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Does Coffee Cause Breast Cancer

What Kind Of Scientific Study Was This

Does Coffee Cause Cancer? Breast Cancer Nutritionist Rachel Beller on The Dr. Oz Show

This was a cross-sectional study in which the authors aimed to investigate whether coffee intake was associated with breast volume and how this was modified by a particular variant of gene CYP1A2*1F . The gene codes for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which plays a role in both coffee and oestrogen metabolism. Women with the A/A genotype who have a high caffeine intake have previously been shown to have a higher ratio of certain types of oestrogens, which is thought to be protective against breast cancer.

The researchers recruited 269 Swedish volunteers who completed a questionnaire on reproductive issues, use of contraception, smoking, coffee consumption , and other information . Body measurements were taken at set times during the menstrual cycle. The womens breast volume was assessed by asking them to take a kneeling position with the breasts hanging down. The approximate volume was then worked out by a simple calculation . Laboratory methods were used to analyse the CYP1A21F gene, and levels of oestrogen and other hormonal factors. In their statistical analyses, the researchers looked for any associations between the CYP1A21F genotype and drinking three or more cups of coffee per day.

Caffeine As A Breast Cancer Treatment

Caffeine is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Antioxidants counteract oxidationa chemical process that leads to cancer and heart disease. Inflammation exacerbates disease, including cancer. For these reasons, caffeine has been considered as a possible treatment for breast cancer.

Guaraná, a highly caffeinated food, was studied in the laboratory setting. It appeared to stop the growth of breast cancer cells without affecting normal cells. However, this effect has not been seen in humans and the food has not been used as a breast cancer treatment.

Another laboratory experiment evaluated the response of cancer cells to caffeine. The researchers found that cell growth was suppressed in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative samples. They also noted that women who consumed high amounts of caffeine and were treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention were less likely to develop the condition. The researchers suggested that caffeine could make women more sensitive to the beneficial effects of the drug.

Because findings in laboratory experiments are not always the same when they are applied to humans, the effects of caffeine on breast cancer cells would have to be replicated in humans before it would be accepted as a treatment for breast cancer. Until more is known, you should not attempt to use caffeine as a strategy for preventing breast cancer.

Does Coffee Make Your Breasts Smaller

There have been many inaccurate statements and myths spread by articles online about coffee and breast size. The last thing I want is for females to be scared of drinking coffee in fear their breasts will be affected negatively.

All the information in this article are facts backed by research studies and I have linked the studies when referencing them.

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Should People Drink Less Coffee

Current US dietary guidelines state that moderate coffee intake, providing up to 400 mg/day of caffeine, can be part of a healthy diet in adults. Australia and New Zealand guidelines also state a maximum daily limit of 400 mg caffeine for adults .

Caffeine content varies according to the type of coffee beverage for example, a 250-mL cup of instant coffee contains around 80 mg of caffeine whereas a 30-mL single shot of espresso contains around 100 mg. The amount of caffeine in a single espresso shot may also vary: US guidelines estimate 64 mg/30 mL, whereas an Australian study measured 126 mg/30 mL.12, 14, 15 Therefore when estimating caffeine intake, it is important to use reliable, country-specific guidelines for different coffee beverages.

From a health perspective it is also relevant to consider the calorie content of your preferred brew, particularly if you like to use whole milk, cream, and/or added sugar.

What Is Acrylamide And Should You Be Worried

Coffee can cancel out cancer

Acrylamide is a chemical thats used to produce components involved in the production of products such as plastics, paper, and adhesives.

Its classified by the National Toxicology Program as being reasonably anticipated to cause cancer in humans based off of findings in animal studies.

Acrylamide can also be found in foods that are heated to high temperatures by methods such as frying or baking. In addition to roasted coffee, other examples of foods that can contain acrylamide include french fries, potato chips, and crackers.

So, should you be concerned about the acrylamide content in coffee and other foods?

Lets explore some of the current research on if other factors associated with coffee could be linked with cancer.

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Ascertainment Of Breast Cancer Cases

The outcome of interest was first incident of primary invasive breast cancer . As data on menopausal status at diagnosis was lacking, breast cancers occurring before the median menopausal age of 50 years were considered premenopausal, whereas those diagnosed at 50 years or older were considered postmenopausal. Information on hormone receptor status was provided by each center based on pathology reports. This information was routinely available for tumors diagnosed after 1997 to 2006, depending on the center.

Coffee May Decrease Risk Of Skin Cancer

Coffee drinkers are less likely to develop basal cell skin cancers and malignant melanoma, and their risk decreases with every cup they drink. Coffee has long been associated with a reduction in the risk of various cancers however the current study is the first to show a reduction in the risk of melanoma.

In a study run by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and AARP a food questionnaire was sent to 3.5 million AARP members living in California, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Atlanta and Detroit.

According to findings of the study which were published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, people who drank the most coffee every day enjoyed a lower risk of melanoma, compared with those who drank little to no coffee.

People who drank one to three cups a day had about a 10 percent decreased risk of melanoma compared with those who drank none at all, while those who drank four or more cups had a 20 percent decreased risk.

It is important to understand that the study only uncovered an association between coffee consumption and the risk of developing melanoma risk it doesnt prove a true cause and effect relationship but is certainly intriguing.

Some previous research has shown that coffee drinking may be protective against other skin cancer, apparently by mitigating the damage to skin cells caused by the suns ultraviolet rays.

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Busting Myths: Can Coffee Cause Cure Or Prevent Cancer

Coffee and cancer have had a rocky relationship over the years. Coffee was once recklessly touted as a cancer treatment and later declared a carcinogen. Today, new studies indicate it may help prevent certain types of cancer. And recently, a California judge stirred controversy by ruling that a health warning should be attached to coffee sold in that state. So, what are the myths and realities when it comes to coffee and cancer?

Can coffee increase the risk of cancer?

There is no clear evidence linking coffee consumption and increased risk of cancer, says Anthony Perre, MD, Chief of the Division of Outpatient Medicine at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® and an Internist at our Philadelphia hospital. In fact, the World Health Organization removed coffee from its list of carcinogens in 2016. WHO added coffee to its list of risk factors more than 25 years ago, but reversed course after more recent studies found no evidence that coffee increased cancer risk. A study published in 2017 showed that drinking two cups of coffee a day may lower the risk for several cancer types, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and head and neck cancers, Dr. Perre says. There are probably a number of factors that may contribute to the reduced risk. The bottom line is theres no overwhelming evidence that coffee can cause or help prevent cancer.

Why is coffee considered a carcinogen in California?

What Does The Nhs Knowledge Service Make Of This Study

Does Caffeine Cause Breast Cancer?

This is complex research, following on from studies investigating the relationship between the CYP1A2*1F genotypes, breast volume, and breast cancer. The research has been over-simplified by the media, and the study has few implications at the current time. The cross-sectional study design only demonstrates associations and does not prove that level of coffee consumption caused the breast volume taken at the time of the study, or caused the breasts to shrink. Additionally, there may be issues regarding both the accuracy of the breast measurement and that of coffee consumption . The observed relationship is based on an assessment of only 145 women, and further research will need to follow up the findings.

Many women will have consumed coffee for much of their lifetime. These women should not be concerned that their breast size will be affected if they continue to consume in moderation.

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Does Coffee Tea And Caffeine Consumption Reduce The Risk Of Incident Breast Cancer A Systematic Review And Network Meta

Published online by Cambridge University Press: 27 July 2021

Shu Wang
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
Xiang Li
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
Yue Yang
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
Jingping Xie
Affiliation:Office of Retirement, Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, Peoples Republic of China
Mingyue Liu
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
Ya Zhang
College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Peoples Republic of China
Yingshi Zhang*
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
Qingchun Zhao*
Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Peoples Republic of China
*

Coffee Vs Instant Coffee

Instant coffee was first invented in 1937, according to Nestle. Instant coffee is a powdered form of coffee that is created by spray drying or freeze drying powdered coffee beans. The powdered coffee then dissolves in water and retains much of coffee’s flavor. Instant coffee has a very long shelf life when compared to roasted or ground coffee, and comes in caffeinated and noncaffeinated versions.

  • Instant coffee was first invented in 1937, according to Nestle.
  • Instant coffee has a very long shelf life when compared to roasted or ground coffee, and comes in caffeinated and noncaffeinated versions.

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Coffee Consumption And Breast Ovary And Endometrial Cancers

Coffee and breast cancer

Research to date has not linked coffee consumption to an increased risk of breast cancer overall. Data in pre-menopausal women who are regular coffee drinkers suggests there may actually be a protective effect5,74-76. IARCs 2016 review concluded that studies show either no association, or a modest inverse association, between breast cancer risk and coffee consumption1. The WCRF 2018 Breast Cancer Report does not mention coffee as a risk factor77. Variable results have been observed, associated with different genetic mutations. Clearly further research is required to clarify the detail in this area, and integrating individual genetic variability when assessing diet-disease associations is likely to be important.

Post-menopausal women

Studies have shown no association between coffee consumption and the incidence of breast cancer in post-menopausal women76-78.

Pre-menopausal women

In pre-menopausal women, the consumption of regular coffee has been associated with a lower risk of breast cancer81.

  • In pre-menopausal women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation, a study suggested that the risk of breast cancer is reduced by 25-70% with daily consumption of 4-6 cups of coffee, compared to non-coffee drinkers. However, this effect is limited to regular coffee it is not observed with decaffeinated coffee81.

Coffee and ovarian cancer

Coffee and endometrial cancer

Drinking Caffeinated Coffee May Reduce The Risk Of Cancers Of The Oral Cavity And Pharynx

Coffee And Cancer: A Disaster  Gaia Cantelli

Head and neck cancers originate in the tissues in or around the mouth, nose, and throat. Risk factors for head and neck cancer include smoking, alcohol consumption, and infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus .

To evaluate the relationship between coffee and tea consumption and risk of head and neck cancer, researchers combined information from previous studies. These studies included a total of 5,139 people with cancer and 9,028 people without cancer.

  • Compared with people who didnt drink coffee, people who drank four or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day were 39% less likely to have cancer of the oral cavity or pharynx. Caffeinated coffee did not affect risk of laryngeal cancer.
  • Consumption of decaffeinated coffee was less common, and the effects on head and neck cancer risk remain uncertain.
  • Tea intake did not affect risk of head and neck cancer.

These results do not conclusively prove that coffee reduces the risk of head and neck cancer. Factors other than coffee intake could explain the difference in cancer risk. Nevertheless, if confirmed, these results suggest that coffee may provide a benefit.

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Caffeine And Cancer: Is There A Direct Link

So far, there isnt any scientific evidence proving that caffeine increases cancer risks. In fact, caffeine may influence the general well-being of cancer patients. Flo looks at the connection between caffeine and cancer and provides healthy lifestyle tips on enjoying your morning cup!

Coffee And Cancer: What The Research Really Shows

Researchers have been investigating the links between coffee and cancer for decades. But there is still a lot they dont know. In 2016, an expert panel convened by the International Agency for Research on Cancer the arm of the World Health Organization that is responsible for assessing whether certain substances cause cancer could not conclude that drinking coffee is carcinogenic based on the current evidence available.

And now the coffee-cancer connection is in the news again. A California court ruling last week about a coffee warning related to a chemical formed during the roasting process has raised questions among consumers.

So, what do coffee drinkers need to know? In this interview, American Cancer Society researchers, Susan Gapstur, PhD, and , ScD, provide insights into what studies to date really show when it comes to coffee and cancer, and discuss what other research is still needed.

Q. What does the research show about the link between coffee and cancer?

A. Numerous studies have shown that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of dying from all causes of death. However, associations with cancer overall or with specific types of cancer are unclear. In 2016, an expert working group convened for the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs Programme reviewed the worlds body of human and laboratory research on coffee drinking and cancer risk, and they found the evidence of carcinogenicity of coffee drinking to be unclassifiable.

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Practical Habits And Caffeine

There are a number of important issues to consider when it comes to caffeine. While safe for most people, it is not safe for some people who have heart disease, hypertension , or kidney disease.

Even if you don’t have such a contraindication, caffeine can disrupt your sleep, interfere with your concentration, and make you irritable or jumpy. Caffeine may also cause dehydration and worsen symptoms of some gastrointestinal issues.

The effect of caffeine on headaches and migraines can be intense, as caffeine dependence can lead to withdrawal symptomswhich is often associated with severe headaches.

The right amount or maximum amount of caffeine differs for everyone, but it can range from one to five servings of a caffeinated beverage or food per day.

What Does The Research Show About The Link Between Coffee And Cancer

Does coffee cause cancer?

The IARC reviewed the potential link between coffee drinking and cancer risk in 1991 using a limited number of studies.7 In 2016 this potential link was re-evaluated, this time by reviewing over 1000 studies in humans and animals. The IARC concluded at this re-evaluation that current evidence indicates that drinking coffee does not increase the risk of pancreatic, prostate, or breast cancer and that it may reduce the risk of liver and uterine endometrial cancers.

Early evaluations of the association between coffee drinking and cancer risk mainly focused on bladder cancer, with a higher risk suggested among coffee drinkers based on limited studies in humans.7, 9 A more recent study observed an increased risk of bladder cancer among individuals who drank large amounts of coffee , both overall and when the comparison was limited to people who had never smoked.10 However, the most recent and large analysis from the IARC found no consistent evidence of an association between coffee drinking and bladder cancer.7

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Lifestyle And Living After Breast Cancer

This latest study adds to previous research by Farvid suggesting that what breast cancer survivors eat and drink after a diagnosis can improve survival. AICR wrote about two of those studies here.

AICRs latest report on breast cancer survival found that evidence indicated certain healthy lifestyles improved survival, yet the evidence was limited to draw a conclusion. Cancer survivorship is a fast-growing area of research. What evidence does clearly show is that healthy eating and physical activity lowers risk of the most common cancers. That is why AICR recommends that cancer survivors follow the same recommendations to lower risk, if and when they are able.

You can read more on the research between coffee and lower cancer risk here.

Along with AICR, this study was supported by the Nationals Institute of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.

AICR Impact

The American Institute for Cancer Research helps the public understand the relationship between lifestyle, nutrition and cancer risk. We work to prevent cancer through innovative research, community programs and impactful public health initiatives.

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