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How Can You Get Breast Cancer

What Is Male Breast Cancer

5 Steps to Reduce Your Risk for Breast Cancer

Breast cancer in men is very rare, with less than 1 percent of all breast cancers found in men. The risk increases for older men and those with high estrogen levels, low male-hormone levels or a family history of breast cancer. Increased risk is also associated with those who have been exposed to radiation, heavy drinkers, and those with liver disease or who are obese. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and drugs that target genetic changes in cells that cause cancer.

Which Treatment Is Right For Me

Choosing the treatment that is right for you may be hard. Talk to your cancer doctor about the treatment options available for your type and stage of cancer. Your doctor can explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and their side effects. Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.

Sometimes people get an opinion from more than one cancer doctor. This is called a second opinion. Getting a second opinionexternal icon may help you choose the treatment that is right for you.

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Signs Of Breast Cancer Include A Lump Or Change In The Breast

These and other signs may be caused by breast cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area.
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast.
  • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast.
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast.
  • Fluid, other than breast milk, from the nipple, especially if it’s bloody.
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin on the breast, nipple, or areola .
  • Dimples in the breast that look like the skin of an orange, called peaudorange.

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Which Type Of Covid

The four COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized or approved for use in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration include:

  • Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, both of which work to teach your immune system how to fight off COVID-19 through messenger RNA technology.
  • , a protein subunit vaccine that contains pieces of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
  • Johnson & Johnsons Janssen, a viral vector vaccine that works to prevent COVID-19 using a modified version of a vector virus .

Its safe for people with breast cancer to get any of the above COVID-19 vaccines. However, people with cancer should usually avoid live virus vaccines. None of the COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for use in the U.S. are live virus vaccines, so they are all safe for most people with breast cancer.

What Is A Normal Breast

Breast Cancer Stages Illustration Poster Print by Gwen ShockeyScience ...

No breast is typical. What is normal for you may not be normal for another woman. Most women say their breasts feel lumpy or uneven. The way your breasts look and feel can be affected by getting your period, having children, losing or gaining weight, and taking certain medications. Breasts also tend to change as you age. For more information, see the National Cancer Institutes Breast Changes and Conditions.external icon

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Breast Cancer Causes And Risk Factors

This page was reviewed under our medical and editorial policy by

Daniel Liu, MD, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, CTCA Chicago.

This page was reviewed on February 10, 2022.

When it comes to breast cancer risk, there are factors you cant change, like your age, race and genes. But there are others you do have control over, such as your exercise level, alcohol consumption and other lifestyle habits.

How Can I Be Sure That My Cancer Will Be Detected Before It Has Spread

While you cant prevent breast cancer altogether, there are certain things you can do to reduce your risk of discovering it at an advanced stage. For example:

  • Get routine mammograms. The American Cancer Society recommends having a baseline mammogram at age 35, and a screening mammogram every year after age 40.
  • Examine your breasts every month after age 20. Youll become familiar with the contours and feel of your breasts and will be more alert to changes.
  • Have your breasts examined by a healthcare provider at least once every three years after age 20, and every year after age 40. Clinical breast exams can detect lumps that mammograms may not find.

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Tumor Heterogeneity And Evolution Of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer tumor heterogeneity is one of the hallmarks of malignancy, which includes intertumor heterogeneity observed in breast cancers from different individuals and intratumor heterogeneity caused by the presence of heterogeneous cell populations within an individual tumor.23, 305, 306, 307, 308 Breast cancer intratumor heterogeneity is the main hurdle in the development of effective treatments and personalized medicine.306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312 The intratumor heterogeneity was first described by Rudolf Carl Virchow, one of the founders of modern pathology, in mid and late 19th century.313 For quite a while, breast cancer phenotypic heterogeneity was used to classify breast cancers based on histological types.314 The clinical implications of tumor heterogeneity were well-recognized early in the process, and breast cancer was one of the first solid tumor types, in which the clinical and treatment implications of heterogeneity for cellular phenotypes were established by analyzing the expression of the estrogen receptors.315 With the rapid advances in molecular biology and genomics techniques, intratumor heterogeneity at the functional, genetic, and cellular levels has begun to be appreciated, and the identification of intrinsic molecular subtypes based on global gene expression profiling studies in breast cancer was pioneered with a rather rapid translation of this knowledge into clinical management of breast cancer.34, 35, 311, 316

Treatment Of Metastatic Breast Cancer

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For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment options for metastaticbreast cancer may include the following:

Hormone therapy

In postmenopausal women who have just been diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor positive or if the hormone receptor status is not known, treatment may include:

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Effect Of Hormonal Changes On Breasts

As women develop from pre-puberty through puberty, pregnancy and to menopause, the breasts will be affected by a variety of fluctuations in hormones.

During puberty, hormones produced by the ovaries cause growth and development of the breast. After puberty, the hormones oestrogen and progesterone will change throughout a womans monthly menstrual cycle. This may cause women to have swollen or tender breasts at different times of the month.

During pregnancy the body will produce additional oestrogen and progesterone, which trigger further growth and development of the breast to prepare mothers for breastfeeding.

Around the time of menopause , the ovaries stop producing female hormones including oestrogen. Without oestrogen, the breast tissue decreases in size. After menopause , monthly menstrual periods stop.

What Do Lumps In My Breast Mean

Many conditions can cause lumps in the breast, including cancer. But most breast lumps are caused by other medical conditions. The two most common causes of breast lumps are fibrocystic breast condition and cysts. Fibrocystic condition causes noncancerous changes in the breast that can make them lumpy, tender, and sore. Cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the breast.

Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
  • You will be subject to the destination website’s privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.

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Signs Of Breast Cancer Include A Lump Or Thickening In Or Near The Breast

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by breast cancer or by other conditions.

Check with your childs doctor if your child has any of the following:

  • A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area.
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast.
  • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast.
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast.
  • Fluid, other than breast milk, from the nipples, including blood.
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin on the breast, nipple, or areola .
  • Dimples in the breast that look like the skin of an orange, called peaudorange.

Can You Get Cancer In Your 20s

One For The Boys on Twitter: " Men get breast cancer too gents. If you ...

But for statistics purposes, cancers in young adults are often thought of as those that start between the ages of 20 and 39. Cancer is not common in young adults, but a wide variety of cancer types can occur in this age group, and treating these cancers can be challenging. Most cancers occur in older adults.

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Cosmetic Implants And Breast Cancer Survival

The general agreement, based on , is that silicone breast implants do not increase the risk of breast cancer. A 2015 meta-analysis of 17 studies that included participants who had undergone cosmetic breast augmentation discovered no increase in the risk of breast cancer associated with the procedure. In fact, the research showed that the incidence among these participants was lower than expected.

In 2021, another study found that women with cosmetic implants have significantly lower rates of breast cancer than those who do not have them.

Meanwhile, a 2013 meta-analysis found that women who received a diagnosis of breast cancer after getting cosmetic breast implants may have a higher risk of dying from the disease.

However, this research did not factor in other variables that may influence breast cancer mortality, such as body mass index, age at diagnosis, or cancer stage at diagnosis. And at least one of the studies in the analysis looked at overall mortality, instead of breast cancer-specific mortality, thereby potentially skewing the results. As such, a person should consider the finding with caution.

most common type is ductal carcinoma, which begins in a milk duct. Another type is lobular carcinoma, which begins in a lobule, one of the tiny glands that produce milk.

Invasive breast cancer involves cancerous cells spreading to nearby tissue. It is then more likely that the cancer will spread to other parts of the body.

Will I Need More Than One Treatment For Metastatic Breast Cancer

Medications are important for metastatic breast cancer to help control its spread. Resistance to therapies may develop, which can lead your care team to recommend a change in treatment.

When you start a treatment regimen, you and your care team will see how:

  • The cancer responds to the therapy.
  • The side effects impact you.

If the treatment isnt working or the side effects are unbearable, your care team can discuss switching the treatment method. They may recommend a different drug, dosage or schedule.

There are many treatments available. If one therapy isnt working for you for whatever reason, there is usually another one you can try.

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Oncogenic Mutations Of Pik3ca In Breast Cancer

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3K is further categorized into class IA and IB, in which Class IA PI3K is the class most closely implicated in cancer.230 Structurally, PI3K is constituted of a p110 catalytic subunit and p85 regulatory subunit. There are three isoforms of p110, namely p110 , p110, and p110. While p110 is expressed exclusively in leukocytes, p110 and p110 are ubiquitously expressed.230, 231 Conversely, human regulatory subunits p85, p85, and p55 are encoded by PI3K regulatory subunit 1 , PIK3R2, and PIK3R3, respectively.231 PI3K signaling is initiated by the growth factor activated receptor tyrosine kinase, or RAS protein, though direct interaction with p85 or via adaptor proteins, resulting PI3K being recruited to the membrane.230, 231 Activated PI3K subsequently activates critical downstream mediators AKT and mTOR, leading to enhanced growth, anti-apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and translation.230, 231, 232

Key Points To Remember

Men can get breast cancer, here is what you need to know | Still Standing
  • Mammograms can find some breast cancers early, when the cancer may be more easily treated. Studies show that a small number of women who have mammograms may be less likely to die from breast cancer.
  • The risk for breast cancer goes up as you get older. In general, women younger than 50 are at a lower risk for breast cancer. Because of this, women ages 50 to 70 are more likely to benefit from having mammograms than women who are in their 40s.
  • Mammograms may miss some breast cancers. And some cancers that are found may still be fatal, even with treatment.
  • Mammograms may show an abnormal result when it turns out there wasnt any cancer . This means you may need more testssuch as another mammogram, a breast ultrasound, or a biopsyto make sure you dont have cancer. These tests can be harmful and cause a lot of worry.
  • Mammograms may find cancers that will never cause a problem . Some breast cancers never grow or spread and are harmless. You might have this type of cancer, but a mammogram cant tell whether its harmless. So you may get cancer treatmentincluding surgery, radiation, or chemotherapythat you dont need.
  • If you have health problems that would make it too hard to go through cancer treatment, or if you would not want to have treatment, there may not be a good reason to have a mammogram.

A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast that is used to look for breast cancer.

There are two types of mammograms.

This decision aid is about screening mammograms.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer

The signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:

  • A new lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the armpit
  • A change in the size or shape of the breast
  • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast. It may look like the skin of an orange.
  • A nipple turned inward into the breast
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk. The discharge might happen suddenly, be bloody, or happen in only one breast.
  • Scaly, red, or swollen skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast

Stage 2 Breast Cancer

  • Stage 2A. The tumor is smaller than 2 cm and has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes, or its between 2 and 5 cm and hasnt spread to any lymph nodes.
  • Stage 2B. The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm and has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes, or its larger than 5 cm and hasnt spread to any lymph nodes.

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How Does Breast Cancer Start

Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast grow out of control. Different kinds of breast cells develop into different types of breast cancer. Most breast cancers begin in the breast ducts or lobules . These are known respectively as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Other less common types of breast cancer include inflammatory breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ.

Though breast cancer is most common in women, men can develop it as well. A mans lifetime risk of breast cancer is about 1 in 883. This year, the American Cancer Society estimates that about 2,620 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer.

What Causes Breast Cancer In Your 20s And 30s

Thickening or Lump in the Breast or Elsewhere: Is It Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow and multiply abnormally. Changes in DNA can cause normal breast cells to become abnormal.

The exact reason why normal cells turn into cancerous cells is unclear, but researchers know that hormones, environmental factors, and genetics each play a role.

Roughly 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to inherited gene mutations. The most well known are breast cancer gene 1 and breast cancer gene 2 .

If you have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, your doctor may suggest testing your blood for these specific mutations.

In some cases, breast cancer in your 20s and 30s has been found to differ biologically from the cancers found in older women.

For example, younger women are more likely to receive a diagnosis of triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancers than older women.

more likely in adolescent and young women than in older women who have a diagnosis of early stage breast cancer.

Metastatic breast cancer means that the cancer has advanced to stage 4. It has moved beyond the breast tissue into other areas of the body, such as the bones or the brain.

Survival rates are lower for cancer that has metastasized to other parts of the body.

According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for women with breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is 28 percent for all ages.

However, some signs and symptoms of breast cancer may

  • changes in the skin

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