Can Working Night Shifts Cause Breast Cancer
Although it was previously thought working night shifts may increase breast cancer risk, the latest research has found people who work night shifts are at no greater risk of breast cancer than those who dont.
This is the case regardless of the type of work and the age someone starts night shifts.
We offer free talks to workplaces and community groups by trained staff and volunteers. The talks cover topics such as the signs and symptoms of breast cancer, as well as dispelling common myths and misconceptions.
Evs Administration To Bc Dfs
100,000 BC DFs were seeded in DMEM medium supplemented with 20% FBS, 1% glutamine and 1% penicillin/streptomycin in a 6 well plate and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2 humidified atmosphere. After 24 h, BC DFs were grown in DMEM serum-free and then were exposed to a single radiation dose of 7.5 Gy using a photon beam generated by a roentgen with 180 kV and filtration 0.35 Cu1.5 Al. For the setup we used a base of 8 cm of solid water and a field 20 × 20 cm2 with dose rate of 62 CGy/m. An amount of 2 × 1010 CaSki-derived EVs in 1 ml volume of medium was administered at time 0 to irradiated 100,000 BC DFs, the medium was removed at 24 h post irradiation and substituted at 24, 48, and 72 h with fresh DMEM without HPV DNA positive EVs. At day 4, the medium was collected and 1 ml volume was administered to 20,000 MCF7 cells cultured in 3D model in low attachments plates to perform MCF7 derived-MS assay.
Characteristics Of Eligible Studies
The 37 included studies range from 1999â2019 covering 17 countries worldwide. Over 50% of the research were carried out in Asian countries. Among them, 11 articles were published before 2010, 15 were published between 2010 and 2015, and 11 were published after 2015. All of the included research are case-control studies. Most studies used non-malignant breast lesions as a control, while 9 studies used normal breast tissue as controls which are showed in Table 1. Furthermore, we collected the statistics of HPV subtypes detection in order to carry out subgroup analysis figuring out carcinogenic subtype. The specimen types used for HPV detection are as follows: 11 studies used fresh frozen tissue, 2 studies used fresh tissue, 1 study used liquid cytology specimens, and the rest used paraffin-embedded tissue.
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How Can Hpv Cause Cancer
You cant catch cancer itself, but HPV passes from person to person and can increase the risk of cancer developing. Most of the time the body clears the infection without it causing any problems.
Sometimes, one of the high-risk types of HPV isnt cleared and stays in the body. If this happens, the virus can cause changes to the DNA inside the cells so they start to behave differently. Over time, the affected cells can start to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer.
When Should You Be Vaccinated
The vaccines are given 2 or 3 times over a 6- to 12-month period. The timing of doses is important to make sure the vaccines are as effective as possible. If all doses of the vaccine are not given, or they are not given at the right time, you may not get the full benefit of the vaccine.
The vaccines are most effective if theyre given before a person becomes sexually active because their risk of infection will be lower. The vaccines are also more effective in young teens when the immune system is most responsive to the vaccine.
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Human Papillomavirus Infection Increases The Risk Of Breast Carcinoma: A Large
Chutong Ren, Kai Zeng, Chujun Wu, Lan Mu, Jiangsheng Huang, Mingming Wang
Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , China
Contributions: Conception and design: C Ren Administrative support: J Huang Provision of study materials or patients: C Ren, K Zeng Collection and assembly of data: C Ren, K Zeng, C Wu, L Mu Data analysis and interpretation: C Ren, C Wu Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
Background: Breast carcinoma is a cancer with a high morbidity rate, but the mechanisms by which it develops are never clear. There has been speculation regarding the potential relationships between breast cancer and local HPV infections for some time, and although much clinical research supports this hypothesis, some research results disprove the association. Therefore, the association is still inconclusive.
Methods: We performed the data collection by searching the database PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of science. In addition, 22 sites were added manually. After carefully selection, the pooled odds rate of 37 included case control studies was calculated. Subgroup analysis, publication bias and trim & fill analysis were conducted to make the result more reliable.
This systemic review and meta-analysis provide the evidence for HPV infection as a potential risk factor in BC, while the mechanism of this hypothesis still needs further evaluation.
Can Nipple Piercing Cause Breast Cancer
Nipple piercings have become a popular trend. But theres currently no evidence that having pierced nipples increases the likelihood of developing breast cancer.
However, the area pierced is at risk of infection, at the time of the piercing and as long as you wear the jewellery, possibly even longer.
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Detection And Genotyping Of Hpv Dna
The research approach to the identification of HPVs was touse Polymerase Chain Reaction . HPV genotyping was performed using the HPV- HCR Genotype-Eph kit using the purified DNA extracts from the 110 benign and breast cancer tissue specimens . The kit is based on simultaneous amplification of four targeted regions of the HPV gene of each of the four HPV DNA types in one tube . The HPV DNA amplification was run in three tubes, in which 4 different HPV types were amplified in each tube as follows HPV-16/31/33/35, HPV-18/39/45/59 and HPV-52/56/58/66. This enabled the detection of infections and co-infections of 12 high risk HPV genotypes in each collected tissue sample.
To analyse and determine HPV genotypes, the amplified PCR products were electrophoresed along with type specific positive controls on a 3% agarose gel stained using SYBR Safe . This was then visualised under UV using a Gel Doc XR+ System . For each sample, the amplification of Î²-globin served as an internal positive control to determine the adequacy of the extracted DNA for amplification. PCR was performed in triplicate for each HPV positive sample to confirm the result.
Future Management Of Hpv Associated Bc
In this review, it is evident that HPV is associated with a sub set of BC irrespective of different molecular subtypes. As HPV infects the breast through nipple and micro-lesions on the breast skin due to genetial-breast sex activity, hygienic sexual practice could prevent HPV infection to the breast. In conventional cervical cancer screening, cervical swab is used for HPV test followed by Pap test leading to early diagnosis of cervical cancer . Likewise, it is pertinent to detect HPV in breast ductal lavage, breast nipple discharge and breast milk which will be useful for determination of risk of BC as well as early diagnosis of BC. Apart from these, detection of HPV in breast tissue will be powerful biomarker for specific treatment protocol of the HPV infected BC. Moreover, the presence of HPV in blood plasma of BC patients can be the indicator of dissemination of tumour cells from the primary site which can serve as a useful prognostic tool of the disease. The prevalence of HPV in BC indicates that prophylactic vaccination against HPV is needed to restrict the disease in women .
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Evidence Of No Association Between Human Papillomavirus And Breast Cancer
- 1Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
- 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
- 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark
- 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
- 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herning Hospital, Herning, Denmark
- 6DTU Bioengineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
- 7Private Gynecological Clinic Suzan Lenz Gynækolog, Copenhagen, Denmark
Background: Globally, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women. Studies reported an increased risk of breast cancer among women with prior cervical dysplasia. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus in breast cancer and explore if women with prior cervical neoplasia carry an increased risk of HPV-positive breast cancer compared to women without.
Methods: This casecontrol study identified 193 Danish women diagnosed with breast cancer at Aarhus University Hospital or Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev. Cases were 93 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse prior to breast cancer. Controls were 100 women without prior cervical dysplasia. HPV testing and genotyping were done using SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 and an in-house semi-Q-PCR assay.
HPV prevalence in breast cancer is very low suggesting no etiological correlation between HPV and breast cancer.
Breast Intraductal Papilloma Symptoms
A papilloma can present as a small outwardly curvedbump. Papillomas can either grow on the surface of the breast or within the breast ducts themselves. In the latter case, papillomas are only visible on mammography or by a microscope.
A papilloma will generally form right around or below the nipple. A woman may discover a small lump herself by doing breast self-exams or often a health care provider may find a small lump just beneath the surface through delicate palpation .
Papillomas can also be painful.
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Is There Treatment For Hpv Or Health Problems That Develop From Hpv
There is no treatment for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause:
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How Is Breast Cancer Treated
There are many different breast cancer treatments, based on the type and stage, and many women get more than one type of treatment. There are local treatments, meaning they treat the tumor without affecting the rest of the body, and systemic treatments, which can reach cancer cells throughout the body. Heres a breakdown of each treatment:
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Who Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
CDC recommends HPV vaccination for:
- All preteens at age 11 or 12 years .
- Everyone through age 26 years, if not vaccinated already.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years. However, some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after speaking with their healthcare provider about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination. HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit. Most sexually active adults have already been exposed to HPV, although not necessarily all of the HPV types targeted by vaccination.
At any age, having a new sex partner is a risk factor for getting a new HPV infection. People who are already in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship are not likely to get a new HPV infection.
Is It Good To Be Stressed About Breast Cancer
This study found no link between breast cancer risk and stress, which is a good thing. Still, anything you can do to reduce your stress and enhance your self-confidence, satisfaction, and happiness can have a huge effect on your quality of life. So-called mindful measures, such as yoga, meditation, visualization, journaling, and prayer, may be valuable additions to your daily or weekly routine. Exercise also can help ease stress as well as boost your energy and self-esteem.
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Publication Bias And Trim & Fill Analysis
We also examined the influence of publication bias through picturing a funnel graph, conducting Eggerâs linear regression test and Beggâs rank correlation test . There was no publication bias found for Beggâs rank correlation test . However, the P value of Eggerâs linear regression test was 0.003. Eggerâs linear regression test proved the existence of publication bias and that is the reason why trim & fill analysis was performed. The application of the trim and fill method did not change the risk estimate . These data favor our previous theory that HPV infection is related to BC.
Breast Cancer: How Your Mind Can Help Your Body
Emotional turmoil in response to a diagnosis of breast cancer can affect a persons physical health as well as psychological well-being.
Breast cancer: How your mind can help your body.
According to the National Cancer Institute, more than 230,000 women in the United States learn that they have breast cancer each year.1 Because many of them have no family history of breast cancer or other known risk factors, the diagnosis often comes as a devastating surprise. The emotional turmoil that results can affect womens physical health as well as their psychological well-being.
This question and answer fact sheet explains how psychological treatment can help these women harness the healing powers of their own minds.
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Expression Level Of Cellular And Viral Factors
Total RNA was extracted and purified from the tissue by using RNEasy Mini kit . Real-time PCR reactions were conducted with one step RT-PCR® kits according to the manufacturers instructions. The used primers for amplifying the gene sequence for E6 were :
The level of p53 was assessedusing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Abcams p53 Simple Step ELISA® Kit according to the manufacturers instructions.
For cDNA synthesis, 1 microgram of extracted total RNA was reverse transcribed using the QuantiNova Reverse Transcription® Kit . The used primers and probe in E7 gene amplification were :
Forward primer: 5-AAGTGTGACTCTACGCTTCGGTT-3
The expression level of RB gene was determined by Human Retinoblastoma ELISA® kit according to the manufactures protocol.
Quantitative SYBR green TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix® was used to monitor expression levels of E2 genes. The used primers in E2 gene amplification were :
Forward primer: 5-CTACGAATTCATGGAGACTCTTTGCCAACG-3
Reverse primer: 5-GATAGAATTCTCATATAGACATAAATCCAG-3
BRCA1 and BRCA2
The expression level of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were measured by BRCA1 and BRCA2 ELISA Kits according to the manufactures protocol.
Cytokines and NF-kB evaluation
Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species
The RONS level was assessed by OxiSelect Intracellular ROS/RNS Assay kit , following the protocol.
Hpv And Breast Cancer: Prevention
Although there is no known way to prevent breast cancer, people can focus on risk reduction through lifestyle changes, including:
- Not using tobacco products
- Eating lots of fruits and veggies and other plant-based foods, like nuts and seeds
Ways you can help prevent acquiring HPV include:
- Getting the HPV vaccine, currently approved for children and adults ages 9 through 45
- Using a latex barrier during sex
- Knowing your partners, their history, and practicing safe sex
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Cancer Stem Cells And Emotional Stress
Another very important point is that cancer stem cells are stimulated to regroup and grow by inflammatory factors related to various stressors on the body ? including toxic emotions. . This is yet another reason emotional stress is undoubtedly a major cause of cancer and its recurrence.
While one disappointment is not likely going to give you cancer, chronic emotional stress will certainly increase your risk of cancer and its recurrence.
Given that it is quite clear that emotional distress can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, it is important to reduce its adverse impacts on health. It is not always easy to manage our anger, but it is important to find constructive outlets for it.
Learning to control emotional stress is clearly important for the prevention of cancer as well as the progression of the disease.
Dna Extraction And Quality Assessment Of Genetic Material
To perform the DNA extraction from fresh breast biopsies, we used the QIAmp DNA Mini Kit , following the manufacturers instructions. The quality of the isolated DNA was checked by polymerase chain reaction of control genes with primers generating fragments of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 bp . The reaction mixture was prepared using 0.4 l of dNTPs , 5 l of each primer , 6.5 l of 10X buffer, 5 l of MgCl2 , 0.5 l of Taq polymerase, and 27.6 l of nuclease-free water, to a final volume of 50 l. The amplification conditions were 7 min at 95°C, 35 cycles of 30 sec at 95°C, 40 sec at 60°C, and 40 sec at 70°C and a final amplification for 15 s at 70°C.
Search Strategy And Selection Criteria For Hpv And Breast Cancer
Eligible articles published from January 1989 to June 2013 were identified by an electronic PubMed search using the MeSH terms human,papillomavirus, and breast carcinoma. Additional articles from the reference lists of retrieved articles were also screened. The inclusion criteria of the studies were as follows: detection of HPV in female breast cancer full text in English independent of other studies. The experimental results from the present molecular study were included in the meta-analysis.
Stages Of Breast Cancer
If youre diagnosed with breast cancer, your doctor will immediately try to figure out if it has spread, and if so, how far, according to the American Cancer Society. This process is called staging, and it helps determine how serious the cancer is and how to treat it. We stage it based on the size of the tumor in the breast and whether or not the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or another organ in the body, says Dr. Specht. The stage of breast cancer dictates how we treat it even more than which type it is.
The earliest stage of breast cancer is stage 0 from there, it ranges from stage I through IV. As a rule, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread.
Here is more information about each stage:
Also called pre-cancer, this is the earliest stage of breast cancer. It usually begins in the breast ducts or milk glands and has stayed there, which means its not invasive . However, it could become invasive cancer in the future.
Starting at this level, breast cancer is called invasive, meaning it has started spreading to healthy breast tissue. Stage IA means the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters but has not spread outside the breast, and no lymph nodes are involved. Stage IB means either theres no tumor or the tumor is less than 2 centimeters, and small clusters of breast cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes.
At stage II, the cancer has grown, spread, or both. This stage has two subcategories: IIA and IIB.
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