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How To Fight Breast Cancer

What Is Breast Cancer And How Does It Form

5 ways to reduce your risk of breast cancer

Before we dive into alternative therapy treatments and how to cure breast cancer without surgery, its important to talk about how it starts.

Breast cancer forms in tissues of the breast. The most common type of breast cancer is known as ductal carcinoma in situ. This type of cancer begins in the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple the milk ducts. These abnormal cells are isolated in the milk ducts and have not spread to the breast tissue.This is a form of non-invasive breast cancer, however, if left untreated, can spread into the breast tissue.

Lobular carcinoma is another type of breast cancer that begins in the lobules of the breast. Like ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma is not a form of invasive breast cancer. Since these abnormal cells have not spread to breast tissue, they are not a severe form of cancer and will only need surgical removal. However, they can increase your risk of other types of breast cancer later on down the road.

Biomarker Testing Is Used To Find Out Whether Breast Cancer Cells Have Certain Receptors

Healthy breast cells, and some breast cancer cells, have receptors that attach to the hormonesestrogen and progesterone. These hormones are needed for healthy cells, and some breast cancer cells, to grow and divide. To check for these biomarkers, samples of tissue containing breast cancer cells are removed during a biopsy or surgery. The samples are tested in a laboratory to see whether the breast cancer cells have estrogen or progesterone receptors.

Another type of receptor that is found on the surface of all breast cancer cells is called HER2. HER2 receptors are needed for the breast cancer cells to grow and divide.

For breast cancer, biomarker testing includes the following:

Sometimes the breast cancer cells will be described as triple negative or triple positive.

  • Triple negative. If the breast cancer cells do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or a larger than normal amount of HER2 receptors, the cancer cells are called triple negative.
  • Triple positive. If the breast cancer cells do have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and a larger than normal amount of HER2 receptors, the cancer cells are called triple positive.

How Do Tamoxifen Raloxifene Anastrozole And Exemestane Reduce The Risk Of Breast Cancer

If you are at increased risk for developing breast cancer, four medications tamoxifen , raloxifene , anastrozole , and exemestane may help reduce your risk of developing this disease. These medications act only to reduce the risk of a specific type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. This type of breast cancer accounts for about two-thirds of all breast cancers.

Tamoxifen and raloxifene are in a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators . These drugs work by blocking the effects of estrogen in breast tissue by attaching to estrogen receptors in breast cells. Because SERMs bind to receptors, estrogen is blocked from binding. Estrogen is the fuel that makes most breast cancer cells grow. Blocking estrogen prevents estrogen from triggering the development of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.

Anastrozole and exemestane are in a class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors . These drugs work by blocking the production of estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors do this by blocking the activity of an enzyme called aromatase, which is needed to make estrogen.

Read Also: What Does Stage 3 Cancer Mean

Treatment For Breast Cancer May Cause Side Effects

For information about side effects that begin during treatment for cancer, see our Side Effects page.

Some treatments for breast cancer may cause side effects that continue or appear months or years after treatment has ended. These are called late effects.

Late effects of radiation therapy are not common, but may include:

  • Inflammation of the lung after radiation therapy to the breast, especially when chemotherapy is given at the same time.
  • Arm lymphedema, especially when radiation therapy is given after lymph node dissection.
  • In women younger than 45 years who receive radiation therapy to the chest wall after mastectomy, there may be a higher risk of developing breast cancer in the other breast.

Late effects of chemotherapy depend on the drugs used, but may include:

Late effects of targeted therapy with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or pertuzumab may include:

  • Heart problems such as heart failure.

Permission To Use This Summary

Breast Cancer Prevent 13 Simple Steps

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to write a sentence such as NCIs PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: .

The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:

PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Breast Cancer Treatment . Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .

Images in this summary are used with permission of the author, artist, and/or publisher for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 3,000 scientific images.

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Peaches Apples And Pears

Fruits specifically peaches, apples, and pears have been shown to safeguard against breast cancer.

In a study in 75,929 women, those who consumed at least 2 servings of peaches per week had up to a 41% reduced risk of developing ER breast cancer .

Interestingly, a test-tube study revealed that polyphenol antioxidants from peaches inhibited the growth and spread of a breast cancer cell line .

Furthermore, a study analyzing data from 272,098 women linked apple and pear intake to a lower risk of breast cancer ” rel=”nofollow”> Share on Pinterest

Beans are loaded with fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Specifically, their high fiber content may protect against breast cancer.

A study in 2,571 women found that high bean intake reduced breast cancer risk by up to 20%, compared with low bean intake .

Additionally, in a study in 1,260 Nigerian women, those with the highest intake of beans had up to a 28% reduced risk of breast cancer, compared with those with the lowest intake .

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Medically Reviewed by: Dr. BautistaUpdated on: September 1, 2021

Whether youre researching breast cancer treatment plans for yourself, a family member, or a friend you might initially feel like conventional therapy options are the only way to go when fighting ones diagnosis of cancer.

These traditional treatments for breast cancer include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, but alternative medicine offers the chance to do something different. There are strict regulations that the U.S. has against doctors providing less invasive and non-invasive holistic treatments, which is why leaders in alternative therapies and complementary treatments can predominantly be found in Tijuana, Mexico.

When putting up a fight against breast cancer, alternative medicine is the best medical treatment, as it focuses on building your system up rather than tearing it down. At ITC, we dont just want to kill cancerous cells we want to keep you healthy in body and spirit while we do it.

Read on to learn about alternative treatment for breast cancer.

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Genetic Counseling And Testing

If there are reasons to think you might have inherited a gene change that increases your risk of breast cancer , you might want to talk to your doctor about genetic counseling to see if you should be tested. To learn more, see Genetic Counseling and Testing for Breast Cancer Risk.

If you decide to be tested and a gene change is found, this might affect your decision about using the options below to help lower your risk for breast cancer

Survive And Thrive Lunch And Learn Program

How your diet can prevent breast cancer

Sexual Health After A Breast Cancer Diagnosis

The Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program presents ‘Sexual Health After A Breast Cancer Diagnosis’ as part of the 2021 Survive and Thrive Lunch and Learn Program.

Overcoming Health Disparities in Breast Cancer

The Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program presents ‘Overcoming Health Disparities in Breast Cancer’ as part of the 2021 Survive and Thrive Lunch and Learn Program.

Enhancing Quality of Life After Breast Cancer

The Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program presents ‘Enhancing Quality of Life After Breast Cancer’ as part of the 2021 Survive and Thrive Lunch and Learn Program.

What’s New and on the Horizon for Metastatic Breast Cancer

Bardia, Aditya,M.D. presents What’s New and on the Horizon for Metastatic Breast Cancer? as part of the Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program’s 2021 Lunch and Learn Series.

COVID-19 and Cancer: What Have We Learned?

Dr Tatiana Prowell presents COVID-19 and Cancer: What Have We Learned? As part of the Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program’s 2021 Lunch and Learn Series.

Thriving In Summer

Dr Rosanne Sheinberg presents Thriving In Summer as part of the Johns Hopkins Breast Cancer Program’s 2021 Lunch and Learn Series.

Exercise During and After Cancer

Jay Herdson discusses the importance of exercise during and after cancer, the advantages to and challenges with staying active, potential risks with specific activities, modifications for lymphedema, etc.

Clinical Trials During and After Breast Cancer

Also Check: Metastatic Breast Adenocarcinoma

Women With Breast Cancer In Fighting Shape Have Less Brain Fogginess

  • News
  • Women with Breast Cancer in Fighting Shape Have Less Brain Fogginess

A new study shows that women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, who were exercising moderately or vigorously before chemotherapy were less likely to suffer from chemo brain during and after treatment.

Chemo-brain, or brain fogginess, is a well-known side effect for some cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy. In prior studies, women with breast cancer have said that brain fog is a significant problem. The new research suggests that exercise may be a prevention tool, and lays the groundwork for clinical trials to further investigate the power of exercise in cancer care.

Weve always believed that exercise is a great way to help cancer patients, said Michelle Janelsins, Ph.D. M.P.H., senior author of the study, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

But now we have evidence that meeting physical activity guidelines prior to getting chemotherapy has benefits, Janelsins said. It puts you in fighting shape and appears to offer some protection against things such as memory difficulties or the inability to pay attention, which are common concerns for those undergoing chemotherapy.

About 33 percent of the breast cancer patients met physical activity guidelines set by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services at the start of the study. Those same women performed as well as their healthy counterparts on objective memory and cognition tests during treatment.

How Do I Know Which Breast Cancer Treatment To Choose

Your doctor will think about a few things before they recommend a treatment for you:

  • The type of breast cancer you have
  • The size of your tumor and how far the cancer has spread in your body, called the stage of your disease
  • Whether your tumor has things called receptors for HER2 protein, estrogen, and progesterone, or other specific features.

Your age, whether youâve gone through menopause, other health conditions you have, and your personal preferences also play a role in this decision-making process.

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The Tnm System The Grading System And Biomarker Status Are Combined To Find Out The Breast Cancer Stage

Here are 3 examples that combine the TNM system, the grading system, and the biomarker status to find out the Pathological Prognostic breast cancer stage for a woman whose first treatment was surgery:

If the tumor size is 30 millimeters , has not spread to nearby lymph nodes , has not spread to distant parts of the body , and is:

  • Grade 1
  • PR-

The cancer is stage IV .

Treatment Of Metastatic Breast Cancer

How to Prevent Breast Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment options for metastaticbreast cancer may include the following:

Hormone therapy

In postmenopausal women who have just been diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor positive or if the hormone receptor status is not known, treatment may include:

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Most Common Symptoms Of Invasive Breast Cancer

  • A breast lump
  • Lump or swelling in the armpit
  • Mysterious change in the shape or size of the breast
  • Nipple discharge thats not breast milk
  • Peeling on nipple or breast
  • Red, pitted skin over the whole breast
  • Scaling on nipple or breast
  • Swelling in parts of or the entirety of the breast

Breast cancer patients are usually women, although on rare occasions men can also contract breast cancer. Most forms of breast cancer are found as a lump or breast tumor that can be felt within the breast. In conventional treatments, these are removed in surgery, likely with a mastectomy . Luckily, unlike other forms of cancer, breast cancer can be easily detected and treated in the early stages.

  • Triple-negative breast cancer
  • Tubular carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of breast cancer and is found in the glands of ducts and lobules.

Paget disease of the nipple: This is a rare cancer that forms in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the areola and the skin of the nipple.

Inflammatory breast cancer: This is an invasive form of cancer. Its found in only a small percentage of breast cancer patients

Angiosarcoma: Another rare type of breast cancer, this cancer arises in the cells that line blood vessels or lymph nodes.

Expert Review And References

  • Bursein HJ, Harris JR, Morrow M. Malignant tumors of the breast. Devita, V. T., Jr., Lawrence, T. S., & Rosenberg, S. A. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2008: 43.2: pp. 1606-54.
  • Foxson SB, Lattimer JG & Felder B. Breast cancer. Yarbro, CH, Wujcki D, & Holmes Gobel B. . Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett 2011: 48: pp. 1091-1145.
  • National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Treatment Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2010.
  • Breast cancer. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2010.
  • Tripathy D, Eskenazi LB, Goodson, WH, et al. Breast. Ko, A. H., Dollinger, M., & Rosenbaum, E. Everyone’s Guide to Cancer Therapy: How Cancer is Diagnosed, Treated and Managed Day to Day. 5th ed. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing 2008: pp. 473-514.

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Treatment Of Early Localized Or Operable Breast Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

  • A clinical trial of a new chemotherapy regimen.
  • A clinical trial of monoclonal antibody therapy.

For patients with triple-negative or HER2-positive disease, the response to preoperative therapy may be used as a guide in choosing the best treatment after surgery.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

Acting early to prevent breast cancer
  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed.
  • T0: No sign of a primary tumor in the breast.
  • Tis: Carcinoma in situ. There are 2 types of breast carcinoma in situ:
  • Tis : DCIS is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive breast cancer that is able to spread to other tissues. At this time, there is no way to know which lesions can become invasive.
  • Tis : Paget disease of the nipple is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the skin cells of the nipple and may spread to the areola. It is not staged according to the TNM system. If Paget disease AND an invasive breast cancer are present, the TNM system is used to stage the invasive breast cancer.
  • T1: The tumor is 20 millimeters or smaller. There are 4 subtypes of a T1 tumor depending on the size of the tumor:
  • T1mi: the tumor is 1 millimeter or smaller.
  • T1a: the tumor is larger than 1 millimeter but not larger than 5 millimeters.
  • T1b: the tumor is larger than 5 millimeters but not larger than 10 millimeters.
  • T1c: the tumor is larger than 10 millimeters but not larger than 20 millimeters.
  • T2: The tumor is larger than 20 millimeters but not larger than 50 millimeters.
  • T3: The tumor is larger than 50 millimeters.
  • T4: The tumor is described as one of the following:
  • T4a: the tumor has grown into the chest wall.
  • T4c: the tumor has grown into the chest wall and the skin.
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