Some Of The Most Common Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer
Although every case is different, some general signs and symptoms of cancer include:
Most of the time, these symptoms arent caused by cancer. A benign tumor or another problem may be the culprit. But you shouldnt ignore symptoms that are persistent, severe, or dont go away.
Clues That Your Cancer Has Spread
Symptoms may be different or more intense if your cancer has metastasized to other parts of your body.
Here are some common symptoms of cancer that has spread:
- Bone metastasis Cancer that has spread to the bones may cause joint pain or fractures.
- Liver metastasis If your disease has invaded your liver, you might experience jaundice and swelling in your abdomen.
- Brain metastasis When cancer metastasizes to the brain, symptoms may include headaches, speech difficulties, blurred vision, or dizziness.
- Lung metastasis Cancer that has spread to the lungs may trigger shortness of breath or a persistent cough.
Treatments For Blood In Urine
Treatment for blood in urine will depend on the cause. Different conditions require different kinds of treatment. No matter what the reason is, you will need a doctor to treat it. There is no over the counter medicine for blood in urine.
A urinary tract infection can be treated with antibiotics. Minor injuries may get better with time and rest. Your doctor may want to do follow up tests to make sure there is not blood remaining in your urine.
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Testing Pee For Pancreatic Cancer
At the moment theres no easy way to diagnose pancreatic cancer at an early stage. A diagnosis usually involves a series of scans and invasive biopsies that are normally done once a person has developed symptoms. But by the time they show signs of illness, the disease is usually too advanced to be treated successfully.
A group of our scientists in London want to change this.
We started like everybody else, says Professor Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic from Queen Mary, University of London, and began looking in the blood for pancreatic cancer. Her team soon realised blood was teeming with molecules released from all kinds of other cells.
Urine is a lot less crowded. Crnogorac-Jurcevic says around 40% of material found in urine is from outside the kidneys and urinary tract. The blood plasma is filtered through the kidneys, so you can detect lots of things in it.
After 15 years of hard work, Crnogorac-Jurcevic and her team have found 3 key proteins linked to pancreatic cancer that successfully flag up its presence in pee.
She says that people often use the analogy for early detection as looking for a needle in a haystack. Weve already gone through the haystack and found our needles, so now its really a matter of evaluating our test on large samples of patients.
Excitingly, the clinical trial testing this pancreatic cancer-detecting tool is about to start recruiting patients.
If Youre Getting Radiation Therapy To The Brain
People with brain tumors often get stereotactic radiosurgery if the cancer is in only one or a few sites in the brain. Side effects depend on where the radiation is aimed. Some side effects might show up quickly, but others might not show up until 1 to 2 years after treatment. Talk with your radiation oncologist about what to watch for and when to call your doctor.
If the cancer is in many areas, sometimes the whole brain is treated with radiation. The side effects of whole brain radiation therapy may not be noticeable until a few weeks after treatment begins.
Radiation to the brain can cause these short-term side effects:
- Trouble with memory and speech
Some of these side effects can happen because radiation has caused the brain to swell. Medicines are usually given to prevent brain swelling, but its important to let your cancer care team know about headaches or any other symptoms. Treatment can affect each person differently, and you may not have these particular side effects.
Radiation to the brain can also have side effects that show up later usually from 6 months to many years after treatment ends. These delayed effects can include serious problems such as memory loss, stroke-like symptoms, and poor brain function. You may also have an increased risk of having another tumor in the area, although this is not common.
Talk with your cancer care team about what to expect from your specific treatment plan.
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Can High Calcium Levels Be Prevented
There are things you can do to help prevent high calcium levels. The following tips may help keep hypercalcemia from getting worse:
Drink fluids regularly.
Talk with your doctor about controlling your nausea and vomiting.
Walk and be active, which can help stop bone from breaking down.
Check with your doctor before taking any medication, including over-the-counter supplements. Some may make high calcium levels worse.
Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Each year, more than 80,000 Americans are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Anyone can get bladder cancer, but factors such as age, race and gender may increase the risk of the disease. Knowing behavior-related risk factors for bladder cancer may help you take preventive measures to reduce your chances of developing the disease or may help you and your doctor detect signs of bladder cancer earlier.
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Changes In Bladder Habits Or Symptoms Of Irritation
Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as:
- Having to urinate more often than usual
- Pain or burning during urination
- Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full
- Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream
- Having to get up to urinate many times during the night
These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection , bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate . Still, its important to have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
How Long Do Side Effects Last
Remember that the type of radiation side effects you might have depends on the prescribed dose and schedule. Most side effects go away within a few months of ending treatment. Some side effects may continue after treatment ends because it takes time for the healthy cells to recover from radiation.
Side effects might limit your ability to do some things. What you can do will depend on how you feel. Some patients are able to go to work or enjoy leisure activities while they get radiation therapy. Others find they need more rest than usual and cant do as much. If you have side effects that are bothersome and affecting your daily activities or health, the doctor may stop your treatments for a while, change the schedule, or change the type of treatment youre getting. Tell your cancer care team about any side affects you notice so they can help you with them.
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Complications Related To Lung Metastases
The lungs are the second most common site to which breast cancer spreads, with lung metastases occurring in roughly a third of people with metastatic breast cancer.
Sometimes this doesn’t cause symptoms, and the lung metastases might only be found on an imaging test. The most common symptom is shortness of breath.
Local treatments, such as radiation or surgery, are sometimes used for the treatment of one or more lung metastases, and this may improve life expectancy.
Breast Cancer Metastasis To Urinary Bladder Related Hematuria And Concomitant Venous Thromboembolismcase Report Of A Challenging Clinical Scenario
Chek Hao Foo1, Wai Loon Yam2, Chien Sheng Tan3, Joon Jae Park2
1 Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine ,
Keywords: Breast cancer urinary bladder venous thromboembolism inferior vena cava filter case report
Received: 02 August 2020 Accepted: 16 October 2020 Published: 30 December 2020.
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Know The Risk Factors For Blood Clots
Type and stage of cancer
- Some cancers pose a greater risk for blood clots, including cancers involving the pancreas, stomach, brain, lungs, uterus, ovaries, and kidneys, as well as blood cancers, such as lymphoma and myeloma.
- The higher your cancer stage, the greater your risk for a blood clot.
Type of cancer treatment
- Treatments involving hospitalization, surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and catheters can increase your blood clot risk.
Other risk factors
- Family history of blood clots or inherited clotting disorder
- Hospitalization for illness or major surgery, particularly of the pelvis, abdomen, hip, or knee
- Broken bone or severe muscle injury
- Severe physical trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident
- Serious medical conditions, such as heart and lung diseases, or diabetes
- Sitting too long, such as traveling for more than 4 hours, especially with legs crossed
- Other causes of immobility, such as extended bedrest
- Overweight and obesity
How Does Cancer Cause Signs And Symptoms
When cancer grows, it can push on nearby organs, nerves, and blood vessels, which can cause signs and symptoms. Even the smallest tumors can cause symptoms in certain organs, such as the brain.
If your cancer spreads, or metastasizes, you may notice signs or symptoms in different parts of your body.
Another reason you may experience symptoms is that cancer cells use up a lot of your bodys energy supply. They also cause changes in how your immune system works.
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Assessment Of Menopausal Symptoms
The assessment of menopausal symptoms varied minimally across studies .- Twelve studies utilized a modified version of the 43-item BCPT Symptom Checklist. The checklist is a measure of common physical and psychological symptoms as well as symptoms associated with menopause and tamoxifen use. Respondents are asked to rate how bothered they were by each symptom during the past four weeks, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 = not at all, 1 = slightly, 2 = moderately, 3 =quite a bit, to 4 = extremely. The versions used in the 12 studies included an early 50-item version that was later modified for use in the BCPT, 42-item versions 16-item versions,, 15-item versions,, and an abbreviated version with the number of items not specified. One study used a symptom checklist constructed from existing instruments including the BCPT Symptom Checklist. Four used the 7-item Menopausal Symptom Scale adapted from the 43-item BCPT checklist., , , The study by Stanton et al. used both the 42-item version of the checklist and the 7-item Menopausal Symptom Scale.
If Youre Getting Radiation Therapy To The Breast
If you have radiation to the breast, it can affect your heart or lungs as well causing other side effects.
Short-term side effects
Radiation to the breast can cause:
- Skin irritation, dryness, and color changes
- Breast soreness
- Breast swelling from fluid build-up
To avoid irritating the skin around the breast, women should try to go without wearing a bra whenever they can. If this isnt possible, wear a soft cotton bra without underwires.
If your shoulders feel stiff, ask your cancer care team about exercises to keep your shoulder moving freely.
Breast soreness, color changes, and fluid build-up will most likely go away a month or 2 after you finish radiation therapy. If fluid build-up continues to be a problem, ask your cancer care team what steps you can take. See Lymphedema for more information.
Long-term changes to the breast
Radiation therapy may cause long-term changes in the breast. Your skin may be slightly darker, and pores may be larger and more noticeable. The skin may be more or less sensitive and feel thicker and firmer than it was before treatment. Sometimes the size of your breast changes it may become larger because of fluid build-up or smaller because of scar tissue. These side effects may last long after treatment.
After about a year, you shouldnt have any new changes. If you do see changes in breast size, shape, appearance, or texture after this time, tell your cancer care team about them right away.
Less common side effects in nearby areas
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What Are Other Possible Causes
If you notice that there is visible blood in your urine, it does not automatically mean that you have bladder cancer.1,4 In fact, there are several other non-cancerous causes of blood in the urine. However, it is important to talk with your healthcare provider if you have blood in your urine, especially if it has happened more than once. Identifying the cause whether it is bladder cancer or something elseis the first step in treating the symptom.
In addition to bladder cancer, several different health conditions can cause the symptom of blood in the urine. These include:
- Urinary tract infection
Cancer Symptoms In Women
Breast lump or change. Although it’s a hallmark symptom of breast cancer, most lumps aren’t cancer. They’re often fluid-filled cysts or noncancerous tumors.
Still, see your doctor right away if you find any new or changing growths in your breasts, just to make sure.
Also get these changes checked out:
- Redness or scaling of the skin over the breast
- Breast pain
- Lump under your arm
- Fluid that isn’t breast milk leaking from the nipple
Bleeding between periods or after menopause. Bleeding from the vagina during women’s reproductive years is usually theirÃ monthly period. When it happens after menopause or outside of normal periods, cervical or endometrial cancer is a possibility. Call your doctor if you have any bleeding that’s unusual for you.
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Microscopic Blood In Urine Unreliable Indicator Of Urinary Tract Cancer
- Microscopic amounts of blood in urine have been considered a risk factor for urinary tract malignant tumors. However, only a small proportion of patients referred for investigation are subsequently found to have cancer. A new study reports on the development and testing of a Hematuria Risk Index to predict cancer risk. This could potentially lead to significant reductions in the number of unnecessary evaluations.
Microscopic amounts of blood in urine have been considered a risk factor for urinary tract malignant tumors. However, only a small proportion of patients referred for investigation are subsequently found to have cancer. A new Kaiser Permanente Southern California study published in the February Mayo Clinic Proceedings reports on the development and testing of a Hematuria Risk Index to predict cancer risk. This could potentially lead to significant reductions in the number of unnecessary evaluations.
Individuals with microscopic hematuria are currently referred for follow-up radiologic and invasive examinations, even when they are asymptomatic. American Urological Association best practice policy recommendations include urine testing and abdominal computed tomography or intravenous pyelography plus renal ultrasonography. Patients may also undergo cystoscopy, a procedure that involves passing a narrow tube fitted with a miniature camera into the bladder to closely examine both the bladder and urethra.
Treatment Options For Urethral Cancer
For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.
- Anterior Urethral Cancer
Treatment of anterior urethral cancer is different for men and women.
For women, treatment may include the following:
- Radiation therapy followed by surgery .
- Surgery .
- Laser surgery.
- External and/or internal radiation therapy.
For men, treatment may include the following:
- Surgery .
- Laser surgery.
- Radiation therapy.
For men, treatment may be radiation therapy followed by surgery .
What Is Bladder Cancer
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen that stores urine to be passed out of the body. The most common form of bladder cancer starts in cells within the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. When cancer in the lining of the bladder spreads to nearby organs and lymph nodes, it is considered invasive.
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women. About 80,000 people in the United States are estimated to be diagnosed annually.
Breast Cancer Treatment Options
If you go to the doctor and your diagnosis is breast cancer, dont worry. There is hope. Advancements in treatment options for breast cancer have gotten better over the years and the survival rate continues to rise. Currently, there are several ways to treat breast cancer depending on the type and stage. Some of the treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and radiation therapy.4
Surgery works by cutting out the cancer tissue. Chemotherapy works to shrink and eventually kill cancer cells.4 Hormonal therapy uses a technique to effectively block cancer cells from getting the hormones essential to growth.4 Biological therapy tunes into your immune system to fight cancer cells, control side effects, and help enhance your overall recovery.4 And radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to target and kill cancer cells.4
Depending on the type of breast cancer that you have, and the stage its in, your doctor will recommend one or a combination of the above treatment options.
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When To Make An Appointment With Your Urologist
Bladder cancer may be overlooked in women because its easy to chalk up symptoms to a stubborn UTI or normal vaginal spotting. Unfortunately, this means women are often diagnosed after the cancer has spread and become harder to treat. So if youre worried, dont just write off your symptoms. Call your doctor to determine if its a minor infection or something more serious. If it is bladder cancer, its easier to treat if you catch it early.
If you would like to talk to a urologist, you can see if we have a location near you or you can contact us to ask a question or make an appointment.