Oncogene Expression May Negatively Impact Breast Cancer Results
A comparatively new addition to the discussion of prognosis and breast cancer survival data is oncogene expression. An oncogene is a small fragment of genetic material which can causeÃ¢ ordinary cells to eventually become malignant, and which can be carried on a chromosome. The oncogene HER-2 in particular is linked to aggressive breast cancers. On average, women with HER-2 amplification get a substantially greater danger of dying within a couple of years from breast cancer, in comparison to girls without HER-2 amplification.
Thats some reviews about How Fast does triple negative cancer grow. From the above article you dont need to completely trust. Because if we keep a healthy life pattern so cancer can get away from ourselves. For information about other cancer diseases you can look it up on this website.
Stage 4 Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Hi all my wife has just been diagnosed with stage 4 TNBC which has unfortunately spread to her lungs. on a posotive note we have caught it early so only one small tumor in her lungs. I am so confused reading online and speaking to some doctors they say her long term chances are not very good. i have not told her yet the truth all she knows is that this is going to be removed and hopefully we wont hear of this dreaded disease again.Does anyone have any long term positive stories of survival with TNBC stage 4 ? Or is it all basically doom and gloom? Also any advice on how and if i should break the news to her if is better for now to show positivity?
Tumor Diameter Measurement And Calculation Of Tumor Growth Rates
Three breast radiologists independently measured the tumor diameters using serial US images on PACS workstations. All readers were fellowship trained in breast imaging and had an average of 8.7 years of experience in breast US examinations. A set of 2-orthogonal images of each tumor were provided for the readers in random order regardless of the time sequence. Three perpendicular tumor diameters were measured using electronic calipers and then were used to estimate the tumor volume using the formula for oblate spheroids: V=4/3 a/2 b/2 c/2, where a, b, and c denote the longest diameter of a lesion, the maximum perpendicular diameter in the same plane, and the longest vertical diameter in the orthogonal plane, respectively. The tumor growth rate between diagnosis and surgery was quantified using the parameter of specific growth rate calculated using the following equation: SGR=ln /, where V1 and V2 are the tumor volumes at the time of diagnosis and surgery , respectively.
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Risk Factors For Triple
Doctors aren’t sure what makes you more likely to get triple-negative breast cancer. Not many women do — it only affects up to 20% of those who have breast cancer. You’re most at risk for triple-negative breast cancer if you:
- Are African-American or Latina
- Are under 40
- Have what your doctor will call a BRCA mutation , especially the gene BRCA1
Factors That Affect Growth Rate
A number of different studies have demonstrated some of the factors that influence the rate of growth of a breast cancer. These include:
- The type of cancer: Inflammatory breast cancer tends to grow much more rapidly than other types of breast cancer
- Age at diagnosis: Breast cancers in young women tend to grow more rapidly than breast cancers in older women and have a higher tumor grade
- Menopausal state: Breast tumors often grow more rapidly for women who are premenopausal than for those who are postmenopausal, likely due to estrogen in the body.
- Receptor status: Triple negative cancers, in general, grow more rapidly than estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Triple positive tumors also grow more rapidly.
- Estrogen treatment: Women who used hormone replacement therapy after menopause had, in general, more rapid growth rate of breast tumors.
- Ki-67 index: A higher index means a faster doubling time.
- Tumor grade: A higher tumor grade indicates a faster doubling time.
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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor
You will have lots of questions about your cancer, starting with your diagnosis. Here are some basic questions you might ask:
- What is triple negative breast cancer?
- How do you know my cancer is triple negative breast cancer?
- Why did I get this cancer?
- Do I need genetic testing?
- Has my breast cancer spread, and if so, how far has it spread?
- What is the stage of my cancer?
- What is my prognosis or expected outcome?
- What treatments do you recommend?
- Why do you recommend those treatments?
- What are those treatment side effects?
- Will I need surgery? If so, what surgery do you recommend and why?
- Im interested in participating in clinical trials. Are you able to help me find one?
- Do you know if there are any local support groups?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Triple negative breast cancer is one of the more challenging breast cancers to treat. You might be discouraged by what you have read about triple negative breast cancer. But there are a number of very effective treatments for triple negative breast cancer, including immunotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and radiation. And every day researchers learn more about this rare cancer. Their knowledge is your power. If youre concerned you arent getting the straight story about your cancer, ask your healthcare provider to walk you through your diagnosis and treatment options.
Talk With Others Who Understand
MyBCTeam is the social network for people with breast cancer and their loved ones. On MyBCTeam, more than 53,000 members come together to ask questions, give advice, and share their stories with others who understand life with breast cancer.
Are you living with triple-negative breast cancer? Share your experiences in the comments below, or start a conversation by posting on MyBCTeam.
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Stages Of Breast Cancer And What They Mean
Breast cancer stages are usually expressed on a scale of 0 to 4.
Stage 0 is considered non-invasive breast cancer, with no evidence that the cancer has spread beyond the part of the breast where it began to grow, including to nearby lymph nodes.
Stages 1 to 3 generally describe breast cancer that may have spread to other parts of the breast and nearby lymph nodes, with stages increasing with the size of tumors and extent of spread.
Cancer that remains localized to the breasts is the most treatable.
Breast cancer tumors can grow directly from breast tissue to other nearby locations, such as the chest wall or the skin of the breast. This is considered stage 3 breast cancer.
Stage 4 is metastatic breast cancer , meaning that cancer that originated in the breast has now spread to other parts of the body.
In stage 4 breast cancer, cancer cells can spread beyond the breasts by invading lymph nodes near the breast and traveling to other parts of the body via the lymphatic system.
Cancer cells also can move through the bloodstream to inhabit other organs and regions of the body.
The most common destinations for MBC or advanced breast cancer cells are the brain, bones, lungs, and liver.
The outcome for Stage 4 breast cancer that has metastasized, or spread to distant organs of the body, is considerably lower than for earlier stages, with a 28 percent 5-year survival rate.
symptoms of MBC can vary, depending on where the cancer has spread.
Urokinase Plasminogen Activator And Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator system includes the serine protease uPA, its cell surface receptor urokinase-type plasminogen receptor , and its serine inhibitors: plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 . uPA is an extracellular matrix-degrading protease and PAI-1 representing the inhibitor of uPA is originally known as a blood-derived endogenous fast-acting inhibitor of uPA. Both uPA and PAI-1 can be used as independent prognostic factors for breast cancer patients since uPA has a role in the progression and metastasis of the tumor. In addition, uPA and PAI-1 are also included in cell signaling and can affect migration, chemotaxis, adherence, cell growth, anoikis, and survival. Moreover, uPA and/or PAI-1 can play a role in the physiological processes like blood clotting, wound healing, fibrinolysis, pregnancy, and tissue remodeling. Paradoxically, high protein levels of both these markers were related to high metastasis risk and poor PSF. In addition, uPA and PAI-1 are considered the best prognostic biomarkers for lymph node-negative breast cancer .
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What Is The Risk For Triple
The disease can affect anyone, but is more likely to show up in those who are:
- Younger than age 50 .
- Black or Latinx.
- Living with a genetic condition called BRCA mutation that increases the risk for breast cancer and other forms of cancer. Most cancers diagnosed in people with the BRCA1 mutation are triple negative.
Can You Do Anything To Prevent Or Slow The Spread Of Breast Cancer
Like any type of cancer, there are factors that can put you at higher risk. For breast cancer, these include things like smoking, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and not performing monthly self-breast exams. Its also important to make sure and get your annual mammogram for breast cancer screening.
Other risk factors can include using hormone-based prescriptions, how many children youve had in the past, getting older and at what age you got your period and went through menopause.
In some instances, you cant necessarily prevent breast cancer, but you can sometimes slow it down, stop it from spreading or reduce the size of the tumor, says Dr. Roesch. You can do this by taking your medications as directed, following through with treatments, going to your appointments and being involved in your cancer care.
Youre in control of taking your medication correctly, eating a healthy diet, participating in an exercise program and managing stress. All of these things can contribute to a stronger physical body and better mental attitude both of which can have a positive impact on your breast cancer diagnosis.
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What Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer
- Progesterone receptor-negative
Triple negative/basal-like tumors are a molecular subtype of breast cancer. Basal-like tumors have cells that look similar to those of the outer cells surrounding the mammary ducts.
Most triple negative tumors are basal-like .
About 10-20 percent of all breast cancers are TNBC or basal-like tumors .
These tumors tend to occur more often in :
- Younger women
- Black, non-Hispanic Black and African American women
TNBC may also be more common among Hispanic women compared to white and non-Hispanic white women .
How Fast Does Breast Cancer Progress In A Year
In Singapore, approximately five women are diagnosed with breast cancer everyday, making it the highest occurring cancer among females here. If you or someone you know have detected a lump or been diagnosed with breast cancer recently, you must be wondering: how long has the cancer been around? Why did it take so long for me to figure it out? Will it spread to other parts of my body?
The truth is, the answers to these questions really depend on the type of breast cancer you have and other factors like its molecular characteristics. This article looks at how quickly breast cancer can progress, the types of breast cancers and long term outlook.
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Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the breast.
- Regional: The cancer has spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver, or bones.
Who Is At Risk Of Developing Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Anyone can be diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer and should be aware of their own personal risk factors. You can use the online iPrevent tool to better understand your breast cancer risk and act on it.
There are a number of known risk factors for triple negative breast cancer including:
A BRCA1 gene mutation is associated with a higher risk of triple negative breast cancer. However, most triple negative breast cancers are not caused by a BRCA gene mutation. If you have a strong family history of breast cancer, you may wish to consider genetic testing. This is something to discuss with your doctor.
While the average age of first being diagnosed with breast cancer in Australia is 61, triple negative breast cancer occurs more often in patients who are pre-menopausal or under 50 years of age. The cause of triple negative breast cancer in this young age group is not yet completely known. However, it could be due to breasts of younger women in their childbearing and breastfeeding years is of a different composition to the breast of an older women who has been menopausal for a long time.
African American and African Women
Triple negative breast cancer is more likely to be diagnosed in African American and African women compared with white or Hispanic women. This is thought to be due to genes or mutations that pre-dispose this group of women, particularly pre-menopausal women, to triple negative breast cancer.
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Cathepsin D Angiogenesis Markers And Bone Marrow Micometastasis
According to their active site amino acid, the cathepsin family of lysosomal hydrolases can be divided into three sub-groups: cysteine , aspartate , and serine cathepsins. Cathepsin D can be used as predictive factor for breast cancer. When the cathepsin D protein level exceeds 70 pmol/mg in patients with node-negative tumor, it is associated with poor prognosis .
The occurrence of tumor emboli in more than three blood vessels is most probably is associated by metastases. Microvessel density is a common standard method of measuring angiogenesis of cancer. The high score of MVD in tumors in most cases indicates an easy and aggressive metastasis of cancer, and also is associated with a poor prognosis .
Bone marrow micrometastasis refers to a small metastasis of less than 0.2 cm in diameter and can also include the tumor cells found in the bone marrow. The tumor cells usually can be found in 31% of lymph node-negative patients and 55% of lymph node-positive patients. The metastasis cells in the bone marrow are generally associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer .
Triple Negative Breast Cancer Survival Statistics
Triple Negative Breast Cancer or TNBC is a diagnosis of a type of breast cancer that does not have one of the three most common identifiers. It means that it is negative for the three most common receptors that are typically identified during the testing process to determine which type of treatment is best to fight the cancer. A diagnosis of TNBC means that HER 2 gene is not present, estrogen and progesterone receptors are also not present in the tumor. While it sounds quite awful because of the triple negative factor and it can be a little different to treat it can actually be more responsive in the early stages to chemotherapy than other types of cancers.
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Models Of Breast Cancer
Development of models of breast cancer was extremely important for the progress in discovering of new treatment approaches. The metastatic nature of tumor cells was discovered during the period 1970s1980s by methods of experimental metastasis assays. It was reported that cells derived from outgrowths of metastatic cells have a higher metastatic activity than cells derived from the original cell line according to study of injecting intravenous metastatic cultured B16 melanoma cells into mice. Figure Figure33 illustrates three different models of MBC that have been developed .
Models of MBC. a Tradition model of MBC. b Spontaneous metastasis assays. c Dynamic heterogeneity model. d Clonal dominance model. e Genometastasis hypothesis. f Gene expression profile. g Models of metastasis to lung, bone, and liver. h Parallel evolution model. i Breast cancer stem cells model. Pink represents non-metastasis breast tumor cells , red represents metastasis tumor cells , yellow represents variant of tumor cells, green represents metastasis to bone, blue represents metastasis to liver, and purple represents metastasis to lung. Modified from
Will Ever Be A Cure For Triple
Triple-negative breast cancer is curable when a doctor diagnoses it during the first three stages , said Dr. Jacoub. He treats stages 13 with everything he can in order to remove and destroy the cancer.
However, the ability to cure triple-negative breast cancer is hindered by recurrence or metastasis past the lymph nodes. Triple-negative breast cancer is the of breast cancer to return.
The outlook for people with localized triple-negative breast cancer over a 5-year period is good. Around 91% of people will survive to the 5-year mark.
If the cancer spreads to local tissue or lymph nodes, however, the 5-year survival rate drops to 65%. If it spreads to other organs or tissue, the rate falls to 12%.
These figures are based on data for people who received treatment in the past. Newer methods have changed the outlook, which will continue to shift as different treatments become available.
Anecdotally, Dr. Nan has a segment of patients who have responded to immunotherapy treatment for longer than 5 years.
Maybe if follows these long enough, some may still be alive after more than 10 or 15 years, then we can say cured, he said. With developed or newer types of immunotherapy, may be able to cure stage 4 cancer in the future.
Dr. Jacoub agreed that the outlook is changing with newer treatments. He also noted that although some people have a reduced quality of life while undergoing treatment, others can maintain a good quality of life.
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