How Fertility Might Be Affected
For women: Talk to your cancer care team about how radiation might affect your fertility . Its best to do this before starting treatment so you are aware of possible risks to your fertility.
Depending on the radiation dose, women getting radiation therapy in the pelvic area sometimes stop having menstrual periods and have other symptoms of menopause. Report these symptoms to your cancer care and ask them how to relieve these side effects.Sometimes menstrual periods will return when radiation therapy is over, but sometimes they do not.
See Fertility and Women With Cancer to learn more.
For men: Radiation therapy to an area that includes the testicles can reduce both the number of sperm and their ability to function. If you want to father a child in the future and are concerned about reduced fertility, talk to your cancer care team before starting treatment. One option may be to bank your sperm ahead of time.
See Fertility and Men With Cancer to learn more.
Fever: The Rules Change After A Cancer Diagnosis
If you are receiving cancer treatment, you may need to adjust how you think of fever.
Before your diagnosis, fever was just a sign that your body was doing its job and trying to fight off an infection. It was nothing to be concerned about unless it rose dangerously high.
But things are different now, and that fever may mean something else. Some cancers and cancer treatments can cause fever on their own, and the number on your thermometer may not match the level of your risk. If your immune system is weak, you could have a very serious infection but only a slight fever.
What Do Lumps In My Breast Mean
Many conditions can cause lumps in the breast, including cancer. But most breast lumps are caused by other medical conditions. The two most common causes of breast lumps are fibrocystic breast condition and cysts. Fibrocystic condition causes noncancerous changes in the breast that can make them lumpy, tender, and sore. Cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the breast.
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Breast Cancer In Cats Diagnosis
Because most breast cancers in cats are malignant, its important to treat the condition as soon as possible to increase your cats chances of recovery.
If your vet diagnoses your cat with a mammary carcinoma or other type of breast cancer, youll want to start treatment straight away. Most mammary tumors in cats are malignant, and the sooner theyre treated, the better your cats prognosis.
Your vet may recommend blood work and a fine needle aspirate to biopsy the mass. They hope to harvest some cancer cells to send to a laboratory, where they can get a better idea for what type of tumor it is and whether it is cancerous. This can help to guide treatment. Your vet will likely recommend x-rays as well, as this can help to establish how far along the cancer is, and whether metastases have spread to the chest.
See Your Doctor When Symptoms Occur And Get Regular Checkups
Some men tend to ignore health problems. If a man’s health changes, then he should get it checked out by his doctor. In some cases, if the underlying cause of a problem is cancer, ignoring symptoms can put you at risk. Some cancer symptoms in men are specific only to men , and other symptoms of cancer such as pain or fatigue are general and could have many causes.
It is important to see a doctor if your experience any of the symptoms of cancer outlined on the following slides, either to rule out cancer, or to detect cancer early while it is more easily treated.
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How Does Cancer Cause Signs And Symptoms
When cancer grows, it can push on nearby organs, nerves, and blood vessels, which can cause signs and symptoms. Even the smallest tumors can cause symptoms in certain organs, such as the brain.
If your cancer spreads, or metastasizes, you may notice signs or symptoms in different parts of your body.
Another reason you may experience symptoms is that cancer cells use up a lot of your bodys energy supply. They also cause changes in how your immune system works.
Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the breast.
- Regional: The cancer has spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
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What Causes Breast Cancer Vs Cysts
Many women who develop breast cancer have no risk factors other than age and gender.
- Gender is the biggest risk because breast cancer occurs mostly in women.
- Age is another critical factor. Breast cancer may occur at any age, though the risk of breast cancer increases with age. The average woman at 30 years of age has one chance in 280 of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. This chance increases to one in 70 for a woman 40 years of age, and to one in 40 at 50 years of age. A 60-year-old woman has a one in 30 chance of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years.
- White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women in the U.S.
- A woman with a personal history of cancer in one breast has a three- to fourfold greater risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This refers to the risk for developing a new tumor and not a recurrence of the first cancer.
Genetic Causes of Breast Cancer
There is great interest in genes linked to breast cancer. About 5%-10% of breast cancers are believed to be hereditary, as a result of mutations, or changes, in certain genes that are passed along in families.
Hormonal Causes of Breast Cancer
Hormonal influences play a role in the development of breast cancer.
Lifestyle and Dietary Causes of Breast Cancer
Benign Breast Disease
Environmental Causes of Breast Cancer
Some causes of breast pain are:
What The Patient Can Do
- If you start feeling warm or cold, check your temperature by mouth every 2 to 3 hours. If you cant hold a thermometer in your mouth , hold it under your arm, in your armpit. Call your cancer care team if you have a fever . Someone on the team will let you know if you need to be seen right away or if you need to wait and keep monitoring your temperature.
- Keep a record of temperature readings.
- Drink a lot of liquids .
- Get enough rest.
- Use a cold compress on your forehead if you feel hot.
- Do not take medication to reduce your fever without asking your doctor. Remember that medication to reduce a fever will only help reduce your temperature – it will not take away an infection.
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Risk Factors For Infection
Indwelling central venous catheters for long-term chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition place the cancer patient at significant risk for bloodstream infection, especially with Staphylococcal species. Implanted surgical ports, central venous lines, or peripherally inserted central catheters lines may all become infected, especially if strict aseptic technique is breached during insertion or port manipulation. A central catheter can become infected in three primary ways. First, during insertion, bacteria on the skin can infect the insertion tract, thereby contaminating the soft tissue which can lead to a tunnel or soft tissue infection. The bacteria can migrate along the line into the bloodstream resulting in bacteremia. A second way a central line can become infected is thru contamination of the port during drug or fluid administration. Third, the line itself can become colonized after insertion and lead to bacteremia. Some pathogens produce a biofilm on the catheter which prevents immune cells from destroying the bacteria as well as decreasing antibiotic efficacy. As a result, one should consider line removal if catheter-associated bloodstream infection is diagnosed.
Chemotherapy Induced Mucositis
Preventing Breast Cancer In Cats
Cats who are spayed early in life are significantly less likely to develop breast cancer.
It is possible to hugely reduce the risk of breast cancer in cats. Female cats spayed before 2 years of age have a lower risk of mammary cancer.
And the earlier they are spayed, the lower their risk. Cats spayed before 6 months of age are 91% less likely to get malignant mammary adenocarcinoma than entire cats.
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How A Fever Works
- A pyrogen causes your bodys thermostat to be reset to a higher temperature. Your body creates heat to reach that temperature.
- Blood vessels in your arms and legs constrict and redirect blood to the internal organs, which raises the temperature of the blood.
- Liver activity increases and produces heat.
- You may begin to shiver, and your muscles will release heat.
- These processes continue until you reach the new set point, When there is too much heat, the hypothalamus tells your body to reverse the processes. Your blood vessels dilate, you begin to sweat and the fever breaks.
- Antipyretic drugs, such as aspirin and acetaminophen, may reset the set point.
If Youre Getting Radiation Therapy To The Abdomen
If you are getting radiation to your stomach or some part of the abdomen , you may have side effects such as:
Eating or avoiding certain foods can help with some of these problems, so diet planning is an important part of radiation treatment of the stomach or abdomen. Ask your cancer care team about what you can expect, and what medicines you should take to help relieve these problems. Check with your cancer care team about any home remedies or over-the-counter drugs youre thinking about using.
These problems should get better when treatment is over.
Some people feel queasy for a few hours right after radiation therapy. If you have this problem, try not eating for a couple of hours before and after your treatment. You may handle the treatment better on an empty stomach. If the problem doesnt go away, ask your cancer care team about medicines to help prevent and treat nausea. Be sure to take the medicine exactly as you are told to do.
If you notice nausea before your treatment, try eating a bland snack, like toast or crackers, and try to relax as much as possible. See Nausea and Vomiting to get tips to help an upset stomach and learn more about how to manage these side effects.
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Early And Late Effects Of Radiation Therapy
- Early side effects happen during or shortly after treatment. These side effects tend to be short-term, mild, and treatable. Theyre usually gone within a few weeks after treatment ends. The most common early side effects are fatigue and skin changes. Other early side effects usually are related to the area being treated, such as hair loss and mouth problems when radiation treatment is given to this area.
- Late side effects can take months or even years to develop. They can occur in any normal tissue in the body that has received radiation. The risk of late side effects depends on the area treated as well as the radiation dose that was used. Careful treatment planning can help avoid serious long-term side effects. Its always best to talk to your radiation oncologist about the risk of long-term side effects.
Skin Cancer Symptoms Rashes
The early signs include itchy, rash-like skin patches, which may form sores and tumors as the cancer progresses. Sézary syndrome A leukemic variant of mycosis fungoides, Sézary syndrome causes an extensive, itchy.They can appear as: Papules Patches Plaques Nodules or tumors It is one of the most well-known forms of cancer that can cause a skin cancer rash. There are different kinds of leukemia, each with their own specific signs and symptoms. The most common signs include fever, persistent fatigue, unexplained weight loss, bone pain, and a rash of tiny red spots clustered together.
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Who Is At Risk
IBC is more common in females than males, but its possible for males to develop it, too. Research tells us that women from African-Caribbean backgrounds have the highest risk of developing IBC, and having a close family member who has had breast cancer is also associated with increased risk. Obesity is another risk factor for IBC.
Cancer Symptoms In Men
Blood in urine or semen. A pink, brown, or red tinge to your pee or semen is usually nothing to panic over. Infections, kidney stones, injuries, and noncancerous prostate growth can all cause bleeding.
Less often, bladder or prostate cancer might be to blame. Your doctor can do urine tests and other exams to find the source of the blood.
Lump in the testicle. A painless one is a possible warning sign of testicular cancer. Yet the bump could also be from an injury, fluid buildup, or a hernia. It’s hard to tell the cause from your symptoms alone, so go to your doctor for an exam.
Pain during ejaculation or urination. If it hurts when you pee or have an orgasm, you may have an infection or swelling of your prostate gland or urethra. There’s a chance that these symptoms might be because of prostate cancer. If the pain doesn’t improve, have your doctor take a look.
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What Are The Long Term Effects Of Having Breast Implants
Due to this, long-term effects may include rupture of both saline and silicone implants, as well as encapsulation, which are called capsular contracture. In addition to the changes to the breasts with both saline and silicone implants, scar tissue forms around the implants, which are called capsules.
But Newer Implants Are Safe Right
If you look at research or ask a surgeon, I think most will tell you implants are not made like they used to be, and after years of debating safety they are safe now. You will likely hear that newer implants are not likely to leak or cause illness and they dont have the risk implants once carried. Most surgeons will tell you the simplicity of recovery and give you the general basic risks of any surgery. After all, implants are FDA approved, right?
The FDA has a list of risks and complications of breast implants, but even the FDA notes possible complications, among them being Symptoms such as fatigue, memory loss, rash, brain fog, and joint pain have been reported by some patients with breast implants. Some patients may use the term breast implant illness to describe these symptoms. US FDA
I think most surgeons will not tell you that implant shells are made with silicone, which is an endocrine disruptor. Or that they can slowly release heavy metals, silicone and other chemicals into the body. Over time, the immune system is weakened and that makes the other body systems at risk for being compromised. This eventually makes the body go a little crazy and things slowly start going wrong.
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Sickness In Advanced Cancer
Some people in the advanced stages of cancer may feel or be sick a lot. This type of sickness is very different to that of people having chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
It can severely affect your day to day life and make you very tired and depressed.
People with advanced cancer can feel and be sick for different reasons. These include:
- the cancer itself
How Is Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treated
IBC can grow quickly, so its necessary to start treatment immediately after diagnosis. The sooner treatment starts, the better the chances are of recovery.
Treatment for inflammatory breast cancer usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Chemotherapy is often given before surgery, and then surgery is performed to remove the affected breast tissue and lymph nodes. Radiation is delivered after surgery. Some types of IBC respond to hormone-lowering medications, so these may be given in addition to the other treatments. Lastly, some people may choose to participate in clinical trials to try out new treatments that arent widely available to the public yet.
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Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Cats
The first stage of treatment requires surgical removal. Whilst its theoretically possible to remove just the lump, if its small, the malignancy of breast cancer in cats means that vets normally recommend a mastectomy- removal of the breasts.
This can be removal of a single breast with the lump in it, removal of all of the breasts on one side or removal of all the mammary tissue . A strip mastectomy is the most common route, balancing the difficulty of the surgery and recovery time with the biggest benefits for the cat.
Unfortunately, even with all the breast tissue and associated lymph nodes removed, the cancer is usually still present. Microscopic cancer cells are often already in the lymphatic system or blood vessels, and its impossible to remove them all. Therefore, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be required.
Your veterinarian will likely consult with a veterinary oncologist to find the best option for your cat. The type of chemotherapy depends on the tumor and the patient, but doxorubicin is a common chemotherapeutic drug choice for mammary cancer in cats. The sooner this chemotherapy is started, the better the prognosis.