Types Of Breast Cancer
There are several types of breast cancer, and theyre broken into two main categories: invasive and noninvasive, or in situ.
While invasive cancer has spread from the breast ducts or glands to other parts of the breast, noninvasive cancer has not spread from the original tissue.
These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, which include:
- Ductal carcinoma in situ. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a noninvasive condition. With DCIS, the cancer cells are confined to the ducts in your breast and havent invaded the surrounding breast tissue.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ. Lobular carcinoma in situ is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of your breast. Like DCIS, the cancer cells havent invaded the surrounding tissue.
- Invasive ductal carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of breast cancer begins in your breasts milk ducts and then invades nearby tissue in the breast. Once the breast cancer has spread to the tissue outside your milk ducts, it can begin to spread to other nearby organs and tissue.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive lobular carcinoma first develops in your breasts lobules and has invaded nearby tissue.
Other, less common types of breast cancer include:
The type of cancer you have determines your treatment options, as well as your likely long-term outcome.
1 and 5 percent of all breast cancer cases.
Can A Breast Injury Cause Cancer
It is a common misconception that a breast injury could cause cancer. No available research exists that indicates a link between breast injury and cancer.
Some people may believe that a breast injury could lead to cancer because breast injuries can cause a lump to develop after an injury. But a lump could be due to what is called fat necrosis.
Fat necrosis is scarring of dead or injured fatty tissue in the breast that can cause a lump. According to the American Cancer Society , fat necrosis does ânot increase a womanâs risk of breast cancer.â
A lump in the breast after an injury can also be due to a deep bruise that is known as a hematoma.
There are several potential complications of a traumatic breast injury:
Data Extraction And Quality Assessment
Two reviewers independently extracted the data from the included studies. The following details are presented in this review: first authors name, year of publication, country, participant number, age, time of assessment of depression, follow-up duration, depression/anxiety measurement, and adjusted major confounders.
All of the selected articles were examined in terms of quality based on the NewcastleOttawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies . This semiquantitative scale uses a star system to assess the quality for eight items across three domains: selection , comparability , and exposure . In this meta-analysis, we graded quality as good , fair , or poor . Any discrepancy between the two reviewers was resolved by discussion with the third reviewer.
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Box 1 Cumulative Evidence To Support Low Dose Estrogen
Historical use of estrogens to treat breast cancer.
Physiologic estrogen as an antitumor agent in SERM-resistant breast cancer models in vivo.
Estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen-deprived ER-positive cell lines in vitro.
A current evaluation of estrogen to treat acquired antihormone resistance in metastatic breast cancer.
The extrapolation of the concept that physiologic estrogen kills breast cancer cells to adjuvant antihormone therapy.
New Research Again Links Increased Breast Cancer Risk To Longer Use Of Hormone Therapy
The link between hormone therapy and breast cancer has been recognized for years. But an analysis published Aug. 29, 2019, in The Lancet has added some additional information to the discussion. The analysis looked at 58 studies that included information on the type and timing of hormone use in individual women, and their body mass index. Researchers began gathering the studies in 1992 and continued until 2018.
We asked Dr. Wendy Chen, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, to help us sort through both the old and new information on hormone use and breast cancer and what it means for women considering starting hormone therapy.
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Breast Cancer Survival Rate
Breast cancer survival rates vary widely based on many factors.
Two of the most important factors are the type of cancer you have and the stage of the cancer at the time you receive a diagnosis. Other factors that may play a role include your age, gender, and race.
shows theres a higher mortality rate in non-white people diagnosed with breast cancer compared with white people. One reason for this may be healthcare disparities.
The good news is breast cancer survival rates are improving.
According to the ACS , in 1975, the 5-year survival rate for breast cancer in women was 75.2 percent. But for women diagnosed between 2008 and 2014, it was 90.6 percent.
Five-year survival rates for breast cancer differ depending on stage at diagnosis, ranging from 99 percent for localized, early stage cancers to 27 percent for advanced, metastatic cancers.
Does Stress Cause Cancer
Theres no conclusive evidence that stress increases your risk of breast cancer.
A number of studies have looked at the links between stress and breast cancer, but there isnt enough evidence to show a clear association.
Stress can be linked to a rise in other lifestyle behaviours, such as being less active or drinking alcohol, which could increase your risk of breast cancer.
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Study Design And Sample
This cross-sectional, observational study was done in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala, with a comprehensive cancer care unit including pain and palliative care and psycho-oncology units. This study was conducted from August 2014 to August 2016. The study population included patients aged above 18 years who were diagnosed with breast cancer and are undergoing surgery or chemotherapy or radiotherapy or a combination of therapies. Patients with a family history of mood disorder or other psychiatric disorder were included in this study.
Patients with current psychiatric disorders or cognitive deficits and with hearing or visual impairments were excluded from the study. The sample size was calculated with a prevalence of 22% reported by Hassan et al. in a study conducted among Malaysian breast cancer patients. The sample size was estimated to be 270 with 95% confidence and 20% allowable error. The patients were recruited through convenience sampling.
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Controlling Estrogen Level To Combat Breast Cancer
Regardless of exactly how estrogen causes increased breast cancer risk, it is worth keeping low estrogen levels in your body because this is shown to potentially reduce your breast cancer risk and is an excellent natural remedy for hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers that do arise.
- Stop smoking
- Reduce saturated and trans fats
- Reduce usage or eliminate hormone replacent therapy during and after menopauseThe end of a womans menstrual cycles, defined as 12 consecutive months of no menstrual periods.
- Choose to breastfeed, if possible
All of the above factors contribute to reducing estrogen levels in the body. Controlling them helps decrease your risk for breast cancer and gives you a healthier lifestyle in general.
Of course, there are also a number of factors relating to estrogen which cannot be controlled. Women who start their period early or begin the menopause late are believed at higher risk of developing breast cancer, for example. So are those who have children late or dont have any at all. This is possibly because these women are exposed to more estrogen overall in their lifetimes. On the flipside, each time you get pregnant for a prolonged period, you effectively decrease the number of menstrual cycles and hormone fluctuations in your lifespan, reducing the breast cancer risk.
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How Does Psychological Stress Affect People Who Have Cancer
People who have cancer may find the physical, emotional, and social effects of the disease to be stressful. Those who attempt to manage their stress with risky behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcohol or who become more sedentary may have a poorer quality of life after cancer treatment. In contrast, people who are able to use effective coping strategies to deal with stress, such as relaxation and stress management techniques, have been shown to have lower levels of depression, anxiety, and symptoms related to the cancer and its treatment. However, there is no evidence that successful management of psychological stress improves cancer survival.
Evidence from experimental studies does suggest that psychological stress can affect a tumors ability to grow and spread. For example, some studies have shown that when mice bearing human tumors were kept confined or isolated from other miceconditions that increase stresstheir tumors were more likely to grow and spread . In one set of experiments, tumors transplanted into the mammary fat pads of mice had much higher rates of spread to the lungs and lymph nodes if the mice were chronically stressed than if the mice were not stressed. Studies in mice and in human cancer cells grown in the laboratory have found that the stress hormone norepinephrine, part of the bodys fight-or-flight response system, may promote angiogenesis and metastasis.
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A number of social media posts, directly and indirectly, claim that using deodorants and antiperspirants causes Breast Cancer in females. We fact-check and find the claims to be mostly false.
Multiple social media users claim that using deodorants cause breast Cancer in females. Screenshots of some of such posts are given below.
In addition, we also received a WhatsApp message in circulation in our WhatsApp tipline that says, the major cause of Breast Cancer in girls is the use of antiperspirants. It blocks of sweat. A screenshot of the message is given below.
Do deodorants cause Breast Cancer?
No. Major researches have not revealed any direct connection between Breast Cancer and deodorants.
One of the major reason of concern around deodorants rises from the belief that the chemicals are absorbed in the skin and gets settled in the lymph nodes under the arm. As per the American Cancer Society, this is a false presumption. Their website Cancer.org mentions, There are no strong epidemiologic studies in the medical literature that link breast cancer risk and antiperspirant use, and very little scientific evidence to support this claim. In fact, a carefully designed epidemiologic study of this issue published in 2002 compared 813 women with breast cancer and 793 women without the disease. The researchers found no link between breast cancer risk and antiperspirant use, deodorant use, or underarm shaving.
Are deodorants completely safe?
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Is There A Direct Link
A 2014 report from the Surgeon General evaluated available studies on the potential health consequences of smoking. It found sufficient evidence of potential ways in which smoking may cause breast cancer.
However, the report concluded that while the evidence is suggestive, its not enough to say that smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke causes breast cancer. More research is needed to establish a direct link between smoking and breast cancer.
Get In Touch With Your Imaginative Side To Refine Your Sensations
During a depressive episode, the individual experiences clinically depressed state of mind or a loss of pleasure or interest in tasks, for the majority of the day, almost daily, for at least 2 weeks. People who have a background of sleep disturbances, clinical ailment, chronic pain, stress and anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are more likely to establish depression. Conflicting outcomes have actually does depression cause breast cancer occurred from researches that look at the performance of antidepressants in individuals with intense, mild to moderate depression. Likewise, a Cochrane systematic testimonial of professional tests of the common tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline concluded that there is strong evidence that its efficiency transcends to placebo. There are numerous therapy methods for major depression disorder.
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Statistics On Breast Cancer And Pain
A breast tumora hard clump of breast cancer cellsdoesn’t usually cause breast pain unless it reaches the size of 2 centimeters in diameter or greater. But a tumor can be larger than 2 centimeters and still not cause pain.
For many women, breast pain is not their reporting symptom. One study found that only 6% of women reported breast pain as their main symptom. While most women with breast cancer report that a breast lump was their main symptom, 1 in 6 report a different symptom, including breast pain.
Bioassay Of Clampede2 On Uterine Weight
Our various strategies to examine the ER-independent effects of E2 critically depended on complete blockade of any residual ER activity resulting from a truncated ER or from low levels of ER. Measurement of uterine weight provided a robust bioassay of E2 to determine whether complete blockade was achieved. We measured uterine weight after at least 2 months of E2 exposure under each experimental condition . In the ERKO castrate animals, E2 stimulated uterine weight to 18% of that observed in ER+/+/Wnt-1 animals, an effect resulting from a biologic effect of the truncated 56KD receptor . Fulvestrant completely blocked the residual ER responsiveness in the ERKO/Wnt-1 animals. Uterine weight fell to 7 Â± 1 mg in the animals receiving 240 pg/ml E2 plus fulvestrant, a uterine weight similar to that observed in castrate animals . In aggregate, these data demonstrated that fulvestrant was capable of completely abrogating the effects of residual ER activity in ERKO animals.
Uterine wet weights in ER+/Wnt-1 and ERKO/Wnt-1 animals. Shown are mean weights of the uterus under various conditions. Data from ER-animals were pooled from different experiments . 17-E2/ovx: castrate animals receiving 17-OH-E2 to produce plasma levels of 240 pg/ml . Statistical analysis: ER+ groups: compared to intact , compared to ovx , compared to ovx + E2 ERKO groups: compared to intact , compared to ovx , compared to ovx + E2 with all p-values less than 0.001.
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Analysis Of Publication Bias And Sensitivity
Beggs rank correlation and Eggers linear regression test were employed to estimate publication bias. Beggs rank correlation test and Eggers linear regression test results indicated the absence of publication bias among included articles . The sensitivity analysis suggested that the overall risk assessment was not substantially modified by any single study, revealing the stability of the above results.
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How Much And What Type Of Soy Should You Eat
It is best to eat soy in moderation as part of healthful meals that include plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. You can find natural sources of soy in foods like edamame, soy milk, and tofu. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration says that eating 25 grams of soy per day offers health benefits, such as reducing the risk of heart disease.
People who are making lifestyle changes after a cancer diagnosis often start eating more fruits and vegetables and consume less red meat and processed foods. The question of whether it is OK to eat soy comes up often, especially for patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The good news is it appears that patients do not need to avoid soy in their diets, although it is best to limit intake to moderate amounts. Norah Lynn Henry, MD, PhD, FASCO, an Associate Professor in the University of Michigan’s Division of Hematology/Oncology in the Department of Internal Medicine, Breast Oncology Disease Lead at the Rogel Cancer Center, and Cancer.Net Associate Editor in Breast Cancer
You may have also heard of soy protein powder, which can be added to shakes or used while baking to boost the amount of protein. Read the nutrition label on soy protein powders to find the total grams of soy in each serving to ensure you stay within the recommended 25 grams. You should also look at the label to choose products with lower sodium, fewer added sugars, and fewer additional ingredients.
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Do The Benefits Of Hrt Outweigh The Risk
Hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment for relieving hot flashes from menopause. But the known link between hormone therapy and increased breast cancer among risks has discouraged many women and their doctors from choosing or recommending this treatment.
The type of hormone therapy , as well as the womanâs individual characteristics, risk factors, and severity of menopause symptoms, should be considered when weighing the risks and benefits of HRT. The decision to use hormone therapy after menopause should be made by a woman and their health care provider after weighing all of the potential risks and benefits .
The known association between HRT and breast cancer has prevented many breast specialists from recommending it for breast cancer survivors. Unfortunately, many women experience menopause symptoms after breast cancer treatment. Some forms of chemotherapy may also cause early menopause in premenopausal women.
In the past, doctors may have offered HRT after breast cancer treatment because there werenât clearcut studies showing any harm. However, early in 2004, a study was stopped early after showing that cancer survivors on HRT were more likely to develop a new or recurrent breast cancer. Doctors now feel it is too risky to treat breast cancer survivors with HRT.
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Is Cancer A Virus Or A Bacteria
In terms of contagiousness, cancer is not the enemy. There are, though, many cancers with a clear origin from viral and bacterial infections. The Epstein-Barr virus may cause lymphomas, and mononucleosis may result. One of the reasons for this is that hepatitis B and C causes hepatitis C in the blood.
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