Breast Cancer Incidence By Sex And Uk Country
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 15% of all new cancer cases .
In females in the UK, breast cancer is the most common cancer . In males in the UK, it is not among the 20 most common cancers .
99% of breast cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 1% are in males.
Breast cancer incidence rates rate ) for persons are similar to the UK average in all the UK constituent countries.
Breast Cancer , Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018
Unique Challenges For Young Adults
Breast cancer in young adults is just different. We are at a different phase of our lives and encounter unique challenges compared to older persons. These challenges may significantly impact our quality and length of life. Some of the unique challenges and issues young adults face:
- The possibility of early menopause and sexual dysfunction brought on by breast cancer treatment
- Fertility issues, because breast cancer treatment can affect a womanâs ability and plans to have children
- Many young women are raising small children while enduring treatment and subsequent side effects
- Young breast cancer survivors have a higher prevalence of psychosocial issues such as anxiety and depression13
- Questions about pregnancy after diagnosis
- Heightened concerns about body image, especially after breast cancer-related surgery and treatment
- Whether married or single, intimacy issues may arise for women diagnosed with breast cancer
- Challenges to financial stability due to workplace issues, lack of sufficient health insurance and the cost of cancer care
Take Action To Change Young Adult Breast Cancer Statistics
When all young adults affected by breast cancer work together, we can raise awareness, improve our representation in research and make each other stronger. We are dedicated to these goals, working to turn our unique challenges into opportunities for shared success. Join the movement! Become an advocate for young women with breast cancer.
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What Is The Average American Womans Risk Of Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer At Different Ages
Many women are more interested in the risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer at specific ages or over specific time periods than in the risk of being diagnosed at some point during their lifetime. Estimates by decade of life are also less affected by changes in incidence and mortality rates than longer-term estimates. The SEER report estimates the risk of developing breast cancer in 10-year age intervals . According to the current report, the risk that a woman will be diagnosed with breast cancer during the next 10 years, starting at the following ages, is as follows:
- Age 30 . . . . . . 0.49%
- Age 40 . . . . . . 1.55%
- Age 50 . . . . . . 2.40%
- Age 60 . . . . . . 3.54%
- Age 70 . . . . . . 4.09%
These risks are averages for the whole population. An individual womans breast cancer risk may be higher or lower depending on known factors, as well as on factors that are not yet fully understood. To calculate an individual womans estimated breast cancer risk, health professionals can use the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool, which takes into account several known breast cancer risk factors.
Who Does Breast Cancer Affect
Breast cancer mainly affects older women.
Most breast cancers occur in women over the age of 50. And the older you are, the higher your risk.
Men can also get breast cancer, but this is rare. Most men who get breast cancer are over 60.
Breast cancer is caused by a combination of our genes, environment and lifestyles. Find out more about breast cancer causes.
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Benefits Of Mammographic Screening
The ACS systematic review also examined the effect of screening mammography on life expectancy. Although the review concluded that there was high-quality evidence that mammographic screening increases life expectancy by decreasing breast cancer mortality, the authors were not able to estimate the size of the increase 23.
Breast Cancer Incidence By Age
Breast cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year around a quarter of new cases were in people aged 75 and over.
Age-specific incidence rates rise steadily from age 25-29, more steeply from age 35-39 in females and from age 60-64 in males. The highest rates are in in the 90+ age group for females and the 85 to 89 age group for males.
Incidence rates are significantly higher in females than males in most age groups. The gap is widest at age 30 to 34, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2066 times higher in females than males.
Breast cancer , Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Females, 2016-2018
For female breast cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. There is a brief plateau shortly after age 50 when routine screening starts, reflecting the diagnosis of prevalent cases at first-time screening. The brief drop in incidence shortly after age 70 when routine screening ends may be a compensatory drop as screening has brought forward diagnoses in women in this age group incidence subsequently returns to the rates expected.
Breast cancer , Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Males, 2016-2018
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Genetics And Breast Cancer Risk
Currently the major genes known to influence breast cancer risk is BRCA1 and BRCA2 . These genes are tumour suppressor genes responsible for DNA damage repair and mutations in these genes result in a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. It is estimated that up 16% of all familial breast cancers are due to mutations in these genes and up to 5% of all breast cancer cases . BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers < 70 years old face a 57% and 49% risk of developing breast cancer . Importantly, BRCA mutation carriers frequently tend to develop a more aggressive breast cancer and at a younger age . Screening for BRCA gene mutations in high-risk patients has become a priority and scoring systems such as the Manchester scoring system provides a means to identify which patients need increased surveillance . From scoring systems like this, Genetic testing guidelines have recently been introduced for higher-risk patients .
Family history, breast cancer risk and screening.
Current recommendations for patients with detected BRCA mutations are bilateral mastectomies for carriers , with patients who decline surgery to continue high-risk screening. Additionally, genetic screening for first degree relatives is recommended . The genetic testing of patients can have significant personal ramifications, in addition to the consequences for their families and close relatives. Due to this genetic screening is not routine worldwide, with genetic counseling recommended prior to testing .
Immune And Excretory Systems
In the later stages of breast cancer, the tumors have spread to other lymph nodes. The underarms are some of the first affected areas. This is because of how close they are to the breasts. You may feel tenderness and swelling under your arms.
Other lymph nodes can become affected because of the lymphatic system. While this system is usually responsible for transmitting healthy lymph throughout the body, it can also spread cancer tumors.
Tumors may spread through the lymphatic system to the lungs and liver. If the lungs are affected, you might experience:
- chronic cough
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Differences By Race And Ethnicity
Some variations in breast cancer can be seen between racial and ethnic groups. For example,
- The median age of diagnosis is slightly younger for Black women compared to White women 63 years old).
- Black women have the highest death rate from breast cancer. This is thought to be partially because about 1 in 5 Black women with breast cancer have triple-negative breast cancer – more than any other racial/ethnic group.
- Black women have a higher chance of developing breast cancer before the age of 40 than White women.
- At every age, Black women are more likely to die from breast cancer than any other race or ethnic group.
- White and Asian/Pacific Islander women are more likely to be diagnosed with localized breast cancer than Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women.
- Asian/Pacific Islanders have the lowest death rate from breast cancer.
- American Indian/Alaska Natives have the lowest rates of developing breast cancer.
Are Women Under 40 At Risk For Breast Cancer
Younger women generally do not consider themselves to be at risk for breast cancer. However, breast cancer can strike at any age: 5% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. All women should be aware of their personal risk factors for breast cancer.
There are several factors that put a woman at higher risk for developing breast cancer, including:
- A personal history of breast cancer or a high risk lesion found by biopsy
- A family history of breast cancer, particularly at an early age
- A family history that is concerning for a genetic syndrome that may put them at a higher risk for breast cancer
- History of radiation therapy to the chest
- A known genetic mutation conferring a high risk for the development of breast cancer
- Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry
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What Age Does Breast Cancer Affect
Remember, spotting cancer at an early stage means treatment is more likely to be successful.
Its important to listen to your body. If something doesnt look or feel quite right, speak to your doctor dont wait to see if it gets worse. And dont assume unusual changes are down to just getting older, or part of another health condition you may have.
If its not normal for you or wont go away, get it checked out.
Personal History Of Breast Disease
Females who have previously had breast cancer are at risk of developing a second breast cancer, either in the other breast or in a different part of the same breast. This is not the same as the first cancer returning.
Having a personal history of certain noncancerous breast conditions can also increase a persons risk of breast cancer. This can include conditions such as atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and ductal carcinoma in situ.
People with a history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer should ask their doctors about .
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Age Associated Treatment By Molecular Subtype
HER2 over-expressing cancers have a higher prevalence in post-menopausal women and initially had poor outcomes, prior to the development of targeted treatments . In patients under 40 years old, HER2 over-expressing breast cancers have been linked to a higher recurrence rate . Treating patients with a monoclonal antibody that targets the Her2 receptor, like trastuzumab, has resulted in improved survival . Furthermore, adding trastuzumab to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has lead to significant increases in the pathological complete responses observed . Development of newer monoclonal antibody treatments has also shown promise, as pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab in the neo-adjuvant setting significantly improves the pathological complete response rate .
Triple negative cancers occur at a younger age and have poorer outcomes than luminal subtypes . Triple negative cancers have been linked to the BRCA1 gene, with studies finding 20%30% of triple negative patients having either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene . It was also found that the prevalence increases with decreasing age . Due to this correlation the national comprehensive cancer network recommends that all women under 60 with triple negative breast cancer be referred for genetic counseling . Currently, bilateral prophylactic mastectomy has been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in carriers with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations .
Metastatic breast cancer sites by age group.
What Is The Average American Womans Risk Of Developing Breast Cancer During Her Lifetime
Based on current incidence rates, 12.9% of women born in the United States today will develop breast cancer at some time during their lives . This estimate, from the most recent SEER Cancer Statistics Review , is based on breast cancer statistics for the years 2015 through 2017.
This estimate means that, if the current incidence rate stays the same, a woman born today has about a 1 in 8 chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer at some time during her life. On the other hand, the chance that she will never have breast cancer is 87.1%, or about 7 in 8.
For men born in the United States today, the lifetime risk of breast cancer is 0.13%, based on breast cancer statistics for the years 2015 through 2017. This means that a man born today has about a 1 in 800 chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer at some time during his life.
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Family History Of Breast Cancer
Having a family history of breast cancer increases a persons risk of developing the condition themselves.
A females risk if they have two first degree relatives who have had it. First degree relatives are parents, siblings, and children and can include males.
The recommend genetic testing for females with a family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer.
Having Had Radiation Therapy
This risk varies with age and is highest in people who were in their teens when they had radiation treatment. According to the
A number of lifestyle factors can increase someones risk of breast cancer. Being aware of these factors can help them reduce their breast cancer risk.
These lifestyle factors include:
- Being inactive: Physical inactivity increases a persons risk of breast cancer. Getting regular exercise may help reduce this risk.
- Taking hormones: Some types of hormone replacement therapy and hormonal birth control may increase the risk of breast cancer. Finding nonhormonal alternatives may reduce a persons chance of developing breast cancer.
- Being overweight after menopause: After menopause, people who are overweight are more likely to develop breast cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight may help reduce breast cancer risk.
- Drinking alcohol: According to the
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Should Women Under Age 40 Get Mammograms
In general, regular mammograms are not recommended for women under 40 years old, in part, because breast tissue tends to be more dense in young women, making mammograms less effective as a screening tool. In addition, most experts believe the low risk of developing breast cancer at a young age does not justify the radiation exposure or the cost of mammography. However, screening mammograms may be recommended for younger women with a family history of breast cancer and other risk factors.
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Causes Of Breast Cancer In Men
The exact cause of breast cancer in men is not known, but there are some things that increase your risk of getting it.
- genes and family history inheriting faulty versions of genes called BRCA1 or BRCA2 increases your risk of breast cancer
- conditions that can increase the level of oestrogen in the body including obesity, Klinefelter syndrome and scarring of the liver
- previous radiotherapy to the chest area
Its not certain that you can do anything to reduce your risk, but eating a balanced diet, losing weight if youre overweight and not drinking too much alcohol may help.
Page last reviewed: 18 March 2020 Next review due: 18 March 2023
Can Mammogram Technician See Cancer
After a screening mammogram, the technician will look at your X-rays to make sure they dont need to be retaken. Technicians dont examine the X-ray for signs of cancer a doctor called a radiologist will do that after your appointment is over. A radiologist might be present during a diagnostic mammogram.
Metastatic Breast Cancer Statistics
The number of women under 40 being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer is increasing.
Metastatic breast cancer means that the cancer has advanced to stage 4 and has moved beyond the breast tissue into other areas of the body, such as the bones or the brain. Survival rates are lower for cancer that has metastasized to other parts of the body.
According to the American Cancer Society , the 5-year survival rate for those with breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is 27 percent for women of all ages. However, one found no significant differences in median survival rate between younger and older women with metastatic breast cancer.
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Things You Can Change
Fortunately, there are risk factors for breast cancer that are under your control. These factors include:
- Sedentary lifestyle: Women who are not physically active are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
- Obesity: Older women who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer.
- Hormone replacement therapy: Women who take hormones such as estrogen or progesterone for over five years during menopause are at higher risk of developing breast cancer. Women who take oral contraceptives may also be at higher risk.
- Alcohol use: A womans risk of breast cancer may increase with the number of alcoholic drinks she consumes.