How Much Do Tamoxifen And Raloxifene Lower The Risk Of Breast Cancer
Multiple studies have shown that both tamoxifen and raloxifene can reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in healthy postmenopausal women who are at high risk of developing the disease. Tamoxifen lowered the risk by 50 percent. Raloxifene lowered the risk by 38 percent. Overall, the combined results of these studies showed that taking tamoxifen or raloxifene daily for five years reduced the risk of developing breast cancer by at least one-third. In one trial directly comparing tamoxifen with raloxifene, raloxifene was found to be slightly less effective than tamoxifen for preventing breast cancer.
Both tamoxifen and raloxifene have been approved for use to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in women at high risk of the disease. Tamoxifen is approved for use in both premenopausal women and postmenopausal women . Raloxifene is approved for use only in postmenopausal women.
Less common but more serious side effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene include blood clots to the lungs or legs. Other serious side effects of tamoxifen are an increased risk for cataracts and endometrial cancers. Other common, less serious shared side effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.
Metastatic Breast Cancer Blood Tests
Different blood tests may be used to detect breast cancer:
- The CA 27.29 blood test measures the level of a protein called the CA 27.29 antigen. In theory, the level rises as there is more breast cancer in the body. This test can, in some patients, help determine if cancer is growing in the body, or whether treatments are working. Similar tests include the CA-15-3 and CEA.
- Circulating tumor cells may also be measured through a blood test. CTCs are extremely rare in healthy individuals and patients with nonmalignant diseases but are often present in people with metastatic cancer. Some clinical studies indicate the assessment of CTCs can assist doctors in monitoring and predicting cancer progression and in evaluating a patients response to therapy. CTC testing and use is still in the experimental stage.
For more detailed information on MBC treatment and resources, download or order a free copy of our Metastatic Navigator.
Blood Tests Dont Actually Look For Cancer
For many pets with cancer, a routine blood test comes back normal. Why is this?
Quite simply, the test isnt looking for cancer. It;measures how well the organs function, electrolyte levels, and the size and number of red and white cells.
OK, there are blood cancers such as leukemia or some lymphomas that;shift the white cell count, but these are the exception rather than the rule.
Think of it like a car mechanic diagnosing why a;vehicle drives rough:
- If he just looked at the engine and found no problem, it doesnt mean the vehicle is fine.
- Thats because the mechanic didnt spot that one of the tires was flat.
In just the same way, cancers often have a local effect that;doesnt show up in general blood tests.
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Survival Rates For Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is considered an aggressive cancer because it grows quickly, is more likely to have spread at the time its found, and is more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. The outlook is generally not as good as it is for other types of breast cancer.
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.
Researchers Believe This Would Be A Much Simpler Testing Method Than Current Practices
The researchers explained that the blood tests could determine if a patient has tumor-associated antigens , which are commonly associated with different strands of cancer or other diseases. By implementing this testing method, doctors would be able to detect and treat the disease much earlier.;
The results of our study showed that breast cancer does induce autoantibodies against panels of specific tumor-associated antigens, said researcher Daniyah Alfattani. We were able to detect cancer with reasonable accuracy by identifying these autoantibodies in the blood.;
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Types Of Colon Polyps
Polyps can grow in one of two shapes: stalk polyps or flat polyps, also known as pedunculated or sessile.
When a polyp is pedunculated, it grows into a mushroom shape, with a growth projected outwards attached to a long stalk. Polyps that are sessile are more difficult to detect and remove, as they grow flat against the mucous membrane or lining of the colon.
There are five common types of polyps, all of which should be removed during a colonoscopy for thorough testing. Some of them have a higher chance to develop into colon cancer than others. These types include:
What Are Some Measures I Can Take To Avoid Breast Cancer Or Minimize The Disease
Most experts agree that screening is the best way to catch breast cancer in its early stages. It doesnt prevent cancer but it can lead to quick detection and a better outcome. There is still some debate about when or whether to get screened for breast cancer, stemming from a study that showed more deaths from breast cancer occurred in younger women who didnt get regular mammograms. Arguments arose about false positives and over-treatment. In addition, different surveys can lead to different answers, so the best advice is to consult with your healthcare provider about your individual situation and relevant risk factors. An annual mammogram for women over 40 is still a good guide. The CA 27.29 is a blood test, a tumor marker, specific for screening for breast cancer. Other ways to boost your chances of not getting breast cancer and improve your overall health:
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Complications Related To Lung Metastases
The lungs are the second most common site to which breast cancer spreads, with lung metastases occurring in roughly a third of people with metastatic breast cancer.
Sometimes this doesn’t cause symptoms, and the lung metastases might only be found on an imaging test. The most common symptom is shortness of breath.
Local treatments, such as radiation or surgery, are sometimes used for the treatment of one or more lung metastases, and this may improve life expectancy.
Early Warning Signs Of Cancer And Risk Factors
It may surprise you, but cancer cells lie dormant in all of us. Thats because the body is a living organism that does not produce every single cell totally perfect. When these defective cells begin to multiple uncontrollably, a tumor forms.
About one in four people die of cancer but that means three-fourths of the population will not. So while cancer is a major disease, and one that should never be taken lightly, it doesnt strike everyone, even those who may be at risk. In addition, many cancers are survivable today, with a growing number of people in remission and even cancer-free.
What causes cancer and its mortality rate and how can the average person reduce their risk? The causes are many genetics contribute up to 15 percent of the mortality rate for cancer but other cancer causes are suspect, from environmental influences and chemical exposure to our lifestyle. For example, in the Western hemisphere, breast, colon and prostate cancer are more frequent than in Asia. Could that have something to do with our Western way of life?
Do you know any of the warning signs? One 2013 international report found that more than a quarter of all individuals surveyed couldnt name even one symptom of lung cancer. Despite the fact that many cancers can be cured if caught early, we too often fail to take precautions, ignore symptoms or wait too long to seek treatment all of which can be deadly.
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What Are Some Of The Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
While finding a lump in your breast or having one appear on a mammogram doesnt automatically mean you have cancer, it does indicate there is a need for further evaluation. Other conditions can cause lumps in the breast includes cysts, benign tumors and certain noncancerous disorders.
According to the Mayo Clinic, the most common sign of breast cancer is a lump or thickening in one breast that can be felt. It may be painless, or it may be tender with some associated pain. Many cancerous lumps are firm, with irregular borders and develop in the upper portion of the breast near the armpit. In the early stages of cancer, there may not be other signs or symptoms.
Since even an experienced healthcare provider cant always tell if a lump is benign or malignant, all lumps and changes to the breast should be examined and evaluated, with a full medical history, physical exam and imaging tests. If further studies are needed, a biopsy may be necessary. Diagnosing breast cancer is generally a step-by-step procedure that can take several days. Many women say the worst part is the waiting and the uncertainty of knowing whether or not they have cancer.
Once I Know My Risks What Are The Best Ways To Reduce My Chances Of Getting Cancer
This woman is properly dressed for working in sunlight, with sunscreen, long-sleeved shirt, hat and gloves. She has reduced her risk for skin cancer, the most common form of cancer in the U.S.
Taking preventive measures are the best way to reduce cancer risks in all its forms. Diet and lifestyle were studied in a 2011 Cancer Prevention study using more than 111,000 nonsmoking individuals and the findings were impressive: after 14 years, those who complied with maintaining a healthy body weight, eating foods that emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting alcohol and exercising regularly had a 42 lower risk for death from all causes than those who didnt comply. Cancer deaths were 30 percent lower in men and 24 percent lower in women. .
Among the suggested guidelines:
Not using tobacco is the most preventable way to reduce cause of death from cancer. Each year, about 180,000 Americans die from cancer related to tobacco use.
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Complete Blood Count Test
A complete blood count test measures the number of blood cells circulating in the bloodstream. Specifically, this cancer blood test measures a blood sample for the level of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body; white blood cells, which fight infection; and platelets, which help with blood clotting. The test also measures hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen, and hematocrit, the ratio of red blood cells to plasma.
A CBC may be used to detect a variety of conditions, including leukemia, anemia and infection. Also, because some cancer treatments;may temporarily lower blood counts, oncologists often use CBC tests throughout treatment to closely monitor a patients blood counts.
What If You Have Early
If you have early-stage breast cancer but no symptoms to suggest the cancer has spread, you should not get an imaging test to look for cancer in other places in your body. The chance that your cancer has spread is very small. Studies show that breast cancer spreads to the liver and bones in fewer than 6 out of 100 people. And this is usually in patients with stage III breast cancer.
Circulating Tumor Cell Test
A circulating tumor cell test can check for blood biomarkers that show whether normal cells are transforming into cancer cells. CTC tests can help diagnose and screen patients who have a risk of developing cancer, such as a family history of the disease.
CTC tests are helpful in the early detection of cancer as well as monitoring treatment effectiveness over time. The only test currently approved for this purpose is called CellSearch CTC, which offers different prostate, colorectal, and breast cancer assays.
The Benefits Of Early Detection
To determine how effective a blood test would be at catching breast cancer in its earliest stages, the researchers compared blood test results of 90 breast cancer patients when they first received their diagnosis with 90 study participants who had not been diagnosed with the disease.;
The blood test was effective in differentiating between the participants who had breast cancer and those who didnt. The researchers found that their diagnoses were the most accurate when more TAAs were incorporated into the tests.;
While a test that included five TAAs accurately detected breast cancer 29 percent of the time, increasing that figure to nine TAAs led to nearly 40 percent accuracy in detecting breast cancer. Using those same TAAs, the tests were accurate in identifying patients without cancer 84 percent and 79 percent of the time, respectively.;
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What Are The General Warning Signs Of Cancer
While any persistent symptom warrants medical attention, watch for these signs and symptoms that could indicate a serious disease, including a malignancy:
- Unexplained weight loss with sudden loss of appetite that continues despite good nutrition.
- Persistent low-grade fever.
- White patches in the mouth.
- A lump or thickened area that can be felt through the skin.
The Purpose Of Screening Tests
The thirsty cat whos;losing weight needs blood tests so that common problems, such as overactive thyroids, diabetes or kidney disease, arent missed.
When these dont provide the answer, the suspicion of cancer rises. Also, there are 2;examples where clues to cancer do show up in the blood:
- Blood cancers, where too many of one type of blood cell are produced
- Bone marrow cancer,;where too few of certain blood cell types are produced
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Blood Smears: Taking A Closer Look
If the blood work results of a CBC turn up abnormalities, many doctors will order a blood smear next. Pathologists will take a single drop of blood and literally smear it across a glass slide. Using dyes, these experts can color the different types of blood cells and then interpret their relative concentrations.
The real point here, though, is to note specific changes to the appearance of cells, which may be cancerous themselves or herald the presence of a cancer.
What Is Breast Cancer Staging
To determine the stage of your cancer, doctors look at how large your tumor is, where it is, and if it has spread. They also look at your medical history, physical exams, diagnostic tests, and tests of your tumor and lymph nodes.
- Early-stage breast cancer includes stages 0, I, II and IIIA .
- In stage 0, there are abnormal cells in the ducts or lobes of the breast. They have not broken through the wall of the duct or spread.
- In stages I, II, and IIIA, there is a tumor. It may have spread to lymph nodes under the arm, but it has not spread anywhere else.
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Breast Cancer Lab Tests Identify Risk Diagnose And Guide Treatment
A variety of breast cancer tests can help determine a persons genetic risk for the disease as well as diagnose breast cancer;in the early stages. Lab tests for breast cancer may also be used to:
- Analyze characteristics of the breast cancer to determine appropriate treatment options
- Determine whether breast cancer has metastasized
- Monitor the effectiveness of breast cancer treatments and identify any recurrence of breast cancer
Abnormal Results May Not Be Due To A Disease
A test result outside the normal range of expected lab values does not necessarily mean you have a disease or disorder. Test results can be abnormal for other reasons. If you had a fasting plasma glucose test and you ate something before the test, or were drinking alcohol the night before or taking certain medications, your results could be temporarily outside the normal ranges, but are not evidence of a disease. To avoid such problems, it is best to talk with your doctor before any lab tests about whether you need to make any special preparations before getting your blood drawn, such as fasting the night before.
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