Is Teen Breast Cancer Common
Its normal for your breasts to change as you enter your teenage years. Increases and decreases in female hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, may make your breasts tender.
Hormones can also cause you to feel thickening, and even some lumps and bumps, in your breasts as your period comes and goes each month.
Could those lumps and bumps be cancer? Its not likely. Its almost unheard of for girls ages 14 years and younger to develop breast cancer.
The chances increase slightly as girls move through their teenage years, but breast cancer in this age group is still very rare.
Between 2012 and 2016, the incidence rate for female breast cancer in 15- to 19-year-olds in the United States was
- It seems fixed to the chest wall and doesnt move around.
- It ranges in size from about the size of a pea to several inches in diameter.
- It might be painful.
Nipple discharge and having the nipple invert inward are possible symptoms of breast cancer in adult women. However, theyre not very common in teens with cancer.
Breast Cancer Now Most Common Form Of Cancer: Who Taking Action
The global cancer landscape is changing, according to WHO experts, on the eve of World Cancer Day 2021.
Breast cancer has now overtaken lung cancer as the worlds mostly commonly-diagnosed cancer, according to statistics released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in December 2020.
So on World Cancer Day, WHO will host the first of a series of consultations in order to establish a new global breast cancer initiative, which will launch later in 2021. This collaborative effort between WHO, IARC, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other multi-sectoral partners, will reduce deaths from breast cancer by promoting breast health, improving timely cancer detection and ensuring access to quality care.
WHO and the cancer community are responding with renewed urgency to address breast cancer and to respond to the growing cancer burden globally that is straining individuals, communities and health systems.
In the past two decades, the overall number of people diagnosed with cancer nearly doubled, from an estimated 10 million in 2000 to 19.3 million in 2020. Today, one in 5 people worldwide will develop cancer during their lifetime. Projections suggest that the number of people being diagnosed with cancer will increase still further in the coming years, and will be nearly 50% higher in 2040 than in 2020.
The number of deaths from cancer has also increased, from 6.2 million in 2000 to 10 million in 2020. More than one out of every six deaths is due to cancer.
Breast Cancer And Birth Control
Some research has shown that taking hormonal birth control slightly increases the risk of breast cancer. However, once you stop using hormonal birth control, risk levels eventually return to normal.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center also notes that the overall cancer risk for teens remains low, even though using hormonal birth control minimally increases the risk of developing cancer.
If you use hormonal birth control and youre concerned about your cancer risk, please discuss your options with your doctor before stopping your birth control.
According to research, including a , use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of early onset breast cancer in people under 25 years old who have a BRCA gene mutation.
Doctors should exercise caution before recommending oral contraceptives to someone in this group.
That said, an increased breast cancer risk is just one of many factors to consider before deciding on the right birth control method.
Teens going through the earlier stages of puberty may notice lumps near their nipples. Tenderness and soreness are also possible. These occur during normal breast development and arent a cause of concern on their own.
Your period can also cause tenderness and soreness in the breasts.
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Do Larger Breast Cancer Tumors Always Require A Mastectomy
No, not always. Tran says some large tumors do not require mastectomy. The surgical decision for lumpectomy versus mastectomy is determined by the tumors size relative to the size of the breast. Lumpectomy would likely be feasible for a 2-centimeter tumor in a person with very large breasts, but mastectomy would be recommended for the same tumor size in a person with small breasts, Tran explains.
How Common Is Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States, except for skin cancers. It is about 30% of all new female cancers each year.
The American Cancer Society’s estimates for breast cancer in the United States for 2021 are:
- About 281,550 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in women.
- About 49,290 new cases of ductal carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed.
- About 43,600 women will die from breast cancer.
Breast cancer mainly occurs in middle-aged and older women. The median age at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is 62. This means half of the women who developed breast cancer are 62 years of age or younger when they are diagnosed. A very small number of women diagnosed with breast cancer are younger than 45.
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Personal History Of Breast Disease
Females who have previously had breast cancer are at risk of developing a second breast cancer, either in the other breast or in a different part of the same breast. This is not the same as the first cancer returning.
Having a personal history of certain noncancerous breast conditions can also increase a persons risk of breast cancer. This can include conditions such as atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and ductal carcinoma in situ.
People with a history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer should ask their doctors about .
What Can I Do
Be proactive. Increasing your awareness and knowledge may help reduce your risk of developing breast cancer. Take action on your lifestyle risk factors. Know your body, watch for changes, and contact your health care provider with any questions or concerns about breast health and breast cancer prevention, early detection and screening.
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Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer can have several symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue.
Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but itâs always best to have them checked by a doctor.
You should also see a GP if you notice any of these symptoms:
- a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
- discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
- a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
- dimpling on the skin of your breasts
- a rash on or around your nipple
- a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.
Find out more about the symptoms of breast cancer.
What Are The Risk Factors For Breast Cancer
Being a woman and getting older are the main risk factors for breast cancer.
Studies have shown that your risk for breast cancer is due to a combination of factors. The main factors that influence your risk include being a woman and getting older. Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older.
Some women will get breast cancer even without any other risk factors that they know of. Having a risk factor does not mean you will get the disease, and not all risk factors have the same effect. Most women have some risk factors, but most women do not get breast cancer. If you have breast cancer risk factors, talk with your doctor about ways you can lower your risk and about screening for breast cancer.
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Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Teens
Doctors treat secretory adenocarcinoma by surgically cutting out the cancer while sparing as much breast tissue as possible.
Doctors consider chemotherapy and radiation on a case-by-case basis. The risks these treatments pose to young, developing bodies may outweigh the benefits.
Depending on the type of therapy and how long it lasts, it can affect your fertility and increase your chances of other cancers.
You can still breastfeed after breast or nipple surgery. However, some people may produce less milk than others.
Reducing Your Breast Cancer Risk
We can help to reduce our breast cancer risk by eating healthily, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, and drinking alcohol in moderation. Visit out page about breast cancer prevention for more information. Unfortunately there is little we can do about some of the other risks, apart from be aware of them. But you can be aware of breast changes to look out for. You can watch our video on how to check your breasts here. It is important to attend for breast screening tests with BreastCheck when you are invited.
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Incidence And Lifetime Risk Of Breast Cancer By Molecular Subtype And Age
Molecular profiling has resulted in breast cancer being divided into four main subtypes, defined by differing expression levels of the Estrogen receptor , Progesterone receptor and growth factor receptor HER2. The subtypes are: Luminal A , Luminal B , HER2 over-expressing and basal . Luminal cancers are most common breast cancer seen followed by HER2 over-expressing and approximately 10% are basal cancers . Currently, the incidence of each molecular subtype has been demonstrated to vary by age group . Recently, molecular testing of breast cancer has further confirmed these trends .
Causes Of Breast Cancer In Teens
Doctors arent entirely sure what causes teenage breast cancer because there are so few cases.
In general, though, its thought that childhood cancers develop because of changes in cells and DNA that occur early in life. These changes can even happen while youre still in the womb.
The ACS also notes that childhood cancers arent strongly associated with environmental and lifestyle factors such as smoking or eating certain foods.
However, if you introduce these unhealthy behaviors early in life, they can increase your risk for breast cancer when youre older.
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How To Improve Your Outlook For Breast Cancer
Regular can help detect it in its earliest stages. Most organizations like the CDC, that women have the option to begin screening with a annually starting around 40 years old.
The ACS also that women with a very strong family history or genetic predisposition to developing breast cancer should get a yearly in addition to a mammogram, often starting at age 30.
The outlook for breast cancer is best when its detected and treated early. Because of this, its important that you have an open conversation with your doctor about of developing breast cancer and when you should begin screening.
If youve been diagnosed with breast cancer, keep in mind that survival rates are only general statistics. They may not reflect the fact that methods to diagnose and treat breast cancer are improving all the time.
And everyone is different. Your personal outlook depends on many factors, so talk with your doctor about your outlook to get a better idea of what to expect.
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Most women who have one or more breast cancer risk factors never develop the disease, while many women with breast cancer have no apparent risk factors . Even when a woman with risk factors develops breast cancer, it is hard to know just how much these factors may have contributed to her cancer.
There are different kinds of risk factors. Some factors, like a person’s age or race, can’t be changed. Others are linked to cancer-causing factors in the environment. Still others are to related personal behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. Some factors influence risk more than others, and your risk for breast cancer can change over time, due to factors such as aging or lifestyle.
Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer:
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Menstrual And Reproductive History
The menstrual cycle increases levels of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone in the body.
Starting menstrual periods at a younger age or going through menopause at a later age raises the bodys exposure to these hormones, which can increase a persons risk of breast cancer.
Those who start their menstrual period before the
to prevent miscarriage. Women who took this drug while pregnant and any children they gave birth to have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.
Stage Of Breast Cancer
When your breast cancer is diagnosed, the doctors will give it a stage. The stage describes the size of the cancer and how far it has spread and helps to predict the outlook.
Ductal carcinoma in situ is sometimes described as stage 0. Other stages of breast cancer describe invasive breast cancer:
- stage is â the tumour is “in situ” and there’s no evidence of invasion
- stage 1 â the tumour measures less than 2cm and the lymph nodes in the armpit aren’t affected there are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
- stage 2 â the tumour measures 2-5cm, the lymph nodes in the armpit are affected, or both there are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
- stage 3 â the tumour measures 2-5cm and may be attached to structures in the breast, such as skin or surrounding tissues, and the lymph nodes in the armpit are affected there are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
- stage 4 â the tumour is of any size and the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
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Collecting Your Family History
Your mother is an important figure in your cancer risk profile if she has or has had breast cancer. But, given the above, itâs also helpful to find out if cancer has affected other family members, including grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. Donât assume that you know this informationitâs worth specifically asking.
For the purpose of building your own family history, you need to know:
- What type of cancer a relative had
- What age they were diagnosed
- If they were cured, still living with cancer, or have died
Other details, such as the grade, type, and stage of cancer are not as important for you to know. If you develop breast cancer, your medical team will identify your own grade, type, and stage rather than relying on your family history.
If your mother or father are alive and able to share your familyâs background with you, filling out the Cancer Family History Questionnaire that was created by the American Society of Clinical Oncology can help you keep track of the information. Once you gather your family history, it would be useful to keep that record for yourself and for other family members who share some of your family medical history.
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Treatments To Reduce Your Risk
If you have a greatly increased risk of developing breast cancer, for example, a BRCA gene carrier, treatment might be available to reduce your risk. This applies to a very small minority of women.
Your level of risk is determined by factors such as your age, your family’s medical history, and the results of genetic tests.
You will usually be referred to a specialist genetics service if it’s thought you have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Healthcare professionals working at these services might discuss treatment options with you.
The 2 main treatments are surgery to remove the breasts or medication. These are described in more detail below.
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What You Need To Know
- According to the National Cancer Institute, women 70 and older have a 1 in 24 chance of developing breast cancer at some point in their lives. Men can also get breast cancer.
- Treatment which could include surgery, hormone-blocking pills, targeted radiation or a combination of these therapies depends on the characteristics of the tumor. Chemotherapy is used occasionally.
- Healthy, active, independent patients have the best chance of a good outcome.
Survival Rates By Age
Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you age. According to the NCI, breast cancer is most often diagnosed in women . The median age that women are diagnosed with breast cancer is 63 years old.
Additionally, of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States from 2014 to 2018, less than 2 percent of them were under 35 years old.
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Having Had Radiation Therapy
Females who have had radiation therapy to the chest or breasts, such as for Hodgkin lymphoma, before the age of 30 years have a higher chance of developing breast cancer.
This risk varies with age and is highest in people who were in their teens when they had radiation treatment. According to the
A number of lifestyle factors can increase someones risk of breast cancer. Being aware of these factors can help them reduce their breast cancer risk.
These lifestyle factors include:
- Being inactive: Physical inactivity increases a persons risk of breast cancer. Getting regular exercise may help reduce this risk.
- Taking hormones: Some types of hormone replacement therapy and hormonal birth control may increase the risk of breast cancer. Finding nonhormonal alternatives may reduce a persons chance of developing breast cancer.
- Being overweight after menopause: After menopause, people who are overweight are more likely to develop breast cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight may help reduce breast cancer risk.
- Drinking alcohol: According to the