Safe Handling In Health Care Settings
As of 2018, there were no set for antineoplastic drugs, i.e., OSHA or the have not set workplace safety guidelines.
NIOSH recommends using a that is designed to decrease worker exposure. Additionally, it recommends training of all staff, the use of cabinets, implementing an initial evaluation of the technique of the safety program, and wearing protective gloves and gowns when opening drug packaging, handling vials, or labeling. When wearing , one should inspect gloves for physical defects before use and always wear double gloves and protective gowns. Health care workers are also required to wash their hands with water and soap before and after working with antineoplastic drugs, change gloves every 30 minutes or whenever punctured, and discard them immediately in a chemotherapy waste container.
The gowns used should be disposable gowns made of polyethylene-coated polypropylene. When wearing gowns, individuals should make sure that the gowns are closed and have long sleeves. When preparation is done, the final product should be completely sealed in a plastic bag.
The health care worker should also wipe all waste containers inside the ventilated cabinet before removing them from the cabinet. Finally, workers should remove all protective wear and put them in a bag for their disposal inside the ventilated cabinet.
Housekeeping and waste disposal
Origin Of The Word Cancer
The origin of the word cancer is credited to the Greek physician Hippocrates , who is considered the Father of Medicine. Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and carcinoma to describe non-ulcer forming and ulcer-forming tumors. In Greek, these words refer to a crab, most likely applied to the disease because the finger-like spreading projections from a cancer called to mind the shape of a crab. The Roman physician, Celsus , later translated the Greek term into cancer, the Latin word for crab. Galen , another Greek physician, used the word oncos to describe tumors. Although the crab analogy of Hippocrates and Celsus is still used to describe malignant tumors, Galens term is now used as a part of the name for cancer specialists oncologists.
Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer
Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. Diagnosing breast cancer usually begins when you find a lump in your breast or a screening mammography suggests a problem with the breast. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and do a physical exam. Based on this information, your doctor may refer you to a specialist or order tests to check for breast cancer or other health problems.
The process of diagnosis may seem long and frustrating. Its normal to worry, but try to remember that other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as breast cancer. Its important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of breast cancer.
The following tests are usually used to rule out or diagnose breast cancer. Many of the same tests used to diagnose cancer are used to find out the stage . Your doctor may also order other tests to check your general health and to help plan your treatment.
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The Human Genome Project
The omics era essentially began in the 21st century, raising expectations that advances in human genomics and related fields such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics will lead to enhanced progress in diagnosis, therapy and disease prevention. The world’s largest collaborative biological project was the sequencing of the human genome, which was completed and reported by the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium on April 14, 2003 . This project steered the genomic revolution, and molecular technologies have diversified since 2003. This has opened up strategies to study cancer and discover novel and more effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the disease. Several cancer databases were created in the first decade of the 21st century. For instance, the Cancer Genome Atlas project, founded in the United States in 2005, uses large-scale genome sequencing and bioinformatics to catalogue cancer-related mutations, which has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer .
What Early Physicians Thought Caused Cancer
In Ancient Greece, much less was known about the human body than what is known today, of course. For example, Hippocrates believed that the body was composed of four fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. He believed that an excess of black bile in any given site in the body caused cancer. This was the general thought of the cause of cancer for the next 1,400 years. In ancient Egypt, it was believed that cancer was caused by the Gods.
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I Surrounded Myself With Love And Laughter
Jaqueline Beale, 59, comes from a family with a long history of cancer, including her mother who had breast cancer. Thats why it wasnt a huge surprise when, at 40, she found a lump during a self-breast exam. Even though a sonogram and mammogram came back clear, it was obvious that something wasnt right, so Beale got a biopsy.
When the radiologist called with her resultstage I breast cancer, which means the cancer hadnt spread beyond where abnormal cells developed6she could hear a lot of noise in the background. He said, Im in New York trying to hail a cab, but you have breast cancer. You need to find a breast surgeon. Despite the bluntness, Beale says she couldnt help but find the humor in the situation, which is something she carried with her through treatment.
I made sure that I surrounded myself with laughter and love, she says, and I told my family that I knew they loved me, but I also needed a lot of laughter to get through it.
She recalls one incident in an elevator after her sister had taken her to a chemo treatment. I had been sick as a dog after, and a woman got in and asked if I was okay. My sister said, Oh, shes fine, shes just got a little bit of cancer. The woman looked horrified, but I laughed. My family knew that their sense of humor is what I needed.
Effects On Pituitary System
commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head and neck tumours, and following whole body irradiation for systemic malignancies. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism mainly affects and . In contrast, and deficiencies are the least common among people with radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Changes in -secretion is usually mild, and vasopressin deficiency appears to be very rare as a consequence of radiation.
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‘i Noticed What Felt Like A Frozen Pea In My Armpit’
During a routine breast self-exam, I felt a really tiny lump. It didnt hurt, but it was mobile and felt like a frozen pea. It was right inside my armpit, which seemed odd at first, but I remembered that your breast tissue actually extends into your armpit. This didnt feel consistent with the breast changes that came along with my menstrual cycle.
“I actually kept quite calm, even though in my gut, I knew what was going on. So I called my ob-gyn, who offered to take a look during my next annual exam, which was months away. After nothing changed in a week, I called the breast center at my local hospital and demanded to be seen. After imaging and biopsies, I was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 24.
“From my experience, I hope that other women will learn that you need to monitor changes in your body, but its futile if youre afraid to speak up about them. Women need to have the confidence to speak up.
Brittany Whitman, Cleveland Education Ambassador for Bright Pink
‘i Felt Something Like A Hard Round Piece Of Cheese’
After a shower one night, I did a self-breast check. I felt something like a round, hard piece of cheese about the size of a quarter. I had just had a mammogram six months earlier. I felt healthy, biked all the time, and wouldnt have guessed that something wasnt right in my body. But I didnt wait to see what was going on. I went to the doctor immediately and was referred for an ultrasound and needle biopsy. I was diagnosed at age 46 with stage 3 breast cancer, and soon after had a mastectomy. I would never recommend to anyone to ‘wait and see.’ While it was a very scary realization, youre only saving yourself if you take care of it aggressively.
Sandy Hanshaw, founder of Bike for Boobs, San Diego
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History Of Breast Cancer Treatment
People have known about breast cancer since ancient times. For most of that time, there were no effective treatments. However, in the last 120 years, advances in surgical and medical treatments have meant that today, 98 percent of patients with localized breast cancer survive at least five years after diagnosis. The following timeline shows the development of breast cancer treatments.
Further Tests After Diagnosis
If the biopsy results show there are breast cancer cells, you will need further tests.
You may have the following tests to check your general health:
- Blood test
You have a blood test to check your general health and how well your kidneys and liver are working
- Chest x-ray
You will have a chest x-ray to check your lungs and heart.
You may have tests to find out more about the size of the cancer, or if it has spread anywhere else in the body :
- MRI scan
An MRI scan uses magnetism to build up detailed pictures of your body. It may be done to find out the size of the cancer and help decide on the operation you have.
- CT scan
A CT scan takes a series of x-rays, which build up a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body.
- Bone scan
A bone scan shows up abnormal areas of bone. You have a small amount of a radioactive substance injected into a vein and wait for 2 to 3 hours to have the scan.
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New Discovery In Breast Cancer Treatment
Researchers at the University of Adelaide have found new evidence about the positive role of androgens in breast cancer treatment with immediate implications for women with estrogen receptor-driven metastatic disease.
Published today in Nature Medicine, the international study conducted in collaboration with the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, looked at the role of androgens commonly thought of as male sex hormones but also found at lower levels in women as a potential treatment for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.
Watch a video explainer about the new study at –
In normal breast development, estrogen stimulates and androgen inhibits growth at puberty and throughout adult life. Abnormal estrogen activity is responsible for the majority of breast cancers, but the role of androgen activity in this disease has been controversial.
This work has immediate implications for women with metastatic estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, including those resistant to current forms of endocrine therapy.”Associate Professor Theresa Hickey
Androgens were historically used to treat breast cancer, but knowledge of hormone receptors in breast tissue was rudimentary at the time and the treatments efficacy misunderstood. Androgen therapy was discontinued due to virilising side effects and the advent of anti-estrogenic endocrine therapies.
‘my Breast Looked A Little Pink’
In the shower one day, I noticed a pale pinkness on my breast just below my nipple area, which looked more like a mild sunburn than a rash. I knew something was off. I had my ob-gyn take a look, and he said he wasnt concerned at all because it was barely noticeable. He suggested my bra fit too snugly, and I needed to go shopping for new bras. So I did just that.
“Over time, that pink area hardened slightly and was sore to the touch. My ob-gyn again said he wasnt concerned. Eventually the pain increased behind my breast in my back. My ob-gyn said that breast cancer does not hurt, so I didnt need to worry about it. He ordered a mammogram to put my mind at ease. The mammogram and all other tests came back normal.
“Weeks went by and my lower back began to hurt. Eventually, after my GP suggested I had arthritis and I went to physical therapy. I went to see a breast specialist. He told me I had mastitis and gave me antibiotics. That didnt help. Back at the breast surgeon, he sent a picture of my breast to the top surgeon who ordered a diagnostic mammogram, which includes a sonogram and a biopsy. I was diagnosed with Stage IV inflammatory breast cancer in my breast, bones, and liver.
Jennifer Cordts, stay-at-home mom, Dallas
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Cancer Originates From Normal Tissue
Major advances in human pathology and safety during surgery as well as progress in oncology marked the 19th century. For instance, in 1838, German pathologist Johannes Muller proposed that cancer cells developed from the blastema between the normal tissues and not from the lymphatic system, and later Rudolph Virchow demonstrated that tumors were composed of cells . It was during this time that hand-washing was promoted and the pasteurization technique was invented as a precautionary measure during surgery. Joseph Lister introduced the concept of surgical antisepsis using carbolic acid spray aseptic techniques were adopted for the first time by the Baltic German surgeon Ernst von Bergmann and surgical masks and sterile rubber surgical gloves were also introduced . However, a major progress in surgery occurred on October 16, 1846 when William T. G. Morton pioneered and publicly demonstrated the use of ether as anesthesia for surgery .
Worlds Most Prevalent Cancer
As of the end of 2020, there are 7.8 million women living with a breast cancer diagnosis made within the last five years, making it the worlds most prevalent cancer, according to the World Health Organization .
Breast cancer is not a transmissible or infectious disease and the reasons it develops are not fully understood.
The WHO says approximately half of breast cancer cases develop in women who have no identifiable breast cancer risk factor other than gender and age .
Certain factors increase the risk of breast cancer, including increasing age, obesity, harmful use of alcohol, family history of breast cancer, history of radiation exposure, tobacco use and postmenopausal hormone therapy.
The new studies say that the observations, for the first time, identify an environmental chemical that may account for the increase in the incidence of breast cancer.
The studies also point out the incrimination of aluminium salts in breast carcinogenesis is reminiscent of the history of asbestos and that aluminium salts are not just used in antiperspirant deodorants but other cosmetic products such as sunscreen too.
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This Breast Cancer Gene Is Less Well Known But Nearly As Dangerous
PALB2 is not as well known as BRCA, but mutations of the gene can raise a womans risk for breast cancer almost as much.
For years, women with breast cancer in their families have been getting tested for mutations in two genes, known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, to determine whether they have a sharply elevated risk of the disease.
Now, doctors are increasingly recommending that anyone who was tested before 2014 go through genetic testing again to look for a different mutation, one much less widely known.
Its on a gene called PALB2, and people who have the mutation have almost as great a risk of getting breast cancer as those who have the BRCA mutations. Like the BRCA mutations, this mutation also increases a patients risk of ovarian and pancreatic cancer.
Anyone who gets a genetic test for breast cancer now will likely be screened for PALB2 mutations, which were found in 2014 to significantly raise breast cancer risk. But many patients screened before 2014 were not tested for it and may have a false sense of security if they were found to be free of the BRCA mutations, breast cancer experts said.
Even now, few patients have heard of the gene, while BRCA is familiar to many.
This spring, a major association of medical geneticists issued new guidance for patients and doctors advising that women with PALB2 mutations be surveilled similarly to patients with BRCA mutations, and that, depending on family history, mastectomies could be an option to reduce the risk in some patients.
‘it Felt Like There Was A Marble In My Breast’
I had fibrous breasts, so even on a good day, my breasts felt like a bag of frozen peas. I had been receiving Bright Pinks Breast Health reminder texts to check my breasts, so I was pretty familiar with how my breasts felt. However one day I felt a lump in my left breast near my nipple, which seemed to be the size of a marble or gumball. This lump felt different. It was hard, but had a bit of a give to it.
“From the moment I felt the lump, I knew I had breast cancer. I went in that day for an appointment with my gynecologist, who ordered a mammogram for later that afternoon. After that, I had a core needle biopsy, but the tests all came back negative. I never felt relieved or satisfied with that result.
“At a later breast check, I felt the lump had grown, so I insisted my gynecologist help me find a surgeon to remove the lump. It was removed and I was told it was stage 2, aggressive triple negative breast cancer. I also discovered I was BRCA-1 positive, meaning I had the breast cancer gene. I cant stress it enough, listen to your body!
Erin Scheithe, DC Education Ambassador for Bright Pink, Washington, D.C.
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