Guidelines For Breast Cancer Screening
Breast cancer screening guidelines for average risk women have become confusing. One organization recommends that women start getting mammograms every other year at age 50 and another recommends yearly mammograms between age 45 and 55 with every other year mammograms thereafter.;One reason for these differences is disagreement as to whether annual mammography in younger women can reduce the risk of dying of breast cancer. At Johns Hopkins, we continue to recommend annual mammography beginning at age 40 for average risk women,
Extra screening tests are recommended for women with higher than average risk for breast cancer. Current guidelines suggest that if you have more than a 20% risk of developing breast cancer during your lifetime you should consider adding screening breast MRI to your mammogram.;Women who carry mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, or CHEK2 will meet this risk threshold. Other women with family history of breast cancer or a history of a breast biopsy showing high risk changes may meet this criterion as well. You can calculate your breast cancer risk ;online using the Gail model or the BCSC model . Breast specialists in the Johns Hopkins Breast Center have access to additional resources for calculating your breast cancer risk. At Johns Hopkins enhanced surveillance for high risk women consists of a breast exam every 6 months alternating mammograms with MRI scans.
Having Dense Breast Tissue
Breasts are made up of fatty tissue, fibrous tissue, and glandular tissue. Breasts appear denser on a mammogram when they have more glandular and fibrous tissue and less fatty tissue. Women with dense breasts on mammogram have a risk of breast cancer that is about 1 1/2 to 2 times that of women with average breast density. Unfortunately, dense breast tissue can also make it harder to see cancers on mammograms.
A number of factors can affect breast density, such as age, menopausal status, the use of certain drugs , pregnancy, and genetics.
To learn more, see our information on breast density and mammograms.
How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed
During your regular physical examination, your doctor will take a thorough personal and family medical history. He or she will also perform and/or order one or more of the following:
- Breast examination: During the breast exam, the doctor will carefully feel the lump and the tissue around it. Breast cancer usually feels different than benign lumps.
- Digital mammography: An X-ray test of the breast can give important information about a breast lump. This is an X-ray image of the breast and is digitally recorded into a computer rather than on a film. This is generally the standard of care .
- Ultrasonography: This test uses sound waves to detect the character of a breast lump whether it is a fluid-filled cyst or a solid mass . This may be performed along with the mammogram.
Based on the results of these tests, your doctor may or may not request a biopsy to get a sample of the breast mass cells or tissue. Biopsies are performed using surgery or needles.
After the sample is removed, it is sent to a lab for testing. A pathologist a doctor who specializes in diagnosing abnormal tissue changes views the sample under a microscope and looks for abnormal cell shapes or growth patterns. When cancer is present, the pathologist can tell what kind of cancer it is and whether it has spread beyond the ducts or lobules .
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White Women Drink More Have Fewer Children And Are Less Likely To Breastfeed
White women are less likely to breastfeed, have fewer children, and are more likely to drink alcohol than South Asian and black counterparts. They are also more likely to have a first-degree relative such as a sister with breast cancer, a factor known to raise the risk of the disease.
The researchers note that the black and South Asian women in the study are first generation immigrants to the UK and suggest it is likely that the breast cancer risk of their children and grandchildren will go up as their lifestyles become more westernized.
Dr Gathani says:
Its important for women of all ethnic groups to understand what are the modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, such as obesity and excessive alcohol consumption, and to take measures to reduce their risk.
In the United States, where next to skin cancers, breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women, the American Cancer Society estimates that 1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in their lifetime.
In the UK, breast cancer is the most common cancer. And while more people are being diagnosed with the disease, survival rates are improving. Today, 80% of women survive more than 10 years after diagnosis.
Men Get Breast Cancer Too A Mans Lifetime Risk Of Breast Cancer Is About 1 In 1000
Many people do not realise that men have breast tissue and that they can develop breast cancer. But breast cancer is less common in men because their breast duct cells are less developed than those of women and because they normally have lower levels of female hormones that affect the growth of breast cells.
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Inheriting Certain Gene Changes
About 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, meaning that they result directly from gene changes passed on from a parent.
BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer.
- If you have inherited a mutated copy of either gene from a parent, you have a higher risk of breast cancer.
- On average, a woman with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation has up to a 7 in 10 chance of getting breast cancer by age 80. This risk is also affected by how many other family members have had breast cancer. ;
- Women with one of these mutations are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age, as well as to have cancer in both breasts.
- Women with one of these gene changes also have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer and some other cancers.
- In the United States, BRCA mutations are more common in Jewish people of Ashkenazi origin than in other racial and ethnic groups, but anyone can have them.
Other genes: Other gene mutations can also lead to inherited breast cancers. These gene mutations are much less common, and most of them do not increase the risk of breast cancer as much as the BRCA genes.
Mutations in several other genes have also been linked to breast cancer, but these account for only a small number of cases.
White Women More Prone To Breast Cancer Because Of Lifestyle
In England, black and South Asian women have lower rates of breast cancer than white women. Now, a new study from Oxford University suggests the reason lies with differences in lifestyle and reproductive patterns.
The team, from Oxfords Cancer Epidemiology Unit, lists alcohol consumption, breastfeeding and number of children as some of the factors.
The data for the study, which is published in the British Journal of Cancer came from the Million Women Study, which is run by Oxford University and whose participants comprise women aged 50 and over living in the UK.
The data shows in England, South Asian women have an 18% lower rate of breast cancer, and black women have a 15% lower rate, than white women.
But the researchers found these differences in risk disappeared when they took into account the effect of lifestyle and reproductive factors.
Lead author Dr. Toral Gathani, a clinical epidemiologist and consultant surgeon, says:
In this study of largely postmenopausal women in England, we see that the lower risk of breast cancer in South Asian and black women is largely explained by differences in lifestyle and reproductive patterns.
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How You Think And Act May Put You At Risk
Posted November 13, 2014
More than twenty years ago, the American Cancer Association asked the question, is there a cancer-prone personality? At the time, results were inconclusive and researchers needed much more information before they could put the debate to rest. Since then, studies have shown that there may indeed be a link between behavior and personality and the onset of and recovery from cancer.
We know that emotions such as depression, anger, and hostility make us more prone to illness and disease; and its been shown that positive attitudes such as hope, optimism, and happiness strengthens our immune system and protects us from disease. Recent studies point to two personality types that seem to make us either cancer-prone or cancer resistant.
Cancer-Prone Personality Types
Represses both positive and negative emotions.
Shows anger, resentment, or hostility towards others.
Takes on extra duties and responsibilities, even when they cause stress.
Reacts adversely to and does not cope well with life changes.
Is negative or pessimistic.
Becomes easily depressed or has feelings of hopelessness.
Worries often and excessively about others.
Feels the need for approval and to please others.
Expresses emotions in a positive and constructive way.
Controls anger and resolves anger issues positively.
Knows when to say no.
Copes well with stress and feels in control of situations.
Is optimistic and hopeful.
Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. You can change some risk factors, like smoking or weight ; others, like your age or family history, you cant.
But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you will get the disease. Many people with risk factors never get bladder cancer, while others with this disease may have few or no known risk factors.
Still, its important to know about the risk factors for bladder cancer because there may be things you can do that might lower your risk of getting it. If you’re at higher risk because of certain factors, you might be helped by tests that could find it early, when treatment is most likely to be effective.
Many risk factors make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer.
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Risks For Breast Cancer
A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. It could be a behaviour, substance or condition. Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. But sometimes breast cancer develops in women who dont have any of the risk factors described below.
Most breast cancers occur in women. The main reason women develop breast cancer is because their breast cells are exposed to the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones, especially estrogen, are linked with breast cancer and encourage the growth of some breast cancers.
Breast cancer is more common in high-income, developed countries such as Canada, the United States and some European countries. The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. Breast cancer mostly occurs in women between 50 and 69 years of age.
Personal History Of Bladder Or Other Urothelial Cancer
Urothelial carcinomas can sometimes form in different areas in the bladder, as well as in the lining of the kidney, the ureters, and urethra. Having cancer in the lining of any part of the urinary tract puts you at higher risk of having another cancer, either in the same spot as before, or in another part of the urinary tract. This is true even when the first tumor is removed completely. For this reason, people who have had bladder cancer need careful follow-up to look for new cancers.
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Breast Cancer Risk Factors You Cannot Change
A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease, such as breast cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease.
Some risk factors for breast cancer are things you cannot change, such as getting older or inheriting certain gene changes. These make your risk of breast cancer higher.
For information on other known and possible breast cancer risk factors, see:
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
Many women who develop breast cancer do not have any known risk factors. Still, we know that women who possess certain risk factors are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general population. Although some women who have one or more risk factors may never develop breast cancer, we can use the knowledge of these risk factors to target higher-risk women with increased breast surveillance and breast cancer prevention strategies.
Certain, unavoidable risk factors such as gender and age make us all susceptible to breast cancer. Other risk factors, such as family history, are also factors that we cannot change. However, research has shown that there are some risk factors, including alcohol intake and body weight, which are modifiable.
Below you will find a summary of the factors that increase risk for developing breast cancer, including both factors that we cannot change and those we can.
Being Overweight Or Obese
Women who are overweight after their menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who are not overweight. Men also have an increased risk of breast cancer if they are overweight or obese. For both men and women, the risk increases as more weight is gained.;
Body mass index is a measure that uses your height and weight to work out whether you are a healthy weight. For most adults, an ideal is between 18.5 to 24.9. Being overweight means having a BMI of between 25 and 30. Obesity means being very overweight with a BMI of 30 or higher.
Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet.
Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer in women. The risk increases with each extra unit of alcohol per day. The number of units in a drink depends on the size of the drink, and the volume of alcohol.
The latest UK government guidelines advise drinking no more than 14 units of alcohol a week.
Being Female And Getting Older
Unfortunately, being a woman and getting older are the highest risk factors for developing breast cancer. 99% of all breast cancer cases occur in women, and around 75% of all breast cancer cases occur in women over 50 years. As a woman ages, its more likely that abnormal changes might occur in her breasts. Men can get breast cancer too, but their risk is much lower and they account for only 1% of all cases.
Who Is Prone To Breast Cancer
According to the latest global cancer burden data released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization, in 2020, 2.26 million new cases of breast cancer occurred globally, surpassing lung cancer for the first time, becoming the world’s largest cancer. Of the cancer patients, 1 in 8 is a breast cancer patient.
China is a big country with breast cancer. Breast cancer ranks first in the incidence of cancer among women in China. In 2020, there are about 420,000 new cases of breast cancer and nearly 120,000 deaths. Breast cancer has become the “number one killer” threatening the health of sisters.
So who are more likely to get breast cancer? In early 2021, the National Cancer Center of China proposed and took the lead in drafting the “Chinese Women’s Breast Cancer Screening Standards”. This standard specifies which people are at high risk of breast cancer.
I’m here to summarize for everyone, the main factors are as follows:
1. High-risk factors related to heredity and genes: Although breast cancer itself does not have genetic characteristics, there are still 5%-10% related to genetic factors, so there are family history of breast cancer, multiple relatives with breast cancer, People with breast cancer genetic BRCA mutations are more likely to develop the disease.
4. Intake of exogenous estrogen, such as drugs or health products containing estrogen.
Who All Are Susceptible To Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the second highest cause of cancer deaths among women.;There are several factors, according to various studies conducted, which determine who is most susceptible tobreast cancer.
Here are some indicators as to who would be more likely to be at a risk for the problem.;Women who have been exposed to the following are more at risk
Research findings also indicate that
Women more likely to get breast cancer
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