Sexually Transmitted Virus Strongly Linked To Risk Of Breast Cancer Study
Women with abnormal cells on their cervix owing to certain types of human papillomavirus likely to be at higher risk of developing breast cancer later in life
Women with abnormal cells on their cervix owing to certain types of human papillomavirus infection are at higher risk of developing breast cancer later in life, the findings from a new study suggest.
More than 100 types of human papillomavirus, more commonly known as HPV, have now been identified, about 10 of which are classified are classified as high-risk because they lead to the type of abnormal cell changes that can go on to cause genital or cervical cancers.
But it has been suspected HPV may have a role in the development of some breast cancers. Researchers led by the University of New South Wales reviewed about 4,000 pathology reports from women with benign breast biopsies, but who in later years developed breast cancer.
The researchers identified 30 low-risk and 20 high-risk HPV types in 855 of the breast cancer cases. While not conclusive, the finding strongly supports a growing body of evidence linking HPV to a small subset of breast cancers.
The lead author of the study, Prof John Lawson, said the study found HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens, followed by HPV 16. The HPV vaccine, known as Gardasil and which is free for 12- to 13-year-old Australian girls and boys, prevents infection from both HPV types 18 and 16, as well as 6 and 11.
What Are The Outcomes For Cervical Cancer Treatment
Many factors affect a persons outcome, including what stage you are diagnosed with, what your overall health is and how well your cancer responds to treatment. We also keep learning how important a persons state of mind is to a cancer diagnosis.
Just to give you an idea of survival statistics, women who are diagnosed with stage IA cervical cancer have a five-year survival rate of 95%. Five-year survival rates look at people who were treated at least 5 years ago and refer to the percentage of women who lived at least 5 years after their cancer was diagnosed. Women diagnosed in later stages will see a lower 5-year survival rate but remember, many women live a long, full life after a cancer diagnosis.
Try to stay positive and remember that were here to work with you, fighting to make every day after diagnosis better and easier.
- CIN 3: severe
Most healthcare providers combine the moderate and severe categories: CIN 2/3.
If you have results that are CIN 2, CIN 3, or CIN 2/3, usually your healthcare provider will directly treat these abnormal cells.
Although the Pap test has helped decrease the number of American women with cervical cancer by about 75% in the past 50 years, newer tests are now needed.
How Do I Know If I Have Hpv
Many types of HPV have no symptoms. For women who are sexually active, there is an HPV screening test that can detect the strains of HPV most commonly linked to cervical cancer. During this test, a trained health care professional takes a sample of cells from a woman’s cervix. This sample is tested by a pathologist. A pathologist is a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease. HPV testing can be done alone or with a Pap test. Pap tests look for any abnormal changes to the sample of cells taken from the cervix. Often both tests can use the same sample.
All women should talk with their health care teams about HPV testing. There is no recommended HPV test for men.
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Breast Cancer Cell Lines
In this study, we demonstrate the application of in situ PCR to identify HPV sequences within breast cancer cells. We initially screened nine breast cancer cell lines for HPV in situ PCR. High-risk HPV gene sequences were identified in two of the cell lines of the nine lines tested. In situ PCR demonstrated that HPV DNA was confined within the nucleus of the cells . The presence and type was confirmed by automated sequencing of the PCR products shown in .
Human papilloma virus in situ polymerase chain reaction of breast cancer cell lines. Cell line MBA-MB-175V11, cell lines BR-SK3 and cell lines HeLa . In situ PCR with HPV E6 primers. In situ PCR with HPV L1 primers. No primer in situ PCR control.
Polymerase chain reaction product nucleotide sequences of human papilloma virus -positive patient samples and breast cancer cell lines. Four HPV-positive breast cancer samples were identified in below and two breast cancer cell lines were identified as HPV type 18, whereas one breast cancer specimen was identified as HPV type 16. Minor sequence variations were observed in three samples and in both cell lines when matched against reference sequence HPV-18 positive HeLa. There is no sequence variation in specimen 7 when matched against HPV-type 16 genome .
Can I Get Treated For Hpv Or Health Problems Caused By Hpv
There is no specific treatment for HPV, but there are treatments for health problems caused by HPV. Genital warts can be treated by your healthcare provider, or with prescription medication. HPV-related cancers are more treatable when diagnosed and treated promptly. For more information, visit www.cancer.orgexternal icon.
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Does It Increase My Risk Of Breast Cancer
Intraductal papillomas generally dont increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
Some intraductal papillomas contain cells that are abnormal but not cancer . This has been shown to slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer in the future.
Some people who have multiple intraductal papillomas may also have a slightly higher risk of developing breast cancer.
Who Can Get The Hepatitis Vaccine
A vaccine that protects against HBV is freely available on the NHS for newborn babies and people at higher risk of HBV. Visit your GP or a sexual health clinic to ask if you could get the vaccine.
HBV vaccination is also recommended for people travelling to countries where HBV is common. Ask your GP or a travel clinic you will probably need to pay to get the HBV vaccine for travel.
There is no vaccine available to protect from HCV at the moment.
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Human Papillomavirus Is Associated With Breast Cancer In The North Part Of Iran
Seyed Alireza Nadji
1Department of Biology, Science and Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Hesarak, Ashrafi Esfahani Highway, Tehran 14778-93855, Iran
2Virology Research Center, NRITLD, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Daar-abad, Niavaran, Tehran 19569-44413, Iran
3Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Amir-Mazandarani Blvd., Sari 48166-33131, Iran
4Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, NRITLD, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Daar-abad, Niavaran, Tehran 19569-44413, Iran
5Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center, NRITLD, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Daar-abad, Niavaran, Tehran 19569-44413, Iran
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and there were representing 22.9% of all new cancers in 2008 and ranking second overall when both sexes are considered together . Despite of good prognosis of breast cancer, it was also the most common cause of death from cancer, with 13.7% of deaths the world total in woman . Mazandaran province is located in north of Iran and beneath the Caspian Sea. According to the annual report of Health Deputy of Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran, breast cancer in women was representing 23.38% of all new cancers in Mazandaran province in 2006-2007 and was the most frequent cancer of women .
Can Hpv Cause Cancer
Yes. HPV itself isnt cancer but it can cause changes in the body that lead to cancer. HPV infections usually go away by themselves but , when they dont, they can cause certain kinds of cancer to develop. These include cervical cancer in women, penile cancer in men, and anal cancer in both women and men. HPV can also cause cancer in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils . All of these cancers are caused by HPV infections that did not go away. Cancer develops very slowly and may not be diagnosed until years, or even decades, after a person first gets infected with HPV. Currently, there is no way to know who will have only a temporary HPV infection, and who will develop cancer after getting HPV.
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How Do People Get Hpv
HPV can be passed from one person to another by skin-to-skin contact, such as occurs with sexual activity. The main way HPV is spread is through sexual activity, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. HPV can be spread even when an infected person has no visible signs or symptoms.
The virus can also be spread by genital contact without sex, although this is not common.
HPV infection is very common. Most men and women who have ever had sex get at least one type of genital HPV at some time in their lives. Anyone who has had sex can get HPV, even if it was only with only one person, but infections are more likely in people who have had many sex partners. Even if a person delays sexual activity until marriage, or only has one partner, they are still at risk of HPV infection if their partner has been exposed.
You cannot get HPV from:
- Toilet seats
- Even if it has been years since you were sexually active
- Even if you do not have any signs or symptoms
Can The Hpv Vaccine Cause Cancer
The HPV vaccine does not cause breast cancer or any other type of cancer. However, it is also not a vaccine to prevent breast cancer.
The American Cancer Society recommends that both males and females get the HPV vaccine.
For females, the vaccine can help prevent HPV-related cancers, including cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancer. The vaccine can also help prevent HPV-related penile cancer in males, and anal and throat cancers associated with the virus in all people.
Risk factors for contact with HPV include:
- new sexual partners
- increased number of sexual partners in a personâs lifetime
- having sexual partners who also have other sexual partners
However, as the CDC notes, HPV is so common that almost everyone will come into contact with it at some point. For most, it will cause no symptoms and go away on its own. However, for some, it can linger and potentially cause certain cancers.
A person can take steps to reduce the likelihood of contracting a severe subtype of HPV.
Some basic measures to prevent HPV include:
- using a barrier method, such as a condom, during sex
- avoiding genital contact with others
- getting HPV tests regularly
- getting the HPV shot
However, it is important to note that despite taking steps to reduce the risk, a person may still contract HPV.
A person can also take steps to their risk of developing breast cancer. Some potential methods include:
- maintaining a moderate weight
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Treatment For Hpv Or Hpv
Theres no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the cell changes that HPV can cause.
Cancer is easiest to treat when its found early while its small and before it has spread. Some cancer screening tests can find early cell changes caused by HPV, and these changes can be treated before they even become cancer.
Visible genital warts can be removed with prescribed medicines. They can also be treated by a health care provider.
Screening For Other Hpv
There are no Food and Drug Administration approved tests to detect HPV infections or HPV-caused cell changes in anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile, or oropharyngeal tissues. Research studies are ongoing to identify tests that can detect precancers in these areas or find cancer in an earlier, more treatable stage.
Anal cancer screening: Among populations that are at higher risk for HPV infection, such as men who have sex with men or men who are HIV positive, some research has found that an anal Pap test may help to detect early cell changes or precancerous cells. Research is ongoing to see if treating anal precancer prevents anal cancer.
Learn more about Anal Cancer Prevention .
Oral cancer screening: Currently, there are no standard screening tests for oral cancer. The United States Preventive Services Task Force has found that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for oral cancer in asymptomatic adults. However, the American Dental Association recommends dentists check for signs of oral and oropharyngeal cancer as part of a routine dental check-up in all patients.
Learn more about Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Screening and about symptoms in Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment .
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Who Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
The HPV vaccine series is recommended for girls and boys, at the age of 11 or 12, and the series can be started at age 9. It is important for males as well as females to get vaccinated, because both men and women can develop cancers of the mouth and throat, anal cancers, and genital warts. Women are also at risk for cervical cancer, and men for penile cancer. Vaccination can also reduce the spread of HPV that causes cancer to other people.
Children who start the vaccine series before age 15 need two doses to be protected. For young people who werent vaccinated within the age recommendations, HPV vaccination is recommended up to age 26. Those who receive their first dose at age 15 or older need three doses to be protected.
Does Hpv Infection Cause Symptoms
Infection with high-risk HPV does not usually cause symptoms. The precancerous cell changes caused by a persistent HPV infection at the cervix rarely cause symptoms, which is why regular cervical cancer screening is important. Precancerous lesions at other sites in the body may cause symptoms like itching or bleeding. And if an HPV infection develops into cancer, the cancer may cause symptoms like bleeding, pain, or swollen glands. Learn more about signs and symptoms of cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.
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The Association Between Hpv Infection And Breast Cancer Risk
A total of 16 casecontrol studies were included in our evaluation of the association between HPV infection and breast cancer risk . Due to existing heterogeneity , a random model was chosen to calculate the combined OR and its 95 % CI across the 16 studies. When these 16 studies were pooled in the meta-analysis, results showed that HPV infection was associated with higher risk for breast cancer . Eggers and Beggs tests were performed to assess the publication bias the results of both indicated no statistical significance .
Forest plots of studies evaluating odds ratio of HPV infection to breast cancer risk
Chemotherapy With Radiation Is Generally Used To Treat Stage Ii Stage Iii And Stage Iv Cervical Cancer
After chemotherapy and radiation are complete, your healthcare provider may also suggest a hysterectomy.
- Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs that are either injected into a vein or taken by mouth.
- Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. These x-rays may be given externally or internally. External radiation is like having a diagnostic x-ray internal radiation is given through a cylinder placed in the vagina.
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Hpv Transmission During Oral Sex A Growing Cause Of Mouth And Throat Cancer
- By Howard E. LeWine, MD, Chief Medical Editor, Harvard Health Publishing
In the last few years, actress Angelina Jolie went public with her double mastectomy to prevent breast cancer. Governor Chris Christie told us his reasons for gastric bypass surgery. And actor Michael Douglas is shining the spotlight on the human papilloma virus the number one cause of mouth and throat cancer. In an interview published in The Guardian newspaper in London, Douglas mentioned that his own throat cancer could have been brought on by oral sex, a common method of HPV transmission.
There are about 200 different strains of HPV. Some cause common warts when they invade the skin. Others are the cause of sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States.
HPV transmission by sexual contact often doesnt become active enough to cause symptoms. When it does become active, it tends to invade mucous membranes, such as those covering the lining of the vagina, cervix, anus, mouth, tongue, and throat. An HPV infection can cause warts in and around these tissues.
Most people sexually exposed to HPV never develop symptoms or health problems, and most HPV infections go away by themselves within two years. But the infection can persist and cause long-term problems. These include cervical cancer in women, penis cancer in men, and in both sexes some cancers of the anus and oropharyngeal cancer .
How Can I Avoid Getting Hpv
- The best way to avoid HPV is not to have sex or sexual contact.
- If you choose to have sex, have your partner use condoms. Condoms can help protect against HPV. But since you can get HPV from skin-to-skin contact in the genital area, even people who use condoms can get HPV.
- Agree with your partner to only have sex or sexual contact with each other. But remember, even if you both swear total fidelity, you still have to be tested, like everyone else.
- If you are 26 or younger, you can get an HPV vaccine. Its approved for girls and boys ages 9 through 26, but is recommended specifically for ages 11 and 12. The vaccine helps protect against the 9 types of HPV that cause cancers like cervical and other HPV-related cancers and diseases.
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