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Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer Deadly

Could Sanguinarine Help Improve The Effects From Other Cancer Drugs

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation

The researchers presented the findings at a virtual meeting of the American Society for Investigative Pathology.

They now plan to investigate sanguinarines effects in more triple negative breast cancer cell lines. They will also analyze its effects in combination with common medications for this form of breast cancer.

Hollywood star Angelina Jolie had her breasts, ovaries and fallopian tubes removed after she was found to have an inherited BRCA1 mutation. Around 70 percent of breast cancers diagnosed in people with the variant are triple-negative.

They are considered to be more aggressive and have a poorer prognosis than other types of breast cancer, and tend to be a higher grade. It is more likely to be diagnosed in people younger than 50 and Black and Hispanic than Asian and White. Finding out whether you have inherited the gene requires a test using a blood sample.

SWNS writer Mark Waghorn contributed to this report.

About Metastatic Breast Cancer

Cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a mass or sheet of cells called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.When breast cancer is limited to the breast and/or nearby lymph node regions, it is called early stage or locally advanced. Read about these stages in a different guide on Cancer.Net. When breast cancer spreads to an area farther from where it started to another part of the body, doctors say that the cancer has metastasized. They call the area of spread a metastasis, or use the plural of metastases if the cancer has spread to more than 1 area. The disease is called metastatic breast cancer. Another name for metastatic breast cancer is “stage IV breast cancer if it has already spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis of the original cancer.

Doctors may also call metastatic breast cancer advanced breast cancer. However, this term should not be confused with locally advanced breast cancer, which is breast cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.

Trials For Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Trials are comparing different types of chemotherapy to see which are;better at treating advanced disease. For example, researchers are waiting for the results of the Triple Negative Trial to find out whether it is better to use carboplatin or docetaxel.;

Research is looking at using;targeted cancer drugs;alongside other treatments. For example, a trial is using a drug called atezolizumab;in combination with chemotherapy.;Some trials are testing a drug called pembrolizumab.;Researchers think that these targeted drugs on their own might help to control the growth of the cancer.

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence , July 2018

  • Biology and management of patients with triple negative breast cancerP;SharmaThe Oncologist. 2016, Volume 21, Issue 9

  • 4th ESOESMO International Consensus Guidelines for Advanced Breast CancerF Cardoso and othersAnnals of Oncology,2018, Volume 29, pages 16341657

  • Early breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-upF Cardoso and others;

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Meets Its Match

BBOX1 enzyme could serve as a drug target for the deadly subset of breast cancer

DALLAS July 22, 2020 One member of a larger family of oxygen sensing enzymes could offer a viable target for triple negative breast cancer , UTSW researchers report in a new study. The findings, published online this week in Cancer Discovery, might offer hope to this subset of patients who have few effective treatment options and often face a poor prognosis.

TNBC so called because it lacks estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and overexpression of the growth-promoting protein HER2 makes up only 15 to 20 percent of all breast cancers. However, explains Qing Zhang, Ph.D., associate professor in the department of pathology at UTSW and a Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas Scholar in Cancer Research, its the deadliest of all breast cancers, with a five-year survival rate of 77 percent compared with 93 percent for other types.

Unlike other cancers which are hormone receptor or HER2 positive, TNBC has no targeted treatments, so patients must rely only on surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, which are less effective than targeted treatments and can harm healthy tissue.

The opposite was also true: Overexpressing the gene for BBOX1 caused TNBC cell lines to wildly proliferate. Further investigation showed that it wasnt carnitine the enzymes end product that caused this effect. The enzyme itself appeared to be key for TNBC cells survival and growth.

Why Is Breast Cancer So Deadly

A New Approach To A Deadly Breast Cancer Offers Hope To ...

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Statistics Don’t Account For Late Recurrences

When comparing triple-negative breast cancer to positive tumors, it’s important to keep in mind late recurrences. Most statistics are presented as five-year survival rate, and in this setting, triple-negative breast cancer can look more ominous. But looking at longer periods of time, say 20 years following diagnosis, this may be different.

This Plant Used By North American Indian Tribes To Make War Paint Could Kill Deadly Breast Tumors

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. A plant used by North American Indian tribes to make war paint could kill deadly breast tumors, according to new research. Bloodroot was worn by the Sioux, Comanches and Apaches to terrify the enemy when going into battle. It contains a compound toxic to triple negative breast cancers, one of the hardest types to treat, say scientists.

Bloodroot, endemic to the U.S., is endangered in some areas. It produces beautiful white and yellow flowers. Experiments show the chemical found in the plant, called sanguinarine, stops the disease in its tracks. Whats more, it was particularly effective in black women, who are most prone.

Our findings suggest sanguinarine could have therapeutic potential for patients, particularly African American women with the disease, says lead author Dr. Samia Messeha, a pharmacist at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, in a statement.

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Advancing The Treatment Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

The road to medical breakthroughs is typically lengthy and arduous, usually beginning in a laboratory and, after painstaking effort, ending up in the marketplace. This is true of the work done by a notable researcher at the Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute at the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center.

In her molecular oncology laboratory, Karoline Briegel, Ph.D., and her team have identified a molecular determinant that may explain Triple Negative Breast Cancers aggressiveness and resistance. More importantly, Dr. Briegel is investigating if inhibiting this protein in human TNBC cells in mouse models in vivo can weaken primary tumor formation and metastasis. This holds therapeutic promise for a deadly cancer. More than 50% of TNBC tumors have proven to be resistant to chemotherapy.Its a very good biomarker and correlates with cancer stemness, says Dr. Briegel, associate professor in the Department of Surgery who is also an investigator at the Tumor Biology Program.

There is a lot of potential there for it to become a therapeutic target not just for TNBC but also for other aggressive cancers.

TNBC is also more prevalent in young women and African American women.

Blocking the function of this protein suggests it is a putative therapeutic target, she says.

The discovery of LBHs role in tumor formation, while crucial in the fight against TNBC, is still in its infancy.

Ana Veciana-Suarez, Guest Columnist

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A Note About Statistics

Aggressive form of breast cancer linked to gene

Survival rates are statistics, and as such tend to tell us how the “average” person will do with an “average” triple-negative breast cancer; but people and tumors aren’t statistics. Some people will do better and some people will do worse.

Very importantly, statistics are usually several years old. In order to calculate five-year survival rates, a person would have to have been diagnosed at least five years prior. And still there is lag time. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is changing, and new drugs have been approved.

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Aggressive And Deadly Triple

In the first part of the study, researchers identified about 150 genes that could either induce tumor formation or prevent tumor formation .

To achieve this, they screened the whole human genomeall 20,000 genesin a preclinical mouse model of TNBC. Using the gene editing technique CRISPR/Cas9, they cut each of the genes individually and induced their loss of functiona process called gene knock out. Very few studies have used these forward genetic in vivo CRISPR screens at the genome-wide scale so far.

The team then showed that in TNBC an oncogenic pathway is activated whereas a tumor suppressor pathway is inhibited, which could possibly explain why those tumors are so aggressive and deadly.

To establish the therapeutic relevance of their findings, the team took the investigation one step further.

By disrupting the function of all genes, one by one, we found two major pathways that are involved in the regulation of the tumor development, says Meiou Dai, a research associate in the Lebrun Lab at the RI-MUHC and first author of the study, published in Nature Communications.

We thought, if we take an existing drug that can block the oncogenic pathway and add one that can promote the tumor suppressor pathway, we could have an effect in terms of blocking cancer formation.

Diagnosing Triple Negative Breast Cancer

In many women the cancer is found during breast screening.;But symptoms such as a breast lump can be a sign of breast cancer. So it is important to get any;symptoms checked by your doctor.

If you have symptoms and see your GP they refer you to a;specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or breast care nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.

You have some of the following tests:

  • a mammogram
  • an ultrasound
  • a biopsy your doctor or nurse take a small sample of cells or tissue from your breast to look at under a microscope

Depending on your age and whether other family members have had breast cancer, your doctor might refer you for gene testing. This is to find out if there is a fault in the BRCA cancer gene.

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Survival Rates For Triple

Triple-negative breast cancer is considered an aggressive cancer because it grows quickly, is more likely to have spread at the time its found and is more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. The outlook is generally not as good as it is for other types of breast cancer.

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.

What Is The Prognosis For Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Discovery Could Help Stop Diseases Deadly ...

Triple negative breast cancer can be more aggressive and difficult to treat. ;Also, the cancer is more likely to spread and recur. ;The;stage;of breast cancer and the;grade of the tumor;will influence your prognosis. Research is being done currently to create drug therapies that are specific for triple negative breast cancer.

Interested in learning more? i3Health is hosting an upcoming webinar Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Applying Treatment Advances to Personalized Care. Learn more here.

Material on this page courtesy of Johns Hopkins Medicine

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Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: A Marked Propensity To Triple

  • 1College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
  • 2Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Breast and cervical cancers comprise 50% of all cancers during pregnancy. In particular, gestational breast cancer is considered one of the most aggressive types of cancers, which is a rare but fatal disease. However, the incidence of this type of cancer is increasing over the years and its prevalence is expected to rise further as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer occurring after pregnancy is generally triple negative with specific characterizations of a poorer prognosis and outcome. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that this cancer is associated with a specific group of genes which can be used as precise targets to manage this deadly disease. Indeed, combination;therapies consisting of gene-based agents with other cancer therapeutics is presently under consideration. We herein review recent progress in understanding the development of breast cancer during pregnancy and their unique subtype of triple negative which is the hallmark of this type of breast cancer.

Targeted Therapy In Tnbcs

Different potential therapeutic options in TNBCs are summarized in Figure . Unlike the luminal types and the HER2 overexpressing type of breast carcinomas, TNBC lacks a specific targeted therapy. However, considering TNBCs heterogeneity, it is possible that BRCA1/2 mutations, along with AR may represent potential molecular targets in TNBCs treatment . Also, Pim-2, a serin/threonine kinase strongly involved in breast cancer metastasis, may become a therapeutic target in TNBCs . HJ-PI01, a Pim-2 inhibitor, seems to induce autophagic cell death and apoptosis thus decreasing malignant proliferation in TNBC cell lines . Shindikar et al. highlighted the anticancer properties of curcumin and resveratrol in TNBCs treatment, however, difficulties regarding their in vivo availability, distribution and kinetics along with a poor solubility, limits their routine use in patients . Chemotherapeutic agents such as nab-paclitaxel seems to be beneficial in the treatment of aggressive forms of breast cancer, such as TNBCs and HER2+, as well as in elderly and taxane-pretreated women .

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Risk Factors For Triple

Doctors aren’t sure what makes you more likely to get triple-negative breast cancer. Not many women do — it only affects up to 20% of those who have breast cancer. You’re most at risk for triple-negative breast cancer if you:

  • Are African-American or Latina
  • Are under 40
  • Have what your doctor will call a BRCA mutation , especially the gene BRCA1

What The Results Showed

Blueberries: A Triple Threat Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

During a 3.5 year follow-up, 3,276 patients died of breast cancer. When the researchers looked at the data more closely, they made several key findings:

  • The five-year survival rate was about 77% for Black women and about 83% for White women.
  • Black women had 31% lower odds of receiving surgery after diagnosis and 11% lower odds of receiving chemotherapy. Even when chemotherapy was used, there was evidence that the treatment was less effective in Black women.
  • Black patients were diagnosed at younger ages than White patients .
  • The tumors of Black women were typically larger and were often diagnosed at more advanced stages and had more lymph node involvementsuggesting the cancer was starting to spread.
  • Black patients were more likely to have health insurance through Medicaid and were more likely to live in urban areas, as well as in areas that were more socioeconomically disadvantaged.

Senior study author Ying Liu, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and a Siteman Cancer Center research member, tells Verywell that the researchers accounted for other factorsincluding patients’ socioeconomic and demographic information and health insurance coverage, as well as their cancer’s features and treatment.

Even after these factors had been accounted for, Liu says that “the risk of death from breast cancer remained significantly higher in African-American women compared with White women.”

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Questionable Issues In Tnbcs

TNBCs are known to metastasize via hematogenous routes and this may be in contradiction with the study of Liu previously mentioned, a study which clearly stated that TNBCs have an active lymphangiogenic process which, normally may favour lymphovascular but not hematogenous dissemination. Currently, the molecular features that differentiate or are able to differentiate lymph node positive TNBCs from lymph node negative TNBCs still remain at a hypothetical level and none of them proved to be useful in the clinical and therapeutic approach of TNBCs patients. But most of the TNBCs cancers have preferentially hematogenous metastases. Besides the high mitotic rate and increased nuclear grade, TNBCs also include pushing border of invasion, frequent tumor necrosis and a large central acellular zone . TNBCs usually exhibit a solid/sheet-like growth pattern and may be associated with an increased lymphocytes infiltrate . Despite the fact that these tumors do not usually metastasize through the lymphatic pathways, TNBCs may be characterized by lymphatic invasion and by an increased LVD . However, not all TNBCs are associated with a poor long term survival, although in a low percentage . EGFR, Src kinase pathway and Cdc42-interacting protein 4 are known to promote TNBCs metastasis . CIP4 inhibition seems to decrease the rate of lung metastasis .

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