A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
There are many different types of breast cancer.
Each form of breast cancer develops in a different part of the breast and can affect different tissue types.
Since many breast cancers cause no symptoms, people should attend regular screenings. This can help identify the disease in its early stages.
Below, we outline the types of breast cancer and their symptoms.
Pattern Classification With Selected Features
The following experiments were conducted with FSbest1, FSbest2, FSalignment, FSseparability, and FSdistance the individual shape, edge-sharpness, and texture feature sets, as well as all of the 22 features combined without performing feature selection, for comparison. The input features were normalized to have zero mean and unit variance before being used by a classifier. Classification performance is shown in terms of the area Az under the ROC curve and the corresponding standard error. Each ROC curve was generated by applying a sliding threshold to the output of the classifier with the LS-SVMlab1.5 toolbox.48
Both the leave-one-out and half-half-random split procedures were used to evaluate the generalized performance of the classifiers with the features of the 111 breast masses. For the LOO procedure, each mass was used as the test sample once and the remaining 110 masses were used as the training samples thus, 111 training-test trials were conducted. For the HHR split procedure, 100 training-test trials were conducted. In each trial, 25 benign masses and 25 malignant tumors were selected at random as the training samples , and the remaining 61 masses were used as the test samples.
What Is Stage Ii Breast Cancer
Stage II describes cancer that is in a limited region of the breast but has grown larger. It reflects how many lymph nodes may contain cancer cells. This stage is divided into two subcategories.
Stage IIA is based on one of the following:
- Either there is no tumor in the breast or there is a breast tumor up to 20 millimeters , plus cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm.
- A tumor of 20 to 50 millimeters is present in the breast, but cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage IIB is based on one of these criteria:
- A tumor of 20 to 50 millimeters is present in the breast, along with cancer that has spread to between one and three nearby lymph nodes.
- A tumor in the breast is larger than 50 millimeters, but cancer has not spread to any lymph nodes.
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The Appearance Of Cancer Cells
The appearance, or differentiation, of cancer cells is another factor in cancer staging. Doctors grade cancer cells according to how similar they appear to noncancerous cells under a microscope.
Healthcare professionals classify cancer cells that are close to resembling healthy cells as being low grade or well-differentiated. These cancers typically grow more slowly.
High grade, or poorly differentiated, cancer cells appear very different from normal cells and tend to grow faster.
After assessing the different characteristics of the breast cancer, doctors use the information to determine its overall stage from 04.
Here is an overview of each breast cancer stage :
- Stage 0: This cancer is noninvasive and is only present inside the milk ducts. This stage includes ductal carcinoma in situ.
- Stage 1: These are small tumors that either have not spread to the lymph nodes or have only affected a small area of the sentinel lymph node.
- Stage 2: These are larger tumors that have spread to some nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage 3: These tumors are large or growing into surrounding tissues, such as breast skin, muscle, and lymph nodes.
- Stage 4: These are tumors that started in the breast but have spread to other parts of the body.
When recommending treatment options for breast cancer, a doctor will take into account:
Treatment options can include:
- surgery, which may involve a mastectomy, removal of one or both breasts, or the removal of any affected lymph nodes
- lymph node involvement
Breast Changes During Your Lifetime That Are Not Cancer
Most women have changes in the breasts at different times during their lifetime.
- Before or during your menstrual periods, your breasts may feel swollen, tender, or painful. You may also feel one or more lumps during this time because of extra fluid in your breasts. Your health care provider may have you come back for a return visit at a different time in your menstrual cycle to see if the lump has changed.
- During pregnancy, your breasts may feel lumpy. This is usually because the glands that produce milk are increasing in number and getting larger. While breastfeeding, you may get a condition called mastitis. This happens when a milk duct becomes blocked. Mastitis causes the breast to look red and feel lumpy, warm, and tender. It may be caused by an infection and it is often treated with antibiotics. Sometimes the duct may need to be drained.
- As you approach menopause, your hormone levels change. This can make your breasts feel tender, even when you are not having your menstrual period. Your breasts may also feel more lumpy than they did before.
- If you are taking hormones your breasts may become more dense. This can make a mammogram harder to interpret. Be sure to let your health care provider know if you are taking hormones.
- After menopause, your hormone levels drop. You may stop having any lumps, pain, or nipple discharge that you used to have.
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What Does A Tumor Feel Like Under The Skin
Lumps, tumors, and all sorts of things one can feel in the breast can feel surprisingly similar: firm, as opposed to the normal, more spongy tissue of the breast. They are often irregularly shaped as opposed to a sphere or ball shape. Lumps are also usually mobile within the breast and can be moved around within the breast.
However, its important to note that this can vary from person to person. Ultimately, anytime you feel something thats different from what your normal breast tissue feels like, or if you notice anything that generally feels unusual, you should speak to her medical team about that.
Possible Cause: Breast Tissue Changes
Breast tissue has natural lumps and bumps that you may feel, and you might just be more likely than others to develop lumps in your breasts.
If you feel the same lumpiness in both breasts, or there isnt one lump thats firmer than the others, its most likely your normal breast tissue. That said, if you find a lump that feels harder, in only one breast, or one that just feels different than what you usually feel, address it with your doctor.
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Types Of Invasive Breast Cancer
Figure 4.6 lists types of invasive breast cancer.
Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer . It may also be called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, invasive carcinoma of no special type or invasive carcinoma not otherwise specified.
Invasive lobular carcinoma is the next most common type .
Figure 4.6: Prevalence and Tumor Characteristics of Different Types of Invasive Breast Cancer
Type of invasive breast cancer
Proportion of all invasive breast cancers
Invasive lobular carcinoma
Carcinomas with medullary features
Adapted from select sources .
Breast Changes And Conditions
As you await follow-up test results, remember that most breast changes are not cancer.
You may have just received an abnormal mammogram result, or perhaps you or your health care provider found a breast lump or other breast change. Keep in mind that breast changes are very common, and most are not cancer. This page can help you learn about symptoms during your lifetime that are not cancer as well as follow-up tests used to diagnose breast conditions and treatments for specific breast conditions.
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What Is A Oval Mass In Breast
Fibroadenoma is the most common type of benign breast tumor, and most dont increase your risk of breast cancer. Although women of any age can develop fibroadenomas, they usually occur in younger, premenopausal women. A fibroadenoma typically has a well-defined round or oval shape and a rubbery-feeling and is painless.
Health Disparities In Breast Cancer
There are ethnic disparities in the mortality rates for breast cancer as well as in breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer affecting women of every ethnic group in the United States. Breast cancer incidence among black women aged 45 and older is higher than that of white women in the same age group. White women aged 60â84 have higher incidence rates of breast cancer than Black women. Despite this, Black women at every age are more likely to succumb to breast cancer.
Breast cancer treatment has improved greatly in recent years, but black women are still less likely to obtain treatment compared to white women. Risk factors such as socioeconomic status, late-stage, or breast cancer at diagnosis, genetic differences in tumor subtypes, differences in health care access all contribute to these disparities. Socioeconomic determinants affecting the disparity in breast cancer illness include poverty, culture, as well as social injustice. In Hispanic women, the incidence of breast cancer is lower than in non-Hispanic women but is often diagnosed at a later stage than white women with larger tumors.
Poverty is a major driver for disparities related to breast cancer. Low-income women are less likely to undergo breast cancer screening and thus are more likely to have a late-stage diagnosis. Ensuring women of all ethnic groups receive equitable health care can positively affect these disparities.
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Changes In The Size And Shape Of The Breast
Its not uncommon for breasts to swell, and you may notice a change in size around the time of your menstrual cycle.
Swelling can also cause breast tenderness, and it may be slightly uncomfortable to wear a bra or lie down on your stomach. This is perfectly normal and rarely indicative of breast cancer.
But while your breasts may undergo certain changes at different times of the month, you shouldnt overlook some changes. If you notice your breasts swelling at times other than your menstrual cycle, or if only one breast is swollen, talk to your doctor.
In cases of normal swelling, both breasts remain symmetrical. That means one wont suddenly be larger or more swollen than the other.
Other Potential Signs Of Breast Cancer Include:
- Lump in the breast or in the underarm
- A spontaneous or bloody discharge from the nipple
- New retraction or indentation of the nipple
- A change in the size or contour of the breast
- Any flattening or indentation of the skin over the breast
- Redness or pitting of the skin over the breast, like the skin of an orange
- Crustiness, ulceration or rash of the nipple or areola
A number of conditions other than breast cancer can cause breasts to change in size or feel. Breast tissue changes naturally during pregnancy and a womans menstrual cycle. Other possible causes of non-cancerous breast changes include fibrocystic changes, cysts, fibroadenomas, infection or injury.
If you find a lump or other change in your breast even if a recent mammogram was normal you should call us immediately. If you havent yet gone through menopause, you may want to wait through one menstrual cycle before seeing your doctor. If the change hasnt gone away after a month, have it evaluated.
When To Call Your Doctor
While in most cases a breast lump doesnt signal cancer, its still important to see your doctor as soon as you can. They may ask you questions about your history, like whether anyone in your family has been diagnosed with cancer, and whether youre having other symptoms.
Breast cancer treatment: The care you need is one call away
Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop a personalized plan to treat your breast cancer in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.
What Is Stage Iv Breast Cancer
Stage IV is the most advanced stage of breast cancer. It has spread to nearby lymph nodes and to distant parts of the body beyond the breast. This means it possibly involves your organs such as the lungs, liver, or brain or your bones.
Breast cancer may be stage IV when it is first diagnosed, or it can be a recurrence of a previous breast cancer that has spread.
Geometric Definitions Of Tumor Shapes
We defined four tumor shape categories based on their geometric characteristics- spherical, segmental, discoidal and irregular. To describe the spherical or nonspherical nature of each tumor shape, a sphericity metric as-
where V represented the computed tumor model volume and SA denoted its corresponding surface area. A secondary metric, isocentricity was also computed and utilized for shape categorization. This measure , compared the maximal and minimal tumor extents from the center of the tumor to evaluate tumor compactness ).
Maximum and minimum tumor extents calculated from central point of tumor. Spherical excision volume with 1 cm margin on all sides. Ellipsoid fit of tumor with three primary axes to characterize tumor shape
A perfect sphere has a sphericity value of 1 and an isocentricity value of 0. We defined tumors with sphericity values above 0.75 or an isocentricity value below 1 to be spherical.
Why Is Tumor Size Important In Breast Cancer
Tumor size is an important factor in breast cancer staging, and it can affect a persons treatment options and outlook. Tumors are likely to be smaller when doctors detect them early, which can make them easier to treat. However, the size of the tumor is only one of the factors that doctors consider when staging a persons breast cancer.
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Cancer Tumors Versus Cysts And Fibroadenomas
Cysts, which are fluid-filled lumps, are common in the breast and are benign. They form when fluid builds up inside breast glands and tend to be smooth or round. Fibroadenomas, which are benign tumors made up of glandular and connective breast tissue, are usually smooth and firm or rubbery to the touch. Both of these conditions tend to affect younger women fibroadenomas are most common in women in their 20s and 30s, and cysts are most common in women under 40.
Despite these common descriptions, it is impossible to tell by touch whether a lump is cancer.
Study Suggests Fat Cells Near Malignant Breast Tumors Morph Into Other Cell Types Creating ‘fertile Soil’ For The Disease
- UT Southwestern Medical Center
- Fat cells, or adipocytes, that grow in close proximity to breast cancers can shift into other cell types that promote tumor growth, a new study suggests. The findings could lead to new ways to fight breast cancer, a disease that is diagnosed in more than 300,000 U.S. women each year and kills nearly 45,000 annually.
Fat cells, or adipocytes, that grow in close proximity to breast cancers can shift into other cell types that promote tumor growth, a new study by UT Southwestern researchers suggests. The findings, published in Cell Reports, could lead to new ways to fight breast cancer, a disease that is diagnosed in more than 300,000 U.S. women each year and kills nearly 45,000 annually.
“We identified novel adipocyte-derived cell types in the mammary gland that offer a fertile soil for breast cancer tumor invasion and growth,” said study leader Philipp Scherer, Ph.D., Professor of Internal Medicine and Cell Biology and a member of the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center at UTSW.
Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for breast cancer occurrence and worse prognosis. Studies have shown that fat cells in close contact with breast tumor cells have an enhanced ability to break down their lipids to provide fuel for invading tumor cells. However, Dr. Scherer explained, it has been unclear what other roles these adipocytes play in breast cancer progression.
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N For Lymph Node Status
Your surgeon may check your lymph nodes by palpating the skin just above the lymph nodes and rating what they notice.
|A sample of the nodes have been surgically removed and tested and are clear of cancer.
|Nodes have cancer cells or micrometastases in them. The tumor has shed cells beyond its original location, and the cancer may be in other parts of the body.