What Does Your Family Want To Know
When making your decision about details, of course, it can be important to think about those who love you and may help care for you. Many family members want complete information about how long a loved one may live after being diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer.
Other family members may find this information very upsetting. They may not want to hear it.
Make sure your healthcare provider knows who in your family wants complete information and who does not.
Your healthcare provider can even make a note in your chart describing your goals for information sharing about your cancer treatment. This way, everyone on the healthcare team will be on the same page during appointments.
Being diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer can make you feel out of control. Knowing your options regarding information sharing about your cancer, your treatment decisions, and end of life care decisions will help you move forward at a difficult time.
Symptoms Of Metastatic Cancer
Metastatic cancer does not always cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, what they are like and how often you have them will depend on the size and location of the metastatic tumors. Some common signs of metastatic cancer include:
- pain and fractures, when cancer has spread to the bone
- headache, seizures, or dizziness, when cancer has spread to the brain
- shortness of breath, when cancer has spread to the lung
- jaundice or swelling in the belly, when cancer has spread to the liver
What Is The Outlook For Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Itâs important to understand that metastatic cancer, even if not curable, can sometimes be controlled for months or years.
The development of colorectal cancer treatments in recent years has helped people live longer with metastatic colorectal cancer.
The most recent relative five-year survival rate for distant metastatic colorectal cancer is 13.8 percent . This means that 13.8 percent of people with metastatic colorectal cancer are still alive at five years after diagnosis.
Survival rates are only estimates and cannot predict individual outcome. They do not take many important factors into account, such as a personâs age or health problems, certain tumor markers or proteins, or what treatments were used and how a person responded to treatment.
Your doctor can help put this number into perspective based on your individual situation.
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Can You Prevent The Cancer From Spreading
Preventing colon cancer from spreading requires early detection. Colon cancer often doesn’t have symptoms until the disease is advanced. It is recommended to get yearly screenings after the age of 50. If colon cancer is found in the early stages, removal of affected polyps can prevent it from spreading.
If you are found to have early stage colon cancer, treating it right away is the best prevention against spreading. When you wonder, “where does colon cancer spread?” the answer is usually into the walls of the colon from a diseased polyp. The doctor can easily remove the polyps with a simple procedure known as a, sigmoidoscopy.
Then, following through with recommended chemotherapy and/or radiation can help further prevent the spread of colon cancer.
Second Cancers After Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. Cancer that comes back after treatment is called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.
Unfortunately, being treated for colorectal cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. People who have had colorectal cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other people get. In fact, they might be at higher risk for certain types of cancer.
People who have had colon cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of:
- A second colon cancer
- Rectal cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Cancer of the ureter
People who have had rectal cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they are at increased risk of:
- Colon cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Kidney cancer
The increased risk with some of these cancers may be due to shared risk factors, such as diet, obesity, and physical activity. Genetics may also be a factor. For example, people with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of many of these cancers.
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Treating Metastatic Breast Cancer
If you receive a diagnosis of breast cancer thats spread to your colon, your doctor will likely order additional tests to see whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.
Once you know exactly whats going on, you and your doctor can discuss the best options for treatment. This may include one or more of the following therapies.
Metastatic Breast Cancer Symptoms And Diagnosis
The symptoms of metastatic breast cancer can vary greatly depending on the location of the cancer. This section covers the symptoms of breast cancer that has spread to the bone, lung, brain, and liver, and the tests used to diagnose metastatic breast cancer.
Bone Metastasis: Symptoms and DiagnosisThe most common symptom of breast cancer that has spread to the bone is a sudden, noticeable new pain. Breast cancer can spread to any bone, but most often spreads to the ribs, spine, pelvis, or the long bones in the arms and legs. Learn more.
Lung Metastasis: Symptoms and DiagnosisWhen breast cancer moves into the lung, it often doesnt cause symptoms. If a lung metastasis does cause symptoms, they may include pain or discomfort in the lung, shortness of breath, persistent cough, and others. Learn more.
Brain Metastasis: Symptoms and DiagnosisSymptoms of breast cancer that has spread to the brain can include headache, changes in speech or vision, memory problems, and others. Learn more.
Liver Metastasis: Symptoms and DiagnosisWhen breast cancer spreads to the liver, it often doesnt cause symptoms. If a liver metastasis does cause symptoms, they can include pain or discomfort in the mid-section, fatigue and weakness, weight loss or poor appetite, fever, and others. Learn more.
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Learning About Your Prognosis
Among the first things you will discuss with your healthcare team is how much information you want about your prognosis. Prognosis refers to the possible course of the disease and how much time you have.
Some people want very specific information regarding how long they might live with stage 4 colon cancer. Other people prefer not to know these details. Even if you want as much information as possible, keep in mind that predicting how long someone will live with stage 4 colon cancer is not exact.
Your healthcare provider may give you a range of time that they expect you will live. This is their best guess, which is based on your particular case and on your healthcare provider’s medical experience. Everyone is different.
Also, remember that situations change. Some people live much longer than expected. Others live for a shorter time. And some healthcare providers will not give predictions about how long a person will live with stage 4 colon cancer because they simply do not know.
The most important thing to know is that you can learn as much or as little as you want about your prognosis. It is up to you. Be sure to make what you want to know clear to the healthcare provider.
When Metastatic Cancer Can No Longer Be Controlled
If you have been told your cancer can no longer be controlled, you and your loved ones may want to discuss end-of-life care. Whether or not you choose to continue treatment to shrink the cancer or control its growth, you can always receive palliative care to control the symptoms of cancer and the side effects of treatment. Information on coping with and planning for end-of-life care is available in the Advanced Cancer section of this site.
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What Is Stage 4 Colon Cancer
Stage 4 colon cancer is the most advanced stage of the disease and may also be referred to as metastatic colon cancer. Before saying anything else we need to point out that not all stage 4 colon cancers are alike.
Every colon cancer is different, and each person’s body, including other medical conditions and general health, is different.
When To Stop Treatment
While we have better treatments than in the past, and sometimes can even treat metastases, we know that many people with stage 4 colon cancer will reach a time at which the risks and side effects of treatment outweigh the benefits.
The advent of new treatments is a double-edged sword. These newer treatments can extend life and provide options not available just a few short years ago.
In the past, we often simply ran out of treatments to offer, but today we have reached a point in which the choice to discontinue treatments often needs to be an active decision. If you are at this point in your journey, make sure to ask a lot of questions, and carefully contemplate the answers.
In addition to having to make decisions about when to stop treatment, people have to learn about and consider taking part in clinical trialssome of which have been changing the outlook for stage 4 colon cancer considerably. It’s important to learn all you can about your cancer.
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Metastatic Breast Cancer To Colon: An Unusual Site Of Metastasis With A Review Of Literature
- Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
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×Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranMolecular Pathology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
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Molecular Pathology Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran firstname.lastname@example.org
Masoud SadeghiMazaher Ramezani
Vol 6 No 3 |DOI: 10.15419/bmrat.v6i3.532 |Page No.: 3088-3092
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Biomedical Research and Therapy6
Copyrights: Parham Nejati, Masoud Sadeghi, Farhad Amirian, Mazaher Ramezani, 2019. License:
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Where Does Colon Cancer Spread
When you are diagnosed with colon cancer it means that you had abnormal cells invade your colon. The abnormal cells grow into colon polyps. Not all colon polyps are cancerous. Sometimes the polyps turn cancerous and can spread to surrounding tissues.
Colon cancer symptoms are often mild and can be missed early on in the disease. This means you may not notice any symptoms until the disease has progressed into advanced stages and spread beyond the colon. This is why it is important to get screened for colon cancer at each yearly physical after the age of 50. Once the disease has spread it may be harder to treat.
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Where Can Breast Cancer Go
Breast cancer mostly spreads to the bones, lungs, liver, and brain. When it does, you may start to notice symptoms that affect that area of your body.
Bones: swelling, intense pain, bones that break easily, and pain in your bones, back, neck, or joints
Lungs: long-lasting cough, trouble breathing, chest pain
Liver: Jaundice, or skin with a yellow tint, rashes and itchy skin, not feeling hungry, stomach pain
Brain: headaches that wonât go away, problems with your vision, seizures, vomiting and nausea, memory troubles, feeling dizzy
Other, less common, places where breast cancer spreads include:
- Adrenal glands
Let your doctor know as soon as you can if you have any of these symptoms. They donât always mean your cancer has moved to another organ, but your doctor might want you to take some tests to make sure.
Colon Cancer Metastasis To The Brain
Some cases of colon cancer can metastasize to other areas of the body, including the brain. This occurs when cancerous cells break away from the tumor in the colon, travel to the brain through the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then begin multiplying within the brain.
Its relatively rare forcolon cancer to metastasize to the brain. In fact, less than 3% of patients with colorectal cancer experience brain metastases . Despite that small percentage, colon cancer is still one of the types of cancer most likely to cause brain metastases .
People often mistakenly assume that someone with brain metastases hasbrain cancer. Thats actually not the case. When cancer metastasizes from one area of the body to another, the resulting tumors are still made up of cancerous cells from the original body part. So, when colon cancer metastasizes to the brain, the tumors that develop in the brain will still consist of cancerous colon cells, not cancerous brain cells.
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Where To Find Support If You Have Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Finding support is important when you have received a diagnosis of metastatic cancer. Talk to your doctor and loved ones about how youâre feeling and ask for support to help you cope.
Along with turning to friends and family, some people find comfort in speaking to a spiritual advisor or clergy.
Types Of Recurring Breast Cancer
Breast cancer may recur locally, regionally, or distantly:
Local recurring breast cancer occurs when a new tumor develops in the breast that was originally affected. If the breast has been removed, the tumor may grow in the chest wall or nearby skin.
Regional recurring breast cancer happens in the same region as the original cancer. In the case of breast cancer, this may be the lymph nodes above the collarbone or in the armpit.
Distant recurring breast cancer happens when cancer cells travel to a different part of the body. This new location is far away from the original cancer. When cancer recurs distantly, its considered metastatic cancer.
Not everyone with metastatic breast cancer experiences symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they can vary. Symptoms depend on the location of the metastasis and its severity.
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Where Does Metastatic Colon Cancer Spread To
Metastatic, or stage 4, colon cancer is an advanced malignancy that has spread outside the colon to other areas of the body. While colon cancer can travel throughout the body, there are specific areas where it is more likely to spread. The most common include the liver and lungs, as well as the brain, distant lymph nodes and peritoneum . Colon cancer can produce different symptoms depending on where it spreads, and these symptoms may range from hardly noticeable to very severe.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Cutaneous Metastasis
Most cutaneous metastasis occurs in a body region near a primary tumour. The first sign of the metastasis is often the development of a firm, round or oval, mobile, non-painful nodule. The nodules are rubbery, firm or hard in texture and vary in size from barely noticeable lesions to large tumours. These may be skin coloured, red, or in the case of melanoma, blue or black. Sometimes multiple nodules appear rapidly. The skin metastases may break down and ulcerate through the skin. Specific patterns include:
- Carcinoma erysipeloides: sharply demarcated red patch due to local spread of primary cancer blocking lymphatic blood vessels in adjacent skin
- En cuirasse or sclerodermoid carcinoma: indurated fibrous scar-like plaques due to cancer cells infiltrating collagen in the skin
- Carcinoma telangiectoides: red patches with numerous blood vessels or lymphatic vessels .
Depending on the location of the primary tumour, cutaneous metastasis display certain characteristic features.
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Breast Metastasis From Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report With Us And Ct Findings
Receiving Treatment For Metastatic Colon Cancer
If you experience any unusual symptoms, it is important to consult with a physician. Many conditions can cause similar symptoms therefore, a medical exam and diagnostic screening is required to determine if metastatic colon cancer is the cause.
Moffitt Cancer Center offers comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and supportive care services for patients with metastatic colon cancer, regardless of where it has spread. If you suspect that you may have metastatic colon cancer or have already received a diagnosis, you can request an appointment at Moffitt with or without a referral. To get started, call or fill out a new patient registration form online.
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What Causes Cutaneous Metastasis
Cutaneous metastasis occurs when cancerous cells break away from a primary tumour and make their way to the skin through the blood circulation or lymphatic system. Most malignanttumours can produce skin metastasis, but some are more likely to do so than others. When the following cancers have metastasised, they have quite a high chance of affecting the skin.
- Melanoma 45% chance of developing cutaneous metastasis
- Breast cancer 30%
- Cancer of the larynx 16%
- Cancer of the oral cavity 12%
The incidence of skin metastasis varies but is somewhere between 310% in patients with a primary malignant tumour.
The sex and age of an individual also appear to determine the frequency of skin metastasis in certain primary cancers. The reason for this is unknown. In women, about 70% of cutaneous metastases originate from the breast. In men, cutaneous metastases are most often from the lung , colon , skin or oral cavity .
Below lists the common internal cancers that cause skin metastasis in decreasing order of frequency according to sex and age group.
|SCC in the oral cavity Melanoma