violence against girl students
Sacred prostitution often involves girls being pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as fetish slaves in West Africa.
Brca Mutations Can Be A Family Matter
Everyone carries 2 copies of BRCA genes inherited from his or her mother and father. If 1 parent has a BRCA mutation, all of his or her children have a 50% chance of inheriting that mutation. Even if a child inherits only 1 mutated BRCA gene, that persons risk of developing cancer increases.
If you have an inherited BRCA mutation
- Your children have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation
- Your siblings have a 50% chance of having the mutation
- Theres a 100% chance that one of your parents has the mutation
Its important to know if your family is at riskit could be life-changing.
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Inform Your Family About Their Risk
Talking about cancer is never easyits a process that requires patience and empathy. Sometimes it can be helpful to hear stories from those who have been tested. If you want to inform family members about their own risk, there are several things to keep in mind. Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered offers tips for talking to your family about hereditary cancers.
Talk to your doctor if youre concerned about your familys risk.
What Is Hereditary Breast Cancer
All cancer is caused by abnormalities, also known as mutations, in someones genes. Although most mutations happen by chance and some are thought to be caused by environment and lifestyle, some mutations are passed down and cause hereditary breast cancer. According to The American Cancer Society, 12- 14 percent of breast cancer is caused by an inherited gene mutation, which can be passed down from either the maternal or paternal side of the family.
The most common cause of inherited breast cancer risk is a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. People who carry the mutation in these genes have a condition called Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome . Women with HBOC have up to an 87 percent risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. To compare, an average womans lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is around 7 percent. Women with HBOC also have a 63 percent risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to .7 percent for the average woman. Men with HBOC have an increased risk for breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Mutations in other genes like TP53, PTEN, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, NBN and BARD1 are also associated with breast cancer.
Genetic testing is the only way to determine if you have inherited a mutation in your genes that causes breast cancer. Please note: genetic testing does not tell you if you have breast cancer it just tells you if you are at increased risk for developing breast or other cancers.
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Inclination To Be Overweight
The inclination to be overweight or to be fit is inherited genetically. Some peoples weight and waist measurements are based on genes about 25% of the time. People who try to combat extra weight often inherit it from their parents. In situations like these, it is really hard to lose the extra pounds. But even in this case, a reasonable diet and physical activity will be beneficial.
The inclination to be fit or overweight can be equally inherited from either parent, but the inclination to be fat is inherited more often than the inclination to be fit.
The weight of a child depends solely on their mother. It doesnt depend on how much a father weighs, a child will be thin if a mother is thin. And if a mother is overweight, her child may have extra weight right after birth.
Genetics And Hereditary Breast Cancer
The average woman in the United States has about a 1 in 8, or about 12%, risk of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. Women who have an abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene can have up to an 80% risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetimes. Breast cancers associated with an abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene tend to develop in younger women and occur more often in both breasts than cancers in women without these abnormal genes.
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Breast Cancer: Risk Factors And Prevention
Have questions about breast cancer? Ask here.
ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about the factors that increase the chance of developing breast cancer. Use the menu to see other pages.
A risk factor is anything that increases a persons chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause cancer. Some people with several risk factors never develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors do. Knowing your risk factors and talking about them with your doctor may help you make more informed lifestyle and health care choices.
Most breast cancers are sporadic, meaning they develop from damage to a persons genes that occurs by chance after they are born. There is no risk of the person passing this gene on to their children, as the underlying cause of sporadic breast cancer is environmental factors.
Inherited breast cancers are less common, making up 5% to 10% of cancers. Inherited breast cancer occurs when gene changes called mutations are passed down within a family from parent to child. Many of those mutations are in tumor suppressor genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. These genes normally keep cells from growing out of control and turning into cancer. But when these cells have a mutation, it can cause them to grow out of control.
The following factors may raise a womans risk of developing breast cancer:
Family History Of Breast Cancer And Inherited Genes
Some people have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general population because other members of their family have had particular cancers. This is called a family history of cancer.
Having a mother, sister or daughter diagnosed with breast cancer approximately doubles the risk of breast cancer. This risk is higher when more close relatives have breast cancer, or if a relative developed breast cancer under the age of 50. But most women who have a close relative with breast cancer will never develop it.
UK guidelines help GPs to identify people who might have an increased risk of cancer due to their family history.
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Probability Of Carrying A Mutation Of Breast
Supported by Public Health Service grant P50CA68438 from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
We thank Drs. Laura Esserman, Andrew Futreal, Judy Garber, Kevin Hughes, Dirk Iglehart, Jeffrey Marks, Robert Millikan, Barbara Rimer, Lauren Schnaper, Tammy Tengs, Debu Tripathi, and Bruce Weir for their suggestions and encouragement.
JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Patients With Breast Cancer
Women who had taken part in these studies were contacted again in 1992 to obtain a bloodsample and again in 1993 to obtain specific permission to use the sample for genetic studies. Allpatients included in the study gave informed consent for these analyses, and the protocol wasapproved by the Ethical Committee of the Royal Marsden Hospital National Health ServiceTrust.
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Breast Cancer Risk Factors You Cannot Change
A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease, such as breast cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease.
Some risk factors for breast cancer are things you cannot change, such as getting older or inheriting certain gene changes. These make your risk of breast cancer higher.
For information on other known and possible breast cancer risk factors, see:
What Are The Screening Options For Hboc
Screening is the use of different tests to find specific types of cancer before signs and symptoms appear. It is important to talk with your health care team about the following screening options, as each person is different:
Screening for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation
Monthly breast self-examinations, beginning at age 18
Clinical breast examinations performed twice a year by a health care team or nurse, beginning at age 25
Yearly magnetic resonance imaging scans of both breasts, between ages 25 and 29.
Yearly mammogram and breast MRI, between ages 30 and 75.
Pelvic examination, trans-vaginal ultrasound, and CA-125 blood test every 6 months, beginning at age 30 to 35. It should be noted, however, that screening is not yet able to find most early ovarian cancers.
Consideration of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, between ages 35 and 40, and once a woman is done giving birth to children
Screening for men with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation
Screening options may change over time as new methods are developed and more is learned about HBOC. Talk with your health care team about appropriate screening tests for you.
Learn more about what to expect when having common tests, procedures, and scans.
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