Why Was Galens Cancer Called Karkinos
He named the cancer karkinos, a Greek word for crab, because the tumors seemed to have tentacles, like the legs of a crab. Thereafter in A.D. 200, Galen described the cancer as well. He also suggested excessive black bile but, unlike Hippocrates, he postulated that some tumors were more dangerous than others.
Lessons From The History Of Surgery In Breast Cancer
There are three lessons to be gained from the history of surgery in breast cancer. First, to delve into history is to rediscover buried insights: Galens perceptive assessment that breast cancer is a systemic disease was echoed two millennia later in Fishers 20th century observations. Second, the evolution of therapeutic weaponry raises the fortunes of medical disciplines or minimises their supremacy as stand-alone choices for panacea or cure . Third, stooping to conquer is the mark of survival in contemporary medical practice. Surgery has won the day by adapting and playing a complementary role in modern cancer management as a stylised, scientific and patient-friendly craft.
How Important Is Early Detection
The emphasis on early detection of breast cancer is due to the significant impact it has on the survival rate. Per the ACS, the 5-year survival rates for localized breast cancer is 99%. For patients with regional breast cancer , that number falls to 86% for cancer that has spread to more distant parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate is just 29%.
Early detection and diagnosis is extremely beneficial however, many patients struggle with access to the level of care needed to receive an early diagnosis. A study published in Cancer in 2021 examined the importance of early detection and the disparities many women face, and found that women in lower income areas worldwide struggle with access to care and receiving a timely diagnosis.
Many lower income areas struggle to have mammogram machines, potentially deprioritizing them due to how expensive they are and the fact they are used exclusively for breast imaging. Lower income patients may struggle to afford a mammogram, or may not be able to travel to an office that has that capability. A late stage breast cancer diagnosis often correlates with economic struggles and larger health expenditures than early detection. The researchers concluded that more needs to be done to make these early screening methods more widely available and affordable for all women.
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This Breast Cancer Gene Is Less Well Known But Nearly As Dangerous
PALB2 is not as well known as BRCA, but mutations of the gene can raise a womans risk for breast cancer almost as much.
For years, women with breast cancer in their families have been getting tested for mutations in two genes, known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, to determine whether they have a sharply elevated risk of the disease.
Now, doctors are increasingly recommending that anyone who was tested before 2014 go through genetic testing again to look for a different mutation, one much less widely known.
Its on a gene called PALB2, and people who have the mutation have almost as great a risk of getting breast cancer as those who have the BRCA mutations. Like the BRCA mutations, this mutation also increases a patients risk of ovarian and pancreatic cancer.
Anyone who gets a genetic test for breast cancer now will likely be screened for PALB2 mutations, which were found in 2014 to significantly raise breast cancer risk. But many patients screened before 2014 were not tested for it and may have a false sense of security if they were found to be free of the BRCA mutations, breast cancer experts said.
Even now, few patients have heard of the gene, while BRCA is familiar to many.
This spring, a major association of medical geneticists issued new guidance for patients and doctors advising that women with PALB2 mutations be surveilled similarly to patients with BRCA mutations, and that, depending on family history, mastectomies could be an option to reduce the risk in some patients.
How Common Is Breast Cancer By Age
Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. About 80% of women diagnosed with breast cancer each year are ages 45 or older, and about 43% are ages 65 or above. Consider this: In women ages 40 to 50, there is a one in 69 risk of developing breast cancer. From ages 50 to 60, that risk increases to one in 43.
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After Receiving Her Fifth Cancer Diagnosis Susie Lee Wasnt Prepared To Hear It Was Metastatic
As a four-time cancer survivor Susie Lee, 47 was, unfortunately, no stranger to the disease. When her doctor told her that she had HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer , she said she was absolutely crushed.
With metastatic breast cancer its difficult to get past the verbiage: incurable, terminal, late stage, she said.
At the end of 2020, Susie was preparing for a routine implant replacement with her plastic surgeon. But before her surgery, she wanted her oncology surgeon to check out a slightly painful spot that never healed correctly from her previous biopsy and lumpectomy.
When he saw it, he wanted to do an immediate in-office biopsy, she said. I knew right then that it was not a good sign.
On New Years Eve 2020, her surgeon called. She braced herself for a diagnosis. She had been through this before.
It was canceragain. I had to go through all the tests to see if it had spread, she said.
While she predicted the call meant another diagnosis, she couldnt have predicted her doctor saying the words, Its metastatic breast cancer. At the time, she had no idea what metastatic meant.
None of my cancers were metastatic, all were caught in the early stages, she said.
She had no idea what to expect for her treatment since there is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. Soon after her diagnosis, Susie began the HER2-targeted treatments Herceptin and Perjeta, as well as chemotherapy.
Read more stories from BCRFs Research Is the Reason storytelling initiative here.
The New Frontier Of Genetic Testing
As scientists deepen their understanding of the role of genetics in breast cancer risk, research has turned to developing individualized breast cancer treatments based on a womans genetic makeup. Meanwhile, some research focuses on techniques to repair or even replace harmful genes before breast cancer occurs.
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Worlds Most Prevalent Cancer
As of the end of 2020, there are 7.8 million women living with a breast cancer diagnosis made within the last five years, making it the worlds most prevalent cancer, according to the World Health Organization .
Breast cancer is not a transmissible or infectious disease and the reasons it develops are not fully understood.
The WHO says approximately half of breast cancer cases develop in women who have no identifiable breast cancer risk factor other than gender and age .
Certain factors increase the risk of breast cancer, including increasing age, obesity, harmful use of alcohol, family history of breast cancer, history of radiation exposure, tobacco use and postmenopausal hormone therapy.
The new studies say that the observations, for the first time, identify an environmental chemical that may account for the increase in the incidence of breast cancer.
The studies also point out the incrimination of aluminium salts in breast carcinogenesis is reminiscent of the history of asbestos and that aluminium salts are not just used in antiperspirant deodorants but other cosmetic products such as sunscreen too.
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It Felt Like There Was A Marble In My Breast
I had fibrous breasts, so even on a good day, my breasts felt like a bag of frozen peas. I had been receiving Bright Pinks Breast Health reminder texts to check my breasts, so I was pretty familiar with how my breasts felt. However one day I felt a lump in my left breast near my nipple, which seemed to be the size of a marble or gumball. This lump felt different. It was hard, but had a bit of a give to it.
âFrom the moment I felt the lump, I knew I had breast cancer. I went in that day for an appointment with my gynecologist, who ordered a mammogram for later that afternoon. After that, I had a core needle biopsy, but the tests all came back negative. I never felt relieved or satisfied with that result.
âAt a later breast check, I felt the lump had grown, so I insisted my gynecologist help me find a surgeon to remove the lump. It was removed and I was told it was stage 2, aggressive triple negative breast cancer. I also discovered I was BRCA-1 positive, meaning I had the breast cancer gene. I cant stress it enough, listen to your body!
Erin Scheithe, DC Education Ambassador for Bright Pink, Washington, D.C.
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Tumor Profiling And Chemotherapy
Some women who have hormone receptor-positive breast cancer should consider getting a tumor profiling test, such as Oncotype DX®, to see if chemotherapy is needed in addition to hormone therapy .
Tumor profiling can be used to help guide chemotherapy for early breast cancers that are all of the following :
- Estrogen receptor-positive
- Tumor size smaller than 5 cm
- Lymph node-negative or 1-3 positive lymph nodes
Tumor profiling may also be called genomic testing or molecular profiling.
For a summary of studies on trastuzumab and early breast cancer, visit the Breast Cancer Research Studies section.
Natural Ancient Remedies For Breast Cancer
Early remedies for breast cancer were aimed at offering temporary relief or prolonging life rather than attempting to cure the disease. The Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus echoed a sentiment which lasted many centuries when it pronounced: There is no treatment. Surgery was therefore generally avoided as futile and various herbal medicines or ointments preferred.
Common treatments used throughout history when treating breast cancer include:
- Purging of humors
- Prayers and rites to the Gods
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I Noticed What Felt Like A Frozen Pea In My Armpit
During a routine breast self-exam, I felt a really tiny lump. It didnt hurt, but it was mobile and felt like a frozen pea. It was right inside my armpit, which seemed odd at first, but I remembered that your breast tissue actually extends into your armpit. This didnt feel consistent with the breast changes that came along with my menstrual cycle.
âI actually kept quite calm, even though in my gut, I knew what was going on. So I called my ob-gyn, who offered to take a look during my next annual exam, which was months away. After nothing changed in a week, I called the breast center at my local hospital and demanded to be seen. After imaging and biopsies, I was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 24.
âFrom my experience, I hope that other women will learn that you need to monitor changes in your body, but its futile if youre afraid to speak up about them. Women need to have the confidence to speak up.
Brittany Whitman, Cleveland Education Ambassador for Bright Pink
Who Were The First Surgeons To Remove Lymph Nodes
Around the 1750s a number of surgeons, including Jean Louis Petit, Henri Le Dran, Claude-Nicolas Le Cat and Benjamin Bell, began performing breast cancer surgery removing lymph nodes. X Small, bean-shaped collections of immune tissue that filter out cell fluid and bacteria that may be circulating in the body.
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How Cancer Was Named
Although most people cite Hippocrates as the first person to use the word cancer, he didn’t actually use those words. Instead, Hippocrates used the Greek words carcinos and carcinoma when he wrote about tumors. These words were related to the Greek word for “crab” because Hippocrates thought the insides of the tumors looked like crabs . He started using the word karkinos to talk about cancer.
The Roman physician Celsus was the first to translate the word into “cancer.”
Removal Of The Tumor To Prevent Metastasis
In the mid-18th century, Henri Le Dran , a leading French physician, realized that cancer was not a systemic disease but a local affliction that progressed in stages. In 1757, he proposed the surgical removal of the breast tumor before it spread to the lymph nodes of the armpits. This resonated with the views of Claude-Nicolas Le Cat, who argued that surgery was the only method to treat breast cancer. This practice lasted well into the 20th century and eventually led to the application of radical mastectomy or extensive removal of the breast.
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Cancer Diagnoses Lag After Screenings Fall During Pandemic Us Study Finds
– Screenings for a variety of common cancers have not returned to pre-pandemic levels, potentially leading to diagnoses later in the course of the disease when it may be more difficult to treat successfully, U.S. data published on Thursday suggest.
In 2020 – the first year of the pandemic – average rates of screening for breast cancer fell by 40%, for cervical cancer by 36%, and for colorectal cancer by 45%, compared to the three previous years, according to an analysis of medical claims data from 306 million adults.
Diagnoses of breast, cervical and colorectal cancers dropped by roughly 6% to 7% between 2019 and 2020 and by an additional 5% to 6% between 2020 and 2021, the researchers also found.
The decrease in diagnoses “does not mean these cancers are suddenly less common,” said study leader Allison Oakes of data analytics company Trilliant Health in Brentwood, Tennessee. “Rather, it means there are people with cancer who are going to be diagnosed at a later, more severe stage of the disease.”
Ongoing analysis of 2022 data suggests screening rates in 2022 are unlikely to have improved dramatically, Oakes said.
“We do not see significant changes in behavior when looking quarter-over-quarter,” she added.
The issue appears to go beyond cancer testing, the study found.
Healthcare utilization for non-COVID, non-mental-health issues in the first quarter of 2022 was 6.2% lower than in the first quarter of 2019, Oakes said.
Breast Cancer Detection: How It Is Found And The Importance Of Early Detection
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in women, with the American Cancer Society estimating there to be approximately 287,850 new cases of invasive breast cancer in women in the United States.¹ Although the ACS reports that breast cancer death rates have decreased since 1989, they still estimate around 43,250 women will die of breast cancer in the US in 2022.
Detecting and diagnosing breast cancer early is the most effective way to reduce mortality rates. However, patients may not have all the information they need about whether they are at risk, when they should get checked, and the different ways breast cancer can be found. Healthy communication between health care professionals and patients on these topics can be helpful in educating patients. What can you tell your patients about breast cancer, specifically regarding early detection and the ways it is diagnosed?
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Development Of The Systemic Theory
- In 1955, George Crile suggested that cancer was not localized but rather is spread throughout the body. Bernard Fisher also suggested the capability of cancer to metastasize. In 1976, Fisher published results using simpler breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation or chemotherapy. He noted that these were just as effective as radical mastectomy. With advent of modern medici
When To Consider Joining A Clinical Trial
If youre newly diagnosed with early or locally advanced breast cancer, consider joining a clinical trial before starting treatment. For most people, treatment doesnt usually start right after diagnosis. So, theres time to look for a clinical trial that youre eligible for and fits your needs.
Once youve begun standard treatment for early or locally advanced breast cancer, it can be hard to join a clinical trial.
Learn more about clinical trials.
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What Was The First Case Of Breast Cancer
The first mention of cancer of any kind was a case of breast cancer documented in Egypt around 1600 BC. The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an ancient text found in 1860 in an Egyptian tomb, described eight cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast. The first doctors attempting to treat breast cancer wrote of the mysterious disease: There is no treatment!
How To Identify Breast Cancer Early
Breast self-exam, or regularly examining your breasts on your own, can be an important way to find a breastcancerearly, when its more likely to be treated successfully. While no single test can detect all breast cancers early, Breastcancer.org believes that performing breast self-exam in combination with other screening methods can
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Cancer In The Nineteenth Century
The 19th century saw the birth of scientific oncology with use of the modern microscope in studying diseased tissues. Rudolf Virchow, often called the founder of cellular pathology, provided the scientific basis for the modern pathologic study of cancer. As Morgagni had linked autopsy findings seen with the unaided eye with the clinical course of illness, so Virchow correlated microscopic pathology to illness.
This method not only allowed a better understanding of the damage cancer had done, but also aided the development of cancer surgery. Body tissues removed by the surgeon could now be examined and a precise diagnosis could be made. The pathologist could also tell the surgeon whether the operation had completely removed the cancer.