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Can Stage 1 Breast Cancer Metastasis

How Treatment Can Impact Survival Of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Type and Stage: What You Need to Know

In most cases, the earlier breast cancer is first diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of survival. Cancer cells often become more difficult to treat and may develop drug resistance once they spread. The aim of treatment for Stage 1 and 2 breast cancer is to remove the breast cancer, and any other cancer cells that remain in the breast, armpit or other parts of the body but cannot be detected. Having treatment at this stage can also reduce the risk of the cancer coming back.

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Survival Rates For Breast Cancer

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.

Advanced Or Metastatic Breast Cancer: Stage Iv

Stage IV breast cancers indicate the presence of distant metastasis to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones.

About 5% of women, in 2017 have a stage IV breast cancer at the time of initial diagnosis.

The long term survival rate for stage IV breast cancer tends to be low, but is improving all the time. In 2012 the National Cancer Institute statistics show the 5-year survival rate for Stage IV breast cancer to be around 22%.

However, a more recent study shows that 37% of women survive for 3 years after a Stage IV breast cancer diagnosis.

Also, it is important to remember that each case is individual and there is no telling exact survival rates for any of the stages of breast cancer.

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When Do People Get A Metastatic Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Metastatic breast cancer can occur at different points:

  • De novo metastatic breast cancer: About 6% of women and 9% of men have metastatic breast cancer when theyre first diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Distant recurrence: Most commonly, metastatic breast cancer is diagnosed after the original breast cancer treatment. A recurrence refers to the cancer coming back and spreading to a different part of the body, which can happen even years after the original diagnosis and treatment.

How Long Does It Take For Stage 1 Breast Cancer To Develop Into Stage 2

TNM Staging System for Breast Cancer

It is not possible to determine exactly how long it will take for newly diagnosed breast cancer to progress from stage 1 to stage 2. It can happen within months if it is an aggressive high-grade tumor, or it can take longer. It’s important to know that stage 1 breast cancer could have already been present for a while before being detected, so it may progress quickly.

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How Is Secondary Breast Cancer In The Bone Treated

Treatment for secondary breast cancer in the bone aims to relieve symptoms such as pain, maintain and improve mobility and strengthen the bones, as well as slow down the growth of the cancer.

Treatments can be given alone or in combination.

When making decisions about how the best treatment for you, your specialist team will consider factors such as:

  • how extensive the cancer is in the bones
  • whether the cancer has spread to other organs
  • any symptoms you have
  • what treatment youve had in the past
  • the features of the cancer
  • whether you have been through the menopause
  • your general health

Your specialist should discuss any recommendations for treatment with you and take your wishes into account. They will talk with you about your options, explain what the aims of treatment will be and help you weigh up the potential benefits against the possible side effects.

What Can I Expect While Living With Metastatic Breast Cancer

Your care team will monitor you every few months to check if the cancer is responding to treatment, and also to see if you are having any side effects. The process of restaging the cancer includes:

  • History/physical exam.
  • Blood tests.
  • Imaging tests, including CTs and bone scan or PET scan.

Before your scans or tests, its normal to feel anxiety. It may help to bring a friend or family member to the appointment with you.

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What To Do If You Have Breast Cancer

When you learn about such an unpleasant diagnosis, the first thing to do is to avoid panic in any way. Try to pull yourself together. After that, be sure to look for an experienced doctor who will tell you what to do and how to proceed. Only an experienced doctor will be able to give you the right diagnosis, assess your overall condition, and be able to provide assistance that will lead to a positive result.

The main thing, in this case, is to see a professional doctor. Unfortunately, many countries have adopted a radical fight against this disease. Therefore, the question, whether it is possible to cure without surgery, the answer is a resounding no. But in the USA, such treatment can be carried out much more gently. Clinics here offer to conduct surgery for breast cancer, but try to keep as much healthy tissue as possible. In addition, after surgery in such centers, you will certainly be offered plastic surgery to restore the breast.

So, if you or your loved one was diagnosed with breast cancer, even if it is stage 4, do not panic. Find a great oncologist, select the best treatment option, and start it immediately. With this approach, the probability of a positive outcome increases many times. Remember even the worst and most difficult diagnosis can be a thing of the past if you start the right treatment on time and believe in the best outcome.

Metastatic Breast Cancer: What You Should Know

Breast Cancer Metastasis, When Can It Happen?

What does it mean to have metastatic, or stage 4, breast cancer? A Rogel Cancer Center oncologist explains the diagnosis and how its treated.

After hearing a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, a rush of questions emerges. But often, its not until long after leaving the doctors office.

Metastatic means the cancer has spread beyond the breast and immediate lymph nodes to other organs or tissues in the body, most often the bones, brain, lungs or liver. Its considered stage 4 breast cancer, which means the cancer has progressed to its most advanced stage.

But even though its moved to other organs, it still behaves like breast cancer and is treated with breast cancer therapies.

More than 154,000 U.S. women are estimated to have metastatic breast cancer, according to the Susan G. Komen organization. Men can have metastatic breast cancer too, but its rare.

To help patients fill in information gaps, N. Lynn Henry, M.D., Ph.D., the breast oncology disease lead for the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, explains the nuances of stage 4 metastatic breast cancer.

What are the differences between metastatic breast cancer, stage 4 breast cancer and advanced cancer?

If any doctor uses the term advanced, ask for clarification, Henry adds.

When does metastatic breast cancer appear?

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of bone metastases:

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Breast Cancer Stem Cells And Dormant Cells

Breast cancer stem cells , a small number of cells with self-renewal and unlimited replication capabilities, have been shown in numerous cancer models to be involved in tumor development and metastatic dissemination. Moreover, the occurrence of BCSCs with the properties of stemness, EMT and drug resistibility, is the main cause for cancer recurrence and treatment failure . Multiple researches revealed that several signaling pathways, such as WNT/-catenin and Notch, contribute significantly to the development of BCSCs . Devon A et al. showed that early metastatic breast cancer cells had unique stem-like gene expression characteristics and prefer to proliferate and differentiate to produce advanced metastatic disease at the single-cell level . Additionally, BCSCs isolated from primary human breast cancers possess the advanced metastasis potential and the CD70+ subpopulations appear to preferentially mediate lung-specific metastasis by enhancing self-renewal potential .

Mechanisms In The Metastatic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells

According to the hallmarks of cancer presented by Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, the capability of a cancer cell to invade and metastasize is an important factor in determining the aggressive features of the disease and is a promising molecular target for drug discovery .

Stages of breast cancer.

Regarding cell to ECM interaction, the key proteins in cancer cell motility and survival are the integrins. Cancer cells attach to the ECM through the function of heterodimeric proteins known as the integrin family of extracellular matrix receptors. Integrins are composed of α and αβ subunits which transduce many signals from the ECM . Previous studies report that in poorly differentiated breast adenocarcinoma cells, expression of integrin α2β1 is reduced . Certain integrins such as integrin α3β1 have been associated with cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and activity of gelatinase β . The MMPs are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases which have the ability to degrade ECM component and also mediate proteolysis at the invadopodial front of invasive breast cancer cells .

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Can You Do Anything To Prevent Or Slow The Spread Of Breast Cancer

Like any type of cancer, there are factors that can put you at higher risk. For breast cancer, these include things like smoking, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and not performing monthly self-breast exams. Its also important to make sure and get your annual mammogram for breast cancer screening.

Other risk factors can include using hormone-based prescriptions, how many children youve had in the past, getting older and at what age you got your period and went through menopause.

In some instances, you cant necessarily prevent breast cancer, but you can sometimes slow it down, stop it from spreading or reduce the size of the tumor, says Dr. Roesch. You can do this by taking your medications as directed, following through with treatments, going to your appointments and being involved in your cancer care.

Youre in control of taking your medication correctly, eating a healthy diet, participating in an exercise program and managing stress. All of these things can contribute to a stronger physical body and better mental attitude both of which can have a positive impact on your breast cancer diagnosis.

Pathophysiology Of Breast Cancer Metastasis To The Bone

Breast Cancer Symptoms Review: 2017

BC spread is a complex multistep process. It begins with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of locally invasive carcinoma cells which then enter the lumina of blood vessels, a process called intravasation . Once in the systemic circulation, these circulating tumour cells must survive a variety of stress factors in order to reach the bone marrow, namely the stress imposed by matrix detachment , the shear forces, and the predation by cells of the innate immune system . To evade these threats, CTCs form relatively large emboli via interactions with blood platelets . However, the majority become trapped in capillary beds during its first passage through the circulation . Nevertheless, some CTCs may avoid this rapid trapping because of their plasticity or chance passage through arteriovenous shunts . Eventually, some CTCs become lodged in the microvasculature of distant organs and initiate intraluminal growth, rupturing the walls of surrounding vessels, and placing cells in direct contact with the parenchyma of a specific organ . Also, CTCs may be able to extravasate from the vessels lumina into the stromal microenvironment by penetrating the endothelial cell and pericyte layers .

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Stages Of Breast Cancer

Staging describes or classifies a cancer based on how much cancer there is in the body and where it is when first diagnosed. This is often called the extent of cancer. Information from tests is used to find out the size of the tumour, what part of the breast has cancer, whether the cancer has spread from where it first started and where the cancer has spread. Your healthcare team uses the stage to plan treatment and estimate the outcome .

The most common staging system for breast cancer is the TNM system. For breast cancer there are 5 stages stage 0 followed by stages 1 to 4. Often the stages 1 to 4 are written as the Roman numerals I, II, III and IV. Generally, the higher the stage number, the more the cancer has spread. Talk to your doctor if you have questions about staging.

When describing the stage of breast cancer, sometimes doctors group them as follows:

In situ breast cancer The cancer cells are only in the duct or lobule where they started and have not grown into nearby breast tissue . It is stage 0.

Early stage breast cancer The tumour is smaller than 5 cm and the cancer has not spread to more than 3 lymph nodes. It includes stages 1A, 1B and 2A.

Locally advanced breast cancer The tumour is larger than 5 cm. The cancer may have spread to the skin, the muscles of the chest wall or more than 3 lymph nodes. It includes stages 2B, 3A, 3B and 3C. Inflammatory breast cancer is also considered locally advanced breast cancer.

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Dilemmas Of Stage Iv Breast Cancer

Indeed, there are many serious and personal questions involving stage IV breast cancer. So, overall survival is less likely, and gains from intensive breast cancer treatment are unfortunately rather modest. A serious consideration is, therefore, quality of life during the course of treatment.

These decisions tend to be a dynamic process, based on individual cases, between patients and physicians. Respect needs to be given to the expectations for treatment, the status of the disease and the patient wishes.

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Investigations For Stages Of Breast Cancer

The following procedures may be necessary to check for metastasis:-

  • bone scan
  • MRI scan
  • blood tests

So, after a breast cancer diagnosis, while in general, the outlook is favorable , it should really be considered a chronic condition.

But the progression is not going to be the same for everyone, even for patients with similar stages of breast cancer presentation. It is SO important to remember that each case is individual. Indeed breast cancer has been known to return even 20 years after a mastectomy, whilst in others, the progression and systemic development of the disease may be rapid.

Are you considering having NO treatment?

Anxiety, fear, panic, anger and sadness are all common emotions following a breast cancer diagnosis. If you are in the middle of a combination of these feelings, today is not a good day to make important decisions.

Here is my quick imagine a way this all gets better line of reasoning, to help you. Firstly, treatments are so effective nowadays and very well organized. Cancer research and treatments are improving all the time and the people who treat breast cancer are experienced experts.

Give the team some trust and time to explain things properly and accept the treatments. Do one step at a time, one day at a time, and you will be amazed at the results.

Add onto that the following self-help methods:-

  • lots of sleep

Drugs Targeting Metabolism In Metastatic Breast Cancer

Ask Mayo Clinic: Breast Cancer

Table 2 Current metabolic interventions in metastatic breast cancer.

Metabolic inhibitors combined with checkpoint inhibitors holds promise to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy and the relationship of tumor-intrinsic metabolism and successful immunotherapy is being explored. Tumor-imposed metabolic restrictions can mediate T cell hyporesponsiveness during cancer. Checkpoint blockade antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, can restore glucose in tumor microenvironment, permitting T cell glycolysis and IFN- production, and blocking PD-L1 directly on tumors dampens glycolysis by inhibiting mTOR activity and decreasing expression of glycolysis enzymes . Because breast cancer immunotherapy is in the ascendant, understanding the metabolic dependence between infiltrating immune cells and cancer is an important direction for future research.

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How Is A Local Recurrence After Lumpectomy Diagnosed

After a diagnosis of early stage breast cancer, any remaining breast tissue should be evaluated annually with scans .

Most local recurrences within the breast after lumpectomy are detected on routine annual breast imaging, which usually takes the form of mammography and ultrasound, and on occasions MRI.

If you have a local recurrence or new primary breast cancer, you may find symptoms similar to an initial breast cancer. This includes:

  • A new lump in the breast, armpit area or around the collarbone
  • A change in breast size or shape
  • Changes to the nipple, such as sores or crusting, an ulcer or inverted nipple
  • Clear or bloody nipple discharge
  • Changes to the skin including redness, puckering or dimpling
  • Breast tenderness or pain

Once a local recurrence has been diagnosed, we do tests to see whether there are signs of cancer elsewhere in the body. These may include a chest X-ray, CT scan, bone scan or PET scan, and blood tests , then we have to figure out how best to treat the tumour in the breast. Usually in these cases we do a mastectomy, as the prior less drastic surgery and radiation didnt take care of it.

Want To Learn More About Your Breast Cancer Treatment Options Were Here For You

Whether you just received your diagnosis or youre looking for new treatment options, were here to help.

If youve just been diagnosed with breast cancer, your next stop will be to meet with a nurse navigator or breast surgeon, depending on your initial diagnosis, and start building your treatment plan. We offer cancer care clinic locations across the Twin Cities and western Wisconsin, so get started by selecting a location to make an appointment at.

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