Test Statistics For Normality Check Of Continuous Variables
Table , after descriptive statistics, we evaluated the normality for continuous variables. There were four continuous variables in this dataset. Since the sample size is more than 50, so we looked for Kolmogorov-Smirnov instead of Shapiro test. Initially we looked at histograms, the graphical representation showed the variables are not symmetrical. Then we looked at the p-values of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Since p-values were less than alpha so we reject null hypothesis and conclude that the data is not normally distributed.
Table 3 Test statistics for normality check of continuous variables
Having Radiation To Your Chest
Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This risk depends on their age when they got radiation. The risk is highest for women who had radiation as a teen or young adult, when the breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment in older women does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.
What Causes Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is caused when the DNA in breast cells mutate or change, disabling specific functions that control cell growth and division. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. But some cells escape the immune system and grow unchecked, forming a tumor in the breast.
The key to lowering your risk for breast cancer is to focus most of your prevention efforts on those modifiable risk factors, and to be proactive in various ways to monitor the ones you cant change.
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What Is Considered High Risk For Breast Cancer
According to the CDC, you are considered high risk for breast cancer if you have:
- Strong family history of breast cancer
- Inherited changes in your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
These two risk factors also put you at a high risk for ovarian cancer. Speak with your doctor about what you can do to reduce your risks. Options include drugs that block or decrease estrogen in your body and preventive surgery.
Expert cancer care
Is It Possible To Get Breast Cancer A Second Time
Women who have had breast cancer are more likely to get breast cancer a second time. Some non-cancerous breast diseases such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ are associated with a higher risk of getting breast cancer. Family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A womans risk for breast cancer is higher if she has a mother,
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Family History Of Breast Cancer
A total of 8 studies were included in our study. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the risk factors of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in benign breast lesions between the experimental group and the blank control group .
Meta-analysis of family history of breast cancer between the 2 groups. CI, confidence interval.
Who Gets Ovarian Cancer
Some people are more likely to develop ovarian cancer than others:
- Age: Ovarian cancer is most common after menopause, and half of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed in people ages 63 or older.
- Sex: An estimated 1 in 78 people with ovaries will develop ovarian cancer in their lifetime.
- Ethnicity: Ovarian cancer is more common in white women than in Hispanic, Black, and Asian women. An estimated 1 in 40 Ashkenazi Jewish people carry a BRCA gene mutation, which increases the risk of developing ovarian cancer at a young age.
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Family And Personal History And Genetics
Having a close family member who has received a breast cancer or ovarian cancer diagnosis raises your risk of breast cancer.
According to of more than 113,000 women, the risk of breast cancer is more than doubled if you have a first-degree relative who has had breast cancer. A first-degree relative includes your:
If youve personally received a breast cancer diagnosis, you also have a higher risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast, or in a different area of the same breast.
This isnt the same as the risk of recurrence. That means that breast cancer that was diagnosed earlier has come back.
Approximately 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are hereditary. Most inherited forms of breast cancer are caused by mutations in two genes: BRCA1 and BRCA2.
This doesnt automatically mean youll develop breast cancer if you have either of the mutations, but the risk is increased.
What Is The Risk Of Brca1 Mutation
Individuals with a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, for example, have a heightened risk of cancers of the ovaries and fallopian tubes in women, breast, prostate , and pancreas. Such individuals remain at elevated risk for these cancers even if theyve undergone treatment for one of them. In some cases, patients can take steps
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Obesity And Lack Of Exercise
Gaining weight after menopause can increase a woman’s risk. A 2006 study found that putting on 9.9 kg after menopause increased the risk of developing breast cancer by 18%. Lack of exercise has been linked to breast cancer by the American Institute for Cancer Research.
Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of developing breast cancer by many scientific studies. There is evidence to suggest that excess body fat at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is associated with higher rates of cancer recurrence and death. Furthermore, studies have shown that obese women are more likely to have large tumors, greater lymph node involvement, and poorer breast cancer prognosis with 30% higher risk of mortality.
Weight gain after diagnosis has also been linked to higher rates of breast cancer recurrence or mortality although this finding is not consistent. Weight gain is often less severe with newer chemotherapy treatments but one study found a significant risk of breast cancer mortality in women who gained weight compared to those who maintained their weight. However, other cohort studies and recent clinical trials have not shown a significant relationship between weight gain after diagnosis and breast cancer mortality.
Your Race And Ethnicity
White and Black women have the highest risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic/Latina womens breast cancer rates fall in between two major groupings while American Indian and Alaska Native women are on the lowest end of risk.
While white women are more likely to develop breast cancer than Black women overall, they tend to be diagnosed at an older age . Black women have the highest breast cancer rates among women under age 40. Black women make up a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancer cases.
What to do: If your race or ethnicity places you at higher risk, make sure you follow all screening recommendations to improve your chances of catching cancer early.
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What Is A Risk Factor For Breast Cancer
A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease, such as breast cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease. Some risk factors for breast cancer are things you cannot change, such as getting older or inheriting certain gene changes.
Her2 Positive Breast Cancer Risk Factors
The exact causes of breast cancers including HER2 positive breast cancer are not fully understood. Still, certain factors are known to increase an individuals risk of developing a breast malignancy. Not all of these risk factors can be controlled, but some can.
Here are a few of the most common risk factors associated with breast cancer:
- Having a family history of breast cancer
- Giving birth for the first time after age 30
- Receiving radiation therapy to the chest
- Being overweight
- Living a sedentary lifestyle
- Using tobacco products
Additionally, HER2 positive cancer which makes up about 20 percent of breast cancer cases is more likely to affect younger women.
Its important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not mean you will be diagnosed with breast cancer. On the other hand, not having any of these risk factors doesnt mean youll never develop cancer. Risk factors are just characteristics that may leave you slightly more susceptible to disease.
If any of these risk factors apply to you, be particularly mindful of any changes in your breasts and see a physician for regular breast cancer screenings. Your physician will be able to determine an optimal schedule of preventive care based on your health, age and other risk factors.
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What Are The Factors That Affect The Risk Of Breast Cancer
These factors include: Older age at birth of first child. The older a woman is when she has her first full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk of breast cancer. Women who are older than 30 when they give birth to their first child have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who have never given birth .
Risk Factors For Metastatic Breast Cancer
Any type of breast cancer can metastasize. It is not possible to predict which breast cancers will metastasize. Whether metastasis happens depends on several factors, including:
The type of breast cancer, such as hormone receptor-positive and/or HER2-positive, or triple-negative breast cancer
How the cancer grows. For example, is it a faster growing cancer or a slower growing cancer?
The stage of the cancer when first diagnosed, including the tumor size and whether cancer was found in nearby lymph nodes
There is no proven way to completely avoid developing metastatic breast cancer. Research continues to evaluate why metastatic breast cancer occurs and how to prevent, slow, or stop the growth of metastatic cancer cells.
The next section in this guide is Symptoms and Signs. It explains what changes or medical problems metastatic breast cancer can cause. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
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What Causes Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer begins when cells in the ovary, fallopian tube, or nearby structures develop changes in their DNA. These changes can cause the abnormal cells to grow out of control, eventually forming a mass . The cancer cells can spread through the abdomen, pelvis, lymph nodes, and to more distant areas of the body.
Having Certain Benign Breast Conditions
Women diagnosed with certain types of benign breast conditions may have a higher risk of breast cancer. Some of these conditions are more closely linked to breast cancer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into different groups, depending on how they affect this risk.
Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions dont seem to affect breast cancer risk, or if they do, the increase in risk is very small. They include:
- Fibrosis and/or simple cysts
- Mild hyperplasia
- Epithelial-related calcifications
Mastitis is not a tumor and does not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Proliferative lesions without atypia : In these conditions theres excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast, but the cells don’t look very abnormal. These conditions seem to raise a womans risk of breast cancer slightly. They include:
- Usual ductal hyperplasia
- Several papillomas
Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, the cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue grow excessively, and some of them no longer look normal. These types of lesions include:
Breast cancer risk is about 4 to 5 times higher than normal in women with these changes. If a woman also has a family history of breast cancer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia, she has an even higher risk of breast cancer.
Lobular carcinoma in situ
For more on these conditions, see Non-cancerous Breast Conditions.
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What Cancer Is Most Likely To Return
Some cancers are difficult to treat and have high rates of recurrence. Glioblastoma, for example, recurs in nearly all patients, despite treatment. The rate of recurrence among patients with ovarian cancer is also high at 85%.Related Articles.Cancer TypeRecurrence RateGlioblastoma2Nearly 100%18 more rowsNov 30, 2018
Common Lifestyle Risk Factors And How You Can Reduce Them
Additionally, according to the American Cancer Society, women who have a baby before age 30 and women who have multiple children have a slightly lower risk of breast cancer. If you give birth at any age, breastfeeding your baby for at least a year can reduce your risk of developing breast cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute.
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Breast Cancer Risk Factors Table
The table below lists factors linked to breast cancer. It also lists many factors still under study.
Factors are grouped based on the strength of the scientific evidence:
- Established and probable factors have the strongest evidence behind them. They are recognized as linked to breast cancer.
- Possible factors have less evidence behind them. They have suggested links to breast cancer, but need more study before solid conclusions can be made.
- Insufficient or inconsistent factors are backed by few studies or the studies to date show mixed results, so theres not enough evidence to allow comment on possible links to breast cancer.
Selection Of Cases And Controls
Cases were defined as female participants with breast cancer diagnosed by histopathologic examination and age30years. The control group included the women without breast cancer with the same age of the case. The controls were recruited from the same hospital and were confirmed for the disease status by the same histopathological examination as for cases.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Breast Cancer
CDCs Dr. Lisa Richardson explains the link between drinking alcoholic beverages and breast cancer risk in this video.
Studies have shown that your risk for breast cancer is due to a combination of factors. The main factors that influence your risk include being a woman and getting older. Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older.
Some women will get breast cancer even without any other risk factors that they know of. Having a risk factor does not mean you will get the disease, and not all risk factors have the same effect. Most women have some risk factors, but most women do not get breast cancer. If you have breast cancer risk factors, talk with your doctor about ways you can lower your risk and about screening for breast cancer.
Bcrf Highlights The Top Known Risk Breast Cancer Risk Factors For The Disease Based On Research
We know that multiple risk factors contribute to a persons overall breast cancer risk, and through research, we will potentially uncover more.
A risk factor is something that increases a persons chance of getting a disease like breast cancer. Having a breast cancer risk factoror several of themdoesnt guarantee that youll be diagnosed in your lifetime: Some people with several risk factors never experience breast cancer, and others with no known risk factors get diagnosed with the disease every day.
Some risk factors for breast cancer are completely out of your control and cant be changed. Others, particularly those associated with certain lifestyle choices, can. Theres no way to completely prevent breast cancer through lifestyle choices alone, and unfortunately, people can do everything right when it comes to controllable risk factors and still be diagnosed. But you may be able to reduce your risk of breast cancer by making certain healthy choices.
Below, we give an overview of what can increase a persons risk of breast cancer according to research. To read about BCRF-supported research on risk, learn more here.
Major risk factors for breast cancer that you cant control:
Age: Breast cancer risk increases with age, and most people diagnosed are over 50 years old.
Sex at birth: Although men can be diagnosed with breast cancer and one in 1,000 will be, the disease overwhelmingly impacts people who are born female.
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What Are The Parts Of The Breast
A womans breast has three kinds of tissue
- Fibrous tissue holds the breast tissue in place.
- Glandular tissue is the part of the breast that makes milk, called the lobes. The tubes that carry milk to the nipple are called ducts. Together, fibrous and glandular tissue are called fibroglandular tissue.
- Fatty tissue fills the space between the fibrous tissue, lobes, and ducts. It gives the breasts their size and shape.
Factors In The Physical Environment
According to a review, the main mechanisms by which environmental compounds increase breast cancer risk are acting like hormones, especially estrogen, or affecting susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls . Dioxins and organic solvents, on the other hand, have only shown an association in sparse and methodologically limited studies, but are suggestive of an association. Overall, however, evidence is still based on a relatively small number of studies.
Many xenoestrogens are endocrine disruptors, and potential risk factors of breast cancer.Endocrine disruption is the hypothesis that some chemicals in the body, such as Bisphenol A, are capable of interfering with the production, processing, and transmission of hormones.
A substantial and growing body of evidence indicates that exposures to certain toxic chemicals and hormone-mimicking compounds including chemicals used in pesticides, cosmetics and cleaning products contribute to the development of breast cancer.
The increasing prevalence of these substances in the environment may explain the increasing incidence of breast cancer, though direct evidence is sparse.
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