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What Is The Survival Rate For Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Survival Rates For Triple

What is the meaning & survival rate of triple negative breast cancer? -Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh

The five-year survival rate for someone with localized triple-negative breast cancer, cancer that has not spread beyond the breast, is 91 percent . For cancer that has spread into nearby lymph nodes or nearby areas, the five-year survival rate is 65 percent. For cancer that has spread further into the body, such as into the bones, lungs or liver, survival is 11 percent.

Survival rates are averages determined by whats happened in the past. As research and cancer treatment evolve, the outlook may improve.

These statistics are recorded in the SEER database, which is maintained by the NCI, and do not differentiate between stages of cancer or take into account variables such as patient age and overall health.

Expert

What Is The Staging Of Triple

Staging is the process of determining the extent of the cancer and its spread in the body. Together with the type of cancer, staging helps determine the appropriate therapy and predict the chances for survival.

To determine if the cancer has spread, medical professionals may use several different imaging techniques, including X-ray, CT scans, bone scans, and PET scans. Staging depends upon the size of a tumor and the extent to which it spread to lymph nodes or distant sites and organs in the body. Examination of lymph nodes removed at surgery and the results of ER, PR, and HER2 tests performed on the tumor tissue also help determine the stage of a tumor. Stage I is the lowest stage, while stage IV is the highest stage and refers to tumors that have metastasized, or spread to areas distant from the breast.

Most doctors specifically adjust breast cancer treatments to the type of cancer and the staging group.

Surgery

Many women with breast cancer will require surgery. Broadly, the surgical therapies for breast cancer consist of breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy .

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells with high-energy rays. Doctors commonly administer radiation therapy to patients after breast cancer surgery, most commonly after lumpectomy.

Chemotherapy

Types of chemotherapy include the following:

Other therapies for triple-negative breast cancer

How Is Tnbc Diagnosed

Imaging tests are usually the first tests done:

  • Mammography, the most common screening tool for breast cancer, uses X-rays to take images of the breast and can uncover tumors that may be too small to feel.
  • MRI uses a magnet, radio waves and a computer to make detailed images of the breast with a much greater resolution than a mammogram offers.

The next step is a biopsy to remove a sample of suspicious cells from the breast to analyze them. Techniques include:

The appropriate type of biopsy for you depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor. You may also have a biopsy of your underarm lymph nodes at the same time to see if any cancer is there.

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Causes Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

The risk factors for triple negative breast cancer are not clear. Some breast cancers depend on hormones to grow. These can be linked with risk factors to do with hormones and having children. But triple negative breast cancer does not seem to share these risk factors.

Most women with triple negative breast cancer have no strong history of breast cancer in their family . But some women with triple negative breast cancer have an altered BRCA1 gene. This will have been inherited from a parent.

An altered BRCA 1 gene can cause breast cancer to run in families. Most breast cancers caused by BRCA1 are triple negative.

If you have triple negative breast cancer, you may be offered genetic testing. This is even if you do not have a family history of breast cancer. Your cancer doctor or breast care nurse can explain more about this to you.

The tests are the same as for any type of breast cancer. You usually have a:

  • Mammogram

    A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast.

  • Ultrasound scan

    An ultrasound scan uses sound waves to produce a picture of the breast tissue and the lymph nodes in the armpit.

  • Breast biopsy

    When you have a breast biopsy, your cancer doctor or breast care nurse takes small samples of cells or tissue from your breast. The samples are looked at under a microscope to check for cancer cells. They also do other tests to find out if the cells have receptors for hormones, or for HER2.

See also

The staging and grading is the same as for other types of breast cancer.

A Potential Drug Target

Overall survival in patients with triple

Recently, we reported on research from the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, OH, that suggested that an existing form of antimicrobial therapy may be effective against triple-negative breast cancer.

In that study, in vitro cancer cells treated with interferon- had a significantly reduced likelihood of forming into tumors.

But Reizes and colleagues studied the protein connexin 26 , which was previously believed to fight cancer cells but is now known to contribute to the progression of tumors.

Additional research is needed, says co-author Justin Lathia, Ph.D., but this discovery suggests that inhibiting Cx26 and the related pathway may be a promising new strategy for stopping or preventing triple-negative breast cancer stem cells from self-renewing and spreading.

It may also offer a target for diagnostic testing that helps clinicians predict health outcomes and relapse-free survival for patients with a specific cancer type.

Justin Lathia, Ph.D.

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Statistics Don’t Account For Late Recurrences

When comparing triple-negative breast cancer to positive tumors, it’s important to keep in mind late recurrences. Most statistics are presented as five-year survival rate, and in this setting, triple-negative breast cancer can look more ominous. But looking at longer periods of time, say 20 years following diagnosis, this may be different.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Survival Statistics

Triple Negative Breast Cancer or TNBC is a diagnosis of a type of breast cancer that does not have one of the three most common identifiers. It means that it is negative for the three most common receptors that are typically identified during the testing process to determine which type of treatment is best to fight the cancer. A diagnosis of TNBC means that HER 2 gene is not present, estrogen and progesterone receptors are also not present in the tumor. While it sounds quite awful because of the triple negative factor and it can be a little different to treat it can actually be more responsive in the early stages to chemotherapy than other types of cancers.

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Tnbc Subtyping And Treatment Regimens

In 2011, Lehmann et al. performed gene expression profiling of tumor samples from 587 TNBC patients and divided TNBC into six subtypes: basal-like 1 , basal-like 2 , mesenchymal , mesenchymal stem-like , immunomodulatory , and luminal androgen receptor . They also performed gene profiling and compared existing TNBC breast cancer cell lines, classifying them into six different subtypes, thus providing an accurate cell model for clinical treatment of TNBC .

Table 1 Genomic TNBC subtypes and assignment of TNBC cell lines to subtypes

The Same But Different

New Treatment Shows Promise For Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

The story of progress in beating breast cancer is a testament to decades of painstaking work by researchers around the world. Nearly eight in 10 women diagnosed today will still be going strong ten years later, compared to around half that number back in the 1970s.

But this broadly positive picture of breast cancer hides a complex biological tapestry: not all breast cancers are equal.

For starters, around three quarters of all breast tumours are whats called ER positive, meaning they carry oestrogen receptors and so respond to the female sex hormone oestrogen. About two thirds of these are also PR positive, bearing receptors for another female hormone called progesterone. These types of cancers usually respond well to hormone-blocking treatments, such as tamoxifen, and there is a very good chance of surviving for a decade or more.

Then there are the HER2 positive bunch around one in five breast cancers. These carry multiple copies of a molecule called HER2, and tend to grow more aggressively. But they can be targeted by the drug Herceptin , which has helped to boost survival.

By a process of elimination, triple negative cancers are those that are left ER negative, PR negative and HER2 negative, and these make up roughly 15 per cent of all breast cancers somewhere in the region of 7,500 cases every year in the UK. Younger women under 40 are more likely to have this type, as are black women, and the cancers tend to grow and spread aggressively.

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Oncogene Expression May Negatively Impact Breast Cancer Results

A comparatively new addition to the discussion of prognosis and breast cancer survival data is oncogene expression. An oncogene is a small fragment of genetic material which can causeĆ¢ ordinary cells to eventually become malignant, and which can be carried on a chromosome. The oncogene HER-2 in particular is linked to aggressive breast cancers. On average, women with HER-2 amplification get a substantially greater danger of dying within a couple of years from breast cancer, in comparison to girls without HER-2 amplification.

Thats some reviews about How Fast does triple negative cancer grow. From the above article you dont need to completely trust. Because if we keep a healthy life pattern so cancer can get away from ourselves. For information about other cancer diseases you can look it up on this website.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Clinical Trial

Ongoing clinical trial tried to investigate effectiveness and safety of different possible treatment for future use and also has several clinical trials in the pipeline. The patient can also enroll their name in these trials to get novel therapies and also assist in research by providing the data to the research team. The different research aim is different, some are investigating new therapies to treat the patient, whereas some drugs may use in preventive therapy. Name registration for a clinical trial is the first step to enrolling name to the research3,4.

References

  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer Johns Hopkins Medicine National Breast Cancer Foundation Online available at http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/triple-negative-breast-cancer
  • Heidi Godman Triple Negative Breast Cancer Outlook: Survival Rates Online available at http://www.healthline.com/health/triple-negative-breast-cancer-outlook-survival-rates-stage#Overview1
  • Triple negative breast cancer Breast Cancer Care Online available at https://www.breastcancercare.org.uk/information-support/facing-breast-cancer/diagnosed-breast-cancer/primary-breast-cancer/triple-negative-breast-cancer
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc Online available at https://ww5.komen.org/uploadedFiles/_Komen/
  • Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Org Online available at http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/diagnosis/trip_neg
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    Trials For Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Trials are comparing different types of chemotherapy to see which are better at treating advanced disease. For example, researchers are waiting for the results of the Triple Negative Trial to find out whether it is better to use carboplatin or docetaxel.

    Research is looking at using targeted cancer drugs alongside other treatments. For example, a trial is using a drug called atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy. Some trials are testing a drug called pembrolizumab. Researchers think that these targeted drugs on their own might help to control the growth of the cancer.

    • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence , July 2018

    • Biology and management of patients with triple negative breast cancerP SharmaThe Oncologist. 2016, Volume 21, Issue 9

    • 4th ESOESMO International Consensus Guidelines for Advanced Breast CancerF Cardoso and othersAnnals of Oncology,2018, Volume 29, pages 16341657

    • Early breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-upF Cardoso and others

    Treating Aggressive Breast Cancers

    Recurrence

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer undergo testing to determine the form of the disease and whats driving its growth. This information is key to developing an individualized treatment strategy. Choice of treatment also depends on how extensive the cancer is within the breast, whether it has metastasized, and whether the patient is menopausal.

    When either HER2-positive or triple-negative breast cancer is diagnosed early, surgery is often performed to remove the tumor and its surrounding tissue or the entire breast . Nearby lymph nodes sometimes are removed as well.

    Neoadjuvant therapy, a treatment given as a first step before the primary treatment, is standard for both HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers if the tumor can be surgically removed. Chemotherapy is often used as a neoadjuvant therapy before surgery to shrink the tumor. The goal is to reduce the area that needs to be removed so the surgery can be less extensive, possibly avoiding a mastectomy. For HER2-positive cancer, chemotherapy may be combined with targeted therapy, medication that acts on the specific cause of the cancer.

    After neoadjuvant therapy and surgery, the treatment strategies for HER2 and triple-negative breast cancers differ.

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    When Should I Go To The Emergency Room

    You might also have unusually strong side effects from your cancer treatment. While your healthcare provider likely gave you medication to help control your side effects, you should go to the emergency room if your side effects continue despite medication.

    Many cancer treatments affect your immune system, increasing the chance you will develop infections. Symptoms that might require an emergency room visit during treatment are:

    • Fever of 100.5 and above.
    • Chills.
    • Persistent nausea and vomiting.

    A Note About Statistics

    Survival rates are statistics, and as such tend to tell us how the “average” person will do with an “average” triple-negative breast cancer but people and tumors aren’t statistics. Some people will do better and some people will do worse.

    Very importantly, statistics are usually several years old. In order to calculate five-year survival rates, a person would have to have been diagnosed at least five years prior. And still there is lag time. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer is changing, and new drugs have been approved.

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    Triple Negative Breast Cancer Facts

    1. Hormone treatments is not possible with this type of breast cancer.2. This is a much rarer type of breast cancer that affects a higher rate of Hispanics, African Americans, younger people and people that have a BRACA 1 gene mutation.3. Approximately 80% of BRACA 1 gene mutation tumors are triple negative.4. There is a strong correlation between an autosomal inheritance pattern and TNBC but most studies fall short of calling it a causal relationship.5. This cancer is harder to treat, is more likely to recur in the first five years after treatment and can be more aggressive BUT all of the factors including successful treatment largely depend on the stage in which the cancer is identified and the grade of the tumor.6. TNBC has a higher recurrence rate in the first five years after remission while other cancers like estrogen receptor positive cancers have much lower rates of recurrence during the first five years of remission.7. While TNBC recurs at a higher rate in the first five years once the five year mark passes with each additional year of survival the odds of recurrence is drastically reduced.8. After 5 years the chance of recurrence of TNBC is reduced by 50%.9. With each year after the 5 year mark the chance of recurrence is reduced by an additional 10%-15%.10. Long term survivors have almost a 0% rate that the disease will recur. With other breast cancers the recurrence rate climbs after the first 5 years.

    Progress In Treating Her2

    Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer and traditionally have had lower survival rates than other types of the disease. However, early detection with routine screening has contributed to improved survival for both in recent years. Further, treatment advancesall available at Regional Cancer Care Associates , one of the nations largest networks of cancer specialists with locations in New Jersey, Maryland, and Connecticutalso have helped improve outcomes in HER2-positive cancer. Meanwhile, intensive research and emerging therapeutic strategies are offering new hope for women with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Four RCCA medical oncologists recently explained what drives the development of these breast cancers, how they are treated, and how women can play an important and potentially life-saving role in identifying the cancers in their earliest stages, when they can be treated most effectively.

    Aileen Chen, MD, a board-certified medical oncologist practicing with RCCA in Freehold and Holmdel, NJ says, Its an exciting time in the fight against breast cancer. Next-generation sequencing technology is detecting genetic mutations that we can treat with targeted therapies in many forms of the disease. This has enhanced our ability to practice personalized medicine by customizing a patients treatment based on her molecular and genetic profiles.

    Also Check: Breast Cancer Remission Rate

    What Are Breast Cancer Subtypes And Why Do They Matter

    Your breast cancer subtype is one factor healthcare providers take into account when theyre deciding how to treat your cancer. Thats because not all cancer treatments are successful with all breast cancer subtypes.

    Providers look at your cancer cells to identify subtypes. Specifically, they look for molecules on your cells surfaces. These molecules, called receptors, are built to order so only certain substances can climb on and start affecting what your cells do.

    Breast cancer cells receptors are open to estrogen and progesterone. Understanding if your breast cancer cells have receptors and if theyre housing hormones helps providers determine how your breast cancer might spread and what treatment might be most effective.

    The other type of breast cancer that has another receptor is called her-2 neu. This receptor makes the cells more active, but allows healthcare providers to treat the cancer with specific medicines that target her-2 proteins. If your breast cancer doesnt have her-2 neu and hormone receptors, its called triple negative.

    What Is The Survival Rate For Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Survival rates are a way to discuss the prognosis and outlook of a cancer diagnosis. The number most frequently mentioned is 5-year survival. Many patients live much longer, and some die earlier from causes other than breast cancer. With a constant change and improvement in therapies, these numbers also change. Current 5-year survival statistics are based on patients who were diagnosed at least 5 years ago and may have received different therapies than are available today.

    Below are the statistics from the National Cancer Institute’s SEER database for survival of all patients with breast cancer, by tumor stage:

    Stage
    IV22%

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