What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer
The most common types of breast cancer are:
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast. It then breaks through the wall of the duct and invades the surrounding tissue in the breast. This is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for 80% of cases.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ is ductal carcinoma in its earliest stage, or precancerous . In situ refers to the fact that the cancer hasn’t spread beyond its point of origin. In this case, the disease is confined to the milk ducts and has not invaded nearby breast tissue. If untreated, ductal carcinoma in situ may become invasive cancer. It is almost always curable.
- Infiltrating lobular carcinoma. This cancer begins in the lobules of the breast where breast milk is produced, but has spread to surrounding tissues in the breast. It accounts for 10 to 15% of breast cancers. This cancer can be more difficult to diagnose with mammograms.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ is a marker for cancer that is only in the lobules of the breast. It isn’t a true cancer, but serves as a marker for the increased risk of developing breast cancer later, possibly in both or either breasts. Thus, it is important for women with lobular carcinoma in situ to have regular clinical breast exams and mammograms.
Common Breast Cancer Types
After skin cancer, breast cancer;is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in women. About 284,200 cases will be diagnosed in 2021, according to the American Cancer Society . Men also may develop breast cancer, though its much more rare.
Breast cancer is classified into different types based on how the cells look under a microscope. Most breast cancers are carcinomas, a type of cancer that begins in the linings of most organs.
Who Gets Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women other than skin cancer. Increasing age is the most common risk factor for developing breast cancer, with 66% of breast cancer patients being diagnosed after the age of 55.
In the US, breast cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer, and it’s the leading cause of cancer death among women ages 35 to 54. Only 5 to 10% of breast cancers occur in women with a clearly defined genetic predisposition for the disease. The majority of breast cancer cases are “sporadic, meaning there is no definitive gene mutation.
Also Check: Why Is Breast Cancer Important
Saudi Arabians: Somatic Mutations In Breast Cancer: New Opportunities
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women.
Oncotarget published Landscape of somatic mutations in breast cancer: new opportunities for targeted therapies in Saudi Arabian patients which reported that the association between genetic polymorphisms in tumor suppressor genes and the risk of BCa has been studied in many ethnic populations with conflicting conclusions while Arab females and Saudi Arabian studies are still lacking.
The authors screened a cohort of Saudi BCa patients by NGS using a bespoke gene panel to clarify the genetic landscape of this population, correlating and assessing genetic findings with clinical outcomes.
They identified a total of 263 mutations spanning 51 genes, including several frequently mutated.
Among the genes analyzed, the highest mutation rates were found in PIK3CA, BRCA2, BRCA1, TP53, MSH2, PMS2, BARD1, MLH1, CDH1, RAD50, MSH6, NF1, in addition to others.
They identified multiple common recurrent variants and previously reported mutations.
They also reveal the landscape of the mutations associated with BCa in Saudi women, highlighting the importance of routine genetic sequencing in implementation of precision therapies in KSA.
Dr. Malak Abedalthagafi from The King Fahad Medical City and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology said, Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women.
Estrogen receptor signaling;
What Symptoms Should You Have Checked Out
It is very important for you to be familiar with your body and your breasts. This way you will be more likely to notice when something does not seem normal.
You may just be glancing at your body in the mirror and notice an irregularity in your breast. Or you may be showering and feel something like a lump or area of thicker tissue. Regular breast self-exams can also help you spot a change. When you notice something that looks or feels abnormal, dont be afraid or embarrassed to get it checked by a healthcare provider.;
While breast cancer does not always have noticeable symptoms, some of the early signs that a tumor is developing are:;
- A dimpling or puckering in the skin of the breast
- A pitting in the skin or a change in texture, resembling an orange peel
- A color change in the skin, like a red- or purple-colored rash
- An area of warmth or swelling
- An abnormal nipple discharge
- A crusting, scaling, itching, or redness around the nipple
- A nipple that appear to be turning inwards;
- A change in the size or shape of the breast
In addition, what you might feel includes:
- A thickening, knot, lump, or nodule in your breast or under your arms
- Enlarged or swollen glands in your armpits or around your collarbone
- A swelling or heaviness in the breast;
- Pain in the breast or in a nipple
Recommended Reading: What Is The Name Of The Breast Cancer Gene
Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer
To determine if your symptoms are caused by breast cancer or a benign breast condition, your doctor will do a thorough physical exam in addition to a breast exam. They may also request one or more diagnostic tests to help understand whats causing your symptoms.
Tests that can help diagnose breast cancer include:
- Mammogram. The most common way to see below the surface of your breast is with an imaging test called a mammogram. Many women ages 40 and older get annual mammograms to check for breast cancer. If your doctor suspects you may have a tumor or suspicious spot, they will also request a mammogram. If an abnormal area is seen on your mammogram, your doctor may request additional tests.
- Ultrasound. A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of the tissues deep in your breast. An ultrasound can help your doctor distinguish between a solid mass, such as a tumor, and a benign cyst.
Your doctor may also suggest tests such as an MRI or a breast biopsy.
If you dont already have a primary care doctor, you can browse doctors in your area through the Healthline FindCare tool.
Benign Breast Lumps And Future Cancer Risk
- Women who had a history of benign breast disease are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who have never had any breast disease. According to a 2019 study in the International Journal of Cancer, benign breast disease increases the risk of developing breast cancer in the future, in addition to the risk that a woman may already have due to family history, personal breast cancer history, or a genetic mutation.
Recommended Reading: Does Breast Cancer Make You Lose Hair
External Beam Radiation Therapy
The following three sections refer to treatment using x-rays.
Conventional external beam radiation therapy
Historically conventional external beam radiation therapy was delivered via two-dimensional beams using kilovoltage therapy x-ray units, medical linear accelerators that generate high-energy x-rays, or with machines that were similar to a linear accelerator in appearance, but used a sealed radioactive source like the one shown above. 2DXRT mainly consists of a single beam of radiation delivered to the patient from several directions: often front or back, and both sides.
Conventional refers to the way the treatment is planned or simulated on a specially calibrated diagnostic x-ray machine known as a simulator because it recreates the linear accelerator actions , and to the usually well-established arrangements of the radiation beams to achieve a desired plan. The aim of simulation is to accurately target or localize the volume which is to be treated. This technique is well established and is generally quick and reliable. The worry is that some high-dose treatments may be limited by the radiation toxicity capacity of healthy tissues which lie close to the target tumor volume.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy
Where Does Breast Cancer Spread
When breast cancer spreads beyond the breast, it typically first travels to nearby lymph nodes or glands. These are located in the armpits, chest, and around the collarbone.;
Someone with breast cancer may feel a swollen lymph node under the arm even before they notice a change or lump in the breast itself. This does not always mean there is cancer. Lymph nodes can swell for a number of reasons, with swelling often being a symptom of an infection. But similar to any abnormal symptoms in the breast, its best to be safe and get it checked out.
You May Like: How To See If You Have Breast Cancer
Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool
The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics.;It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.
See how the rates of new breast cancers or breast cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.
How Is Breast Cancer Treated
If the tests find cancer, you and your doctor will develop a treatment plan to eradicate the breast cancer, to reduce the chance of cancer returning in the breast, as well as to reduce the chance of the cancer traveling to a location outside of the breast. Treatment generally follows within a few weeks after the diagnosis.
The type of treatment recommended will depend on the size and location of the tumor in the breast, the results of lab tests done on the cancer cells, and the stage, or extent, of the disease. Your doctor will usually consider your age and general health as well as your feelings about the treatment options.
Breast cancer treatments are local or systemic. Local treatments are used to remove, destroy, or control the cancer cells in a specific area, such as the breast. Surgery and radiation treatment are local treatments. Systemic treatments are used to destroy or control cancer cells all over the body. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy are systemic treatments. A patient may have just one form of treatment or a combination, depending on her individual diagnosis.
Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
In its early stages, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. In many cases, a tumor may be too small to be felt, but an abnormality can still be seen on a mammogram.
If a tumor can be felt, the first sign is usually a new lump in the breast that was not there before. However, not all lumps are cancer.
Each type of breast cancer can cause a variety of symptoms. Many of these symptoms are similar, but some can be different. Symptoms for the most common breast cancers include:
- a breast lump or tissue thickening that feels different than surrounding tissue and has developed recently
- breast pain
- changes to the appearance of the skin on your breasts
- a lump or swelling under your arm
If you have any of these symptoms, it doesnt necessarily mean you have breast cancer. For instance, pain in your breast or a breast lump can be caused by a benign cyst.
Still, if you find a lump in your breast or have other symptoms, you should see your doctor for further examination and testing.
How Is Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Diagnosed
Same Day Results
At the Johns Hopkins Breast Center, we know how quickly patients want results from a biopsy or scan if there is a suspicion of breast cancer. We follow strict guidelines for biopsies and pathology reports. Most of our patients will receive the probability of cancer immediately following their biopsy procedure and a pathology confirmation within 24 hours.
Learn more about the steps of diagnosis, including:
- Digital mammography
- Biologic targeted therapy
Read Also: What Does Breast Cancer Cause
Tubular Carcinoma Of The Breast
Tubular carcinoma is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma . This type of breast cancer gets its name due to the tube-shaped structures, which can be seen under a microscope, that make up the tumor. The tumors are usually small and tend to grow slowly.
Tubular carcinoma is rare, accounting for up to 2 percent of invasive breast cancers.
Because these tumors are small, they are most often detected during a routine mammogram. They tend to be low grade with good prognosis.
Breast Cancer Now Most Common Form Of Cancer: Who Taking Action
The global cancer landscape; is changing, according to WHO; experts, on the eve of World Cancer Day 2021.;
Breast cancer has now overtaken lung cancer as the worlds mostly commonly-diagnosed cancer, according to statistics released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in December 2020.
So on World Cancer Day, WHO will host the first of a series of consultations in order to establish a new global breast cancer initiative, which will launch later in 2021. This collaborative effort between WHO, IARC, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other multi-sectoral partners, will reduce deaths from breast cancer by promoting breast health, improving timely cancer detection and ensuring access to quality care.
WHO and the cancer community are responding with renewed urgency to address breast cancer and to respond to the growing cancer burden globally that is straining individuals, communities and health systems.
In the past two decades, the overall number of people diagnosed with cancer nearly doubled, from an estimated 10 million in 2000 to 19.3 million in 2020. Today, one in 5 people worldwide will develop cancer during their lifetime. Projections suggest that the number of people being diagnosed with cancer will increase still further in the coming years, and will be nearly 50% higher in 2040 than in 2020.
The number of deaths from cancer has also increased, from 6.2 million in 2000 to 10 million in 2020. More than one out of every six deaths is due to cancer.
Recommended Reading: How Does Metastatic Breast Cancer Start
Mammography And Rates Of Early Detection Over Time
Mammography screening became widely available in the U.S. in the 1980s and 1990s. During this time, diagnoses of early stage breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma in situ , increased greatly . This was likely due to the increased use of mammography screening during this time period;.;
Among women 50 and older, rates of DCIS increased from 7 cases per 100,000 women in 1980 to 83 cases per 100,000 women in 2008 . From 2012-2016, rates of DCIS declined by about 2 percent per year .
The Role Prevention Plays
Can it be as simple as following rules of prevention?
Based on these kinds of studies, we still think that probably half of cancers are preventable and that includes in our own country, said Dr. James R. Cerhan, a professor of epidemiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
But we dont know all the risk factors yet. We still need a lot of research to find out, Cerhan told Healthline. Even though we know what to do, its hard to always pin that on just personal responsibility.
Theres a lot of structural things out there, food deserts in poor areas that cant get fresh fruits and vegetables or cant afford them, he said. Do you have green spaces close by where you live? Is it safe to walk in your neighborhood or go to the park to work out?
Then theres also access to medical care and healthcare facilities. So it might seem simple, but we need to think more about this at a societal level. How can we make communities healthier and lower their cancer burden? Cerhan added. It has huge payoffs for everybody. People can have longer, healthier lives, communities are more productive. So its a good investment over the long term.
Liza Bernstein, a three-time breast cancer survivor and patient advocate in Los Angeles, cautions that words matter.
Whereas risk reduction is a more realistic term. So with breast cancer, you can do things to mitigate or reduce your risk. There arent guarantees because so much is out of our control, she added.
Recommended Reading: Does Alcohol Increase The Risk Of Breast Cancer
Metastatic Breast Cancer At Diagnosis
Most often, metastatic breast cancer arises months or years after a person has completed treatment for early or locally advanced breast cancer.
Some people have metastatic breast cancer when they are first diagnosed. This is called de novo metastatic breast cancer. In the U.S., 9 percent of men have metastases when they are first diagnosed with breast cancer .
Learn more about metastatic breast cancer.