Should Women Under Age 40 Get Mammograms
In general, regular mammograms are not recommended for women under 40 years old, in part, because breast tissue tends to be more dense in young women, making mammograms less effective as a screening tool. In addition, most experts believe the low risk of developing breast cancer at a young age does not justify the radiation exposure or the cost of mammography. However, screening mammograms may be recommended for younger women with a family history of breast cancer and other risk factors.
What Does A Breast Lump Feel Like
Breast lumps can look and feel different depending on the type. They can be painful or painless, and may feel hard, soft, or rubbery under the skin. Some breast lumps are moveable and some are not. They can be many different sizes. It is important for girls and young women to be familiar with the normal shape of their breasts, so they can recognize if a lump appears.
Outlook For Breast Cancer In Men
The outlook for breast cancer in men varies depending on how far it has spread by the time it’s diagnosed.
It may be possible to cure breast cancer if it’s found early.
A cure is much less likely if the cancer is found after it has spread beyond the breast. In these cases, treatment can relieve your symptoms and help you live longer.
Speak to your breast care nurse if you’d like to know more about the outlook for your cancer.
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How Breast Cancer Spreads
Breast cancer can spread when the cancer cells get into the blood or lymph system and are carried to other parts of the body.
The lymph system is a network of lymph vessels found throughout the body. The lymph vessels carry lymph fluid and connect lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells. Lymph vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph away from the breast. Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymph vessels and start to grow in lymph nodes. Most of the lymph vessels of the breast drain into:
- Lymph nodes under the arm
- Lymph nodes around the collar bone
- Lymph nodes inside the chest near the breast bone
If the cancer cells have spread to your lymph nodes, there is a higher chance that the cells could have also traveled through the lymph system and spread to other parts of your body. The more lymph nodes with breast cancer cells, the more likely it is that the cancer may be found in other organs. Because of this, finding cancer in one or more lymph nodes often affects your treatment plan. Usually, surgery to remove one or more lymph nodes will be needed to know whether the cancer has spread.
Still, not all men with cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases to other areas, and some men can have no cancer cells in their lymph nodes and later develop metastases.
Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Teens
Doctors treat secretory adenocarcinoma by surgically cutting out the cancer while sparing as much breast tissue as possible.
Doctors consider chemotherapy and radiation on a case-by-case basis. The risks these treatments pose to young, developing bodies may outweigh the benefits.
Depending on the type of therapy and how long it lasts, it can affect your fertility and increase your chances of other cancers.
You can still breastfeed after breast or nipple surgery. However, some people may produce less milk than others.
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What Are The Different Types Of Male Breast Cancer
The most common type of male breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which is also a common type of breast cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to cancers with origins in the ducts of the breast, and the term infiltrating means that the cancer cells have spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding tissue. On the other hand, lobular cancers , common in women, are extremely rare in men since male breast tissue does not normally contain lobules.
Other less common types of cancers of the breast that have been reported in men include ductal carcinoma in situ , cystosarcoma phylloides , and Paget’s disease of the breast . Some other types of breast cancer that occur in men are named for their growth patterns and microscopic appearance of the cancer cells, including papillary carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer , and medullary carcinoma.
About 85% of breast cancers in men have estrogen receptors on their cell membranes. Estrogen receptors on the cell membranes allow estrogen molecules to bind to the cancer cells. Estrogen binding to the cancer cells can stimulate cell growth and multiplication.
The most common clinical sign of breast cancer in men is a firm, usually painless mass located just under the nipple. There may not be other associated symptoms. The average size of breast cancer in men when first discovered is about 2.5 cm in diameter. The cancer may cause skin changes in the area of the nipple. These changes can include
Times To Worry About Breast Lumps In Boys
- If they begin before age 10 years or after age 15 years
- If they are not directly under the nipple
- If there is overlying dimpling of the skin, skin ulceration, or change in the color of the skin
- If they feel fixed to the skin
- If they are largeâover 1.5 inches in diameter
- If they donât go away within 2 years
- If the nipples leak milk, blood, pus, or other fluid
- If there are other signs of diseaseânight sweats, fever, or weight loss, for example
These are all situations in which a breast lump should definitely be examined, in addition to the important regularly scheduled physicals during the puberty years. These children should have a careful physical examination right away. Pathologic gynecomastia is very uncommon in adolescents, but it can occur and does require prompt evaluation, generally but an endocrinologist. Abnormal gynecomastia is most often related to conditions where there is an excess of estrogen
In a study at Johns Hopkins University of 60 high-risk boys with large lumps , most of the boysâ45 of themâturned out to be fine, but 15 did have significant medical problems, including one who had a serious cancer. Most of the problems were genetic or hormonal problems that needed to be treated Gynecomastia can come from liver disease, testicular disease, or neurologic diseases as well. Gynecomastia can also be a side effect of taking steroids or other medications.
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What Is Breast Cancer In Men
Breast cancer occurs mainly in women, but men can get it, too. Many people do not realize that men have breast tissue and that they can develop breast cancer. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas.
Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant if the cells can grow into surrounding tissues or spread to distant areas of the body.
To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.
What Is Different About Breast Cancer In Younger Women
Diagnosing breast cancer in younger women is more difficult because their breast tissue is generally more dense than the breast tissue in older women. By the time a lump in a younger woman’s breast can be felt, the cancer often is advanced.
In addition, breast cancer in younger women may be aggressive and less likely to respond to treatment . Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age are more likely to have a mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.
Delays in diagnosing breast cancer also are a problem. Many younger women who have breast cancer ignore the warning signs — such as a breast lump or unusual discharge — because they believe they are too young to get breast cancer.
Many women assume they are too young to get breast cancer and tend to assume a lump is a harmless cyst or other growth. Some health care providers also dismiss breast lumps in young women as cysts and adopt a “wait and see” approach.
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Genetics And Family History
A genetic mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. The result is that one or more of the body’s processes may not work in the way they should.
There are a number of genetic mutations known to increase your risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant mutation identified is known as the BRCA2 mutation. Faulty genes are believed to be the cause of male breast cancer in around 1 or 2 in every 10 cases.
There’s also evidence that breast cancer can run in families, especially in men who have a first-degree relative who has developed breast cancer, such as a mother or sister.
Routine testing for the faulty genes that cause breast cancer in men isn’t usually carried out on the NHS, unless specifically requested by a specialist. However, some private clinics may offer gene testing. Tests can be expensive, with prices ranging from around £2,000 to £3,000.
Types Of Breast Lumps That Teens Can Get
The most common type of breast cancer found in teens is secretory adenocarcinoma. This is generally a slow growing, nonaggressive cancer.
Though theres little chance of this type of cancer spreading to other parts of the body, spread to local lymph nodes has been noted in a few cases.
Most breast lumps in teenage girls are fibroadenomas, which are noncancerous. An overgrowth of connective tissue in the breast causes fibroadenomas.
The lump is usually hard and rubbery, and you can move it around with your fingers. Fibroadenomas account for 91 percent of all solid breast masses in girls younger than 19 years old.
Other less common breast lumps in teens include cysts, which are noncancerous fluid-filled sacs.
Banging or injuring breast tissue, possibly during a fall or while playing sports, can also cause lumps.
If you feel anything unusual in your breast, see your doctor. They will ask:
- about your familys medical history
- when you discovered the lump
- if theres nipple discharge
- if the lump hurts
If anything looks or feels suspicious, your doctor will have you undergo an ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to see into your breasts. It can help determine whether a lump is solid, which is an indication of cancer.
If its fluid-filled, that will most likely indicate a cyst. Your doctor may also insert a fine needle into the lump to draw out tissue and test it for cancer.
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Lobular Carcinoma In Situ
Lobular carcinoma in situ may also be called lobular neoplasia. In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they havent grown through the wall of the lobules. LCIS is not a true pre-invasive cancer because it does not turn into an invasive cancer if left untreated, but it is linked to an increased risk of invasive cancer in both breasts. LCIS is rarely, if ever seen in men.
What Is The Outcome Of Male Breast Cancer What Is The Survival Rate For Male Breast Cancer
The prognosis of a male patient with breast cancer is considered similarly to female breast cancer. As in female breast cancer, the size and extent of tumor are the most important factors in the prognosis for male breast cancer. Overall survival rates for each tumor stage are similar for men and women. Since men have less breast tissue than women, it is less common for breast cancers in men to be diagnosed at a very early stage and more likely to have spread beyond the breast when they are identified, resulting in a more advanced tumor stage at diagnosis.
Disease-specific five-year survival rates reported for male breast cancer by stage are as follows:
- Stage 0 – 100%
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Breast Cancer Vs Normal Development
Normal breast development can resemble breast cancer, and it is not possible to tell what is normal and what is not based on a comparison of symptoms.
Normal breast development, however, usually follows a pattern. It begins with nickel-sized lumps under each nipple, and the breasts gradually grow from these lumps.
Breast cancer, in general, is survivable with prompt treatment. This is particularly true of noninvasive breast cancers, and of breast cancers that have not spread to other areas of the body.
Treatments often include chemotherapy, radiation, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
The Female And Male Breast
Early in life, boys and girls have a similar amount of breast tissue. Female hormones present during puberty cause a girls breasts to change. The breasts develop glands that produce milk , ducts that carry milk, and supporting fatty tissue. As a boy enters puberty, he isnt exposed to these growth-inducing hormones, but rather male hormones that restrict his breasts from developing.
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Symptoms Of Breast Cancer In Men
The most common symptom for men with breast cancer include:
- lump in the breast that is nearly always painless
- oozing from the nipple that may be blood stained
- a nipple that is pulled into the breast
- swelling of the breast
- a sore in the skin of the breast
- lump or swelling under the arm
- a rash on or around the nipple
If you have any of these symptoms it is important to go to your GP straight away. Finding a cancer early gives the best chance of successful treatment.
Targeted Cancer Drug Therapy
Your doctor will check your cancer cells for proteins called HER2 receptors. But these are rarely found in male breast cancer. If your cancer cells have a lot of these receptors, your doctor will prescribe a targeted drug treatment for you.
The most common targeted drug for breast cancer is trastuzumab .
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Breast Lumps In Teens: Are They Dangerous
by Patient Expert
Teenage girls are usually frightened when they find a lump in their breast. And a girls parents can be even more panicked, rushing their daughter to the doctor to find out if she has breast cancer. Realistically speaking, breast cancer is nearly a statistical impossibility so what causes breast lumps in teens?
Attention, teenage girls : theres very little chance that the lump you feel in your breast is breast cancer.
How little? Well, according to the governments cancer statistics, women between the ages of 15 and 19 are diagnosed with breast cancer at a rate of .2 per 100,000 per year. That translates to two older teens in a million being diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. each year.
For younger teens , the risk is even lower. There are so few under-15s diagnosed with breast cancer that they dont show up in the statistics. That means fewer than 1 young teenage American girl in a million receives a breast cancer diagnosis in any particular year.
Cancer can be deadly. And its certainly scary. But for teens, you have to like the odds, right? Theyre certainly better than the 1 in 28 breast cancer risk that older women face.
So now that weve put the unrealistic specter of cancer in its place what about those breast lumps?
Fibroadenomas and fibrocystic change
Scar tissue from trauma
When to see a doctor
Accessed December 30, 2015..
Other Teenage Breast Changes
Plenty of changes happen to your breasts that are not cancer. Most breast lumps in teenage girls are fibroadenomas, which are noncancerous. These are caused by an overgrowth of connective tissue in the breast.
Fibroadenomas are the reason for 91% of all solid breast masses in girls younger than 19 years old. The lump is usually hard and rubbery, and you would be able to move it around with your fingers.
Other less common breast lumps in teens include cysts, which are noncancerous fluid-filled sacs. A breast cyst often feels smooth and soft. If you press on a cyst, it will feel a little like a water balloon.
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Going To Your Gp During Coronavirus
During the coronavirus crisis, its still really important to call your GP if youre worried about any of these symptoms.
Right now, because of the coronavirus crisis, your GP appointment might be by phone or video. If you do need to see a professional face-to-face, theyll make sure you can do this safely.
When To Be Concerned About Breast Lumps In Boys & When To Relax
Iâll give you some guidelines for when to be concerned about a breast lump and when you can relax.
Puberty is a time of dramatic changes in the body, especially in the reproductive system. These transformations are brought about by surges of complex and precisely balanced hormones. The last time your 12-year-old had these tides of hormones was when he was a newbornâbut then the hormones were yours. Coursing through his blood, your hormones matured his lungs, made him ready for life in the big outside world, and along the way may have given him baby acne and breast enlargementâeven nipples that leaked milk. This precious newborn season was gone in a blink, but now your 12-year-old son is making surges of these same hormones, which can cause many of those same effects!
There are five stages of the changes that occur during puberty, called Tanner stages or Sexual Maturity Rating stages. Breast lumps in boys are common during SMR 3 and SMR 4.
In boys, SMR 3 usually begins at about age 12 or 13 years and lasts a year or so, although it can be normal in our culture to begin as early as 10 years or as late as 14.9 years. SMR 3 is the time when the testes get clearly larger, the penis gets noticeably longer , and the pubic hair gets darker and starts to curl.
Sperm is first produced during SMR 3.
SMR 3 also marks the beginning of significant underarm perspiration .
And teenage acne usually begins at SMR 3, continuing on until the end of puberty.
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