Niacinamide Prevents Breast Cancer Metastasis And Increases Survival Even After It Spreads
Breast cancer itself is scary enough.
But the way it kills you is through the spreading of the cancer throughout your body.
Niacinamide has been shown to not only prevent the metastasis of breast cancer, but to also increase survival once the spreading has occurred.
It also provides a number of therapeutic benefits for hypothyroidism sufferers, which is why we use it in our Vitamin B Thyroid Complex.
Mitochondrial complex I activity and NAD+/NADH balance regulate breast cancer progression.
Importantly, NAM treatment starting after primary tumor surgery significantly increased animal survival in this model of highly aggressive metastatic breast cancer Importantly histopathological analysis revealed that NAM treatment drastically inhibited breast cancer progression.
Aspirin Stops Breast Cancer And Can Save Terminal Breast Cancer Patients
You know that little bottle of aspirin tucked in the back of most peoples medicine cabinets?
Did you ever think that something so simple could end up being the cure for cancer?
Well, it also has anti-estrogenic and metabolic-supportive effects that can help improve thyroid function too.
Studies have already demonstrated that aspirin provides number protective effects with breast cancer, including:
- Blocks breast cancer tumor growth.
- Prevents breast cancer metastasis .
- Reprograms breast cancer cells back to normal healthy cells.
Aspirin blocks growth of breast tumor cells and tumor-initiating cells and induces reprogramming factors of mesenchymal to epithelial transition.
We find that ASA not only prevents breast tumor cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice xenograft model through the induction of apoptosis, but also significantly reduces the self-renewal capacity and growth of breast tumor-initiating cells /breast cancer stem cells and delays the formation of a palpable tumor. Moreover, ASA regulates other pathophysiological events in breast carcinogenesis, such as reprogramming the mesenchymal to epithelial transition and delaying in vitro migration in BC cells.
These effects have been shown with the equivalent of a single 325 mg aspirin daily, which is amazing if you ask me.
Yet, it gets even better
A new human study thats currently underway is showing even more promising effects of aspirin on breast cancer.
Symptoms Of Metastatic Cancer
Metastatic cancer does not always cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, what they are like and how often you have them will depend on the size and location of the metastatic tumors. Some common signs of metastatic cancer include:
- pain and fractures, when cancer has spread to the bone
- headache, seizures, or dizziness, when cancer has spread to the brain
- shortness of breath, when cancer has spread to the lung
- jaundice or swelling in the belly, when cancer has spread to the liver
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What Screening Tests Are Used For Thyroid Cancer
The early detection of thyroid cancers is generally through careful visual and physical examination of the neck. Palpation of the neck will detect many clinically significant thyroid nodules which may be cancer. This is part of a routine physical exam. In addition, the thyroid gland is included in many radiology studies performed to evaluate other organs, such as CT scans of the lungs and cervical spine.
All individuals suspected to have thyroid nodules, either from physical examination or from another radiology study, should have a thyroid ultrasound performed to take a picture of the thyroid. Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce an image of the thyroid gland and surrounding structures. The ultrasound appearance of the nodule can help healthcare providers determine if a fine-needle aspiration biopsy is required to further evaluate the nodule. There is no evidence that it is cost-effective to perform ultrasounds to screen for thyroid nodules in the general population. Notably, ultrasound detects the majority of small incidental thyroid cancers, which are unlikely to affect the survival of most patients.
Can A Biopsy Make My Cancer Spread
A biopsy is an important part of helping your doctor make a possible cancer diagnosis. If your doctor does find cancer, the results of a biopsy can also help them tailor the right treatment plan for you and your specific type of cancer.
But some people may wonder whether a biopsy could have other effects on their body, including whether it may lead to the cancer spreading. Here, we discuss common biopsy techniques, why they are not likely to cause cancer to spread, and questions to discuss with your doctor if you have concerns.
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When Does Metastatic Thyroid Cancer Show Symptoms
Metastatic thyroid cancer, also known as stage 4 thyroid cancer, refers to cancer that has spread from the thyroid gland to distant areas of the body. This is the most advanced stage of thyroid cancer. At this late stage, many symptoms are likely to be present. In fact, symptoms typically appear at an earlier stage and can often be detected before the thyroid cancer has metastasized.
Models Of Metastatic Progression
A model of metastatic progression in cancer. Primary tumor growth and invasion occur through the gain of genetic or epigenetic changes in the primary tumor often in cells that have a change in character through the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition . Individual cells, or groups of cells, that have gone through this transition, as well as those that have not , gain access to blood vessels through incompletely defined mechanisms. Some of the cells are targeted to specific organs and enter their new microenvironment. Cells that have dedifferentiated are likely able to modify the premetastatic niche to allow for proliferation and invasion with short latency in the metastatic site. Cells shed into the circulation that are more differentiated likely enter a period of prolonged dormancy controlled by a number of factors that may be released over time through changes in the tumor cells or the metastatic microenvironment. In both cases, metastatic progression at the metastatic site likely requires interactions with immune cells, endothelial cells, and the stroma.
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How Serious Is My Cancer
If you have thyroid cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Your doctor will want to find out the stage of your cancer to help decide what type of treatment is best for you.
The stage describes the spread of the cancer through the thyroid gland. It also tells if the cancer has spread to other organs of your body that are close by or far away.
Your cancer can be stage 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, like stage 4, means a more serious cancer that has spread outside of the thyroid gland. Be sure to ask the doctor about the cancer stage and what it means for you.
Tests That May Be Done
Blood tests: Blood tests alone cant tell if a thyroid lump is cancer. But they can help show if the thyroid is working the way it should.
Ultrasound: For this test, a small wand is moved over the skin in front of your neck. It gives off sound waves and picks up the echoes as they bounce off the thyroid gland. The echoes are made into a picture on a computer screen. How a lump looks on ultrasound can sometimes help tell if its cancer, but ultrasound cant tell for sure.
Radioiodine scan: For this test, a low dose of radioactive iodine is swallowed or put into a vein. Over time, the iodine is absorbed by the thyroid gland. A special camera is then used to see the radioactivity. Nodules that have less iodine than the rest of the thyroid can sometimes be cancer.
CT or CAT scan: Its a special kind of x-ray that takes detailed pictures of the thyroid and can show if the cancer has spread.
MRI scan: This test uses radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays to take pictures. MRI scans can be used to look for cancer in the thyroid, or cancer that has spread.
PET scan: In this test, you are given a special type of sugar that can be seen inside your body with a camera. If there is cancer, this sugar shows up as hot spots where the cancer is found. This test can be very useful if your thyroid cancer is one that doesnt take up radioactive iodine.
If the diagnosis is not clear after an FNA biopsy, you might need another kind of biopsy to get more cells to test.
Multifocal Metastatic Breast Carcinoma To The Thyroid Gland Histologically Mimicking C Cell Lesions
Stacey K. Mardekian
1Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
2Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
3Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
The thyroid gland is an uncommon site of metastatic disease. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary source, while metastasis from breast carcinoma is very rare. However, given that thyroid nodules are more common in women, and women with a history of breast cancer are at higher risk of developing thyroid cancer, the possibility of metastatic breast carcinoma must be considered when evaluating a thyroid nodule. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with dysphonia and dysphagia secondary to multinodular goiter and was found to have multifocal metastatic breast carcinoma in her surgical resection specimen. The histologic appearance focally mimicked C cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma, so immunohistochemistry was critical for establishing the diagnosis. Metastasis to the thyroid should always be included in the differential diagnosis for a thyroid nodule in a patient with a history of previous malignancy.
2. Case Presentation
2.1. Clinical History
2.3. Clinical Follow-Up
Conflicts of Interest
What Happens After A Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis
The disparity by sex in the prevalence of small papillary thyroid cancers found during life and after death suggests that many women are receiving treatment for small tumors that might never have caused symptoms, Dr. Davies explained.
The factors that lead more women to get a diagnosis of small papillary thyroid cancer are numerous and complex, she said. Women tend to be more likely than men to seek medical care overall. Theyre more likely to encounter health issues that may have hormonal causes, such as difficulties with pregnancy.
Thyroid ultrasound is widely used to evaluate medical problems that may involve the thyroid. But its not intended to be used to screen people who dont have symptoms for thyroid cancer, Dr. Davies explained. However, she added, it often gets ordered along with other tests to speed the process of diagnosing a potential thyroid issue.
That can lead to finding things that were unrelated to someones symptoms. And that can also distract from discovering the real cause of the problem someone came to the clinic for, said Dr. Davies.
The biggest challenge, said Dr. Haymart, is that its currently impossible to predict which tumors found by chance will pose a threat to health.
How do you determine which cancers might be indolent and just sit there for the rest of the patients life, and which ones might be aggressive and potentially cause harm? she asked. Thats very difficult to tease out.
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How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed
Once a thyroid nodule is found, the next step is to determine if the nodule represents a benign growth or malignant tumor. A careful physical exam should be done by a healthcare provider, with attention to the examination of the neck to evaluate for the presence of enlarged lymph nodes. You will also have blood tests to check your thyroid function and hormone levels. If these tests show an over-functioning thyroid gland, then additional tests will be performed to determine if the nodule is composed of benign thyroid tissue that is overproducing thyroid hormone.
A biopsy is not usually required for benign, “functioning” nodules. A thyroid scan will help distinguish this nodule. This scan is a nuclear medicine study using radioactive iodine. Functioning thyroid tissue takes up iodine to produce normal thyroid hormones. The small amount of radioactive iodine used to take pictures will be taken up by those areas of the thyroid that are producing thyroid hormone. Thus, a nodule composed of functioning thyroid tissue will appear “hot” in these nuclear medicine scans . These “hot nodules” are almost always benign and often require no further workup for thyroid cancer. Nodules that are “cold” are also often benign but can be malignant in 15-20% of cases. Therefore, these deserve more attention and further workup.
What Causes Thyroid Cancer And Am I At Risk
Most cases of thyroid cancer have no risk factors. Thyroid cancer is more common in women. Studies have shown an increased risk of certain types of thyroid cancer in geographic areas where there is a high incidence of goiters due to a lack of dietary iodine. This is further supported by the decrease of thyroid cancers in these areas when individuals are given supplemental iodine.
The most established risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer is exposure to ionizing radiation to the neck area at a young age . This is supported by the high incidence of thyroid cancer seen in many populations exposed to radiation. This includes children 18 years or younger who were treated with radiation therapy for cancers such as Hodgkin’s disease or nasopharyngeal cancer, or as part of their therapy to prevent leukemia from spreading to the brain. In addition, children who received total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplantation are also at higher risk. Radiation therapy was also used in the 1940-1960s for benign conditions like acne, and this population has an increased risk for thyroid cancer.
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Thyroid Hormones And Breast Cancer
The most recent piece of research on this topic was published in August 2018 in the journal Breast Cancer Research. Ortega-Olvera et al. analyzed the relationship between thyroid hormones and breast cancer according to menopausal status and BMI. To get their answers, scientists measured serum thyroid hormone and thyroid antibody levels in 682 breast cancer patients and 731 healthy controls.
They tested the link between total T4 and total T3 with breast cancer-bearing in mind factors like a womans weight and her menopause status.
Their findings showed that higher TT4 levels were strongly related to breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
On the other hand, lower TT3 concentrations were linked to breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects. Therefore, scientists concluded that there was a strong association between thyroid hormones and breast cancer, but more research is needed to elucidate this topic fully.
Avoid Pufas To Decrease Estrogen Activity
PUFAs, or polyunsaturated fats, are well known to suppress your thyroid on all levels.
But a diet high in PUFAs has been shown to increase breast cancer rates as well, likely due to the estrogenic effects of these unsaturated fats.
The unsaturated fatty acids, but not the saturated fatty acids, free estrogen from the serum proteins that bind it, and increase its availability and activity in tissue cells.
Dr. Raymond Peat
In other words, PUFAs are known to synergize with estrogen, amplifying its activity and harmful effects.
So, avoiding PUFAs and replacing them with saturated fats in your diet can help protect you against breast cancer.
Free fatty acids: a possible regulator of the available oestradiol fractions in plasma.
In vitro studies we have carried out show that unsaturated free fatty acids can increase the biologically available oestradiol fractions in plasma. It is possible therefore that the increased risk for breast cancer associated with a diet high in fats may be related to an elevation in the biologically available oestradiol fractions in plasma.
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Why Is It Important To Get A Recommended Biopsy
A biopsy is often the best way to definitively say whether or not you have cancer. Other tools, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging , can tell the doctor if an area looks suspicious. But in most cases, the only way to make a definitive cancer diagnosis is to perform a biopsy and look at those suspicious cells under a microscope. Many biopsies are performed with imaging guidance, called image-guided biopsies, where tools like ultrasound or computed tomography scans are used to help locate areas of concern and obtain biopsy material.
Sometimes, a biopsy reveals that the suspicious area contains only benign, or non-cancerous, cells. This might mean you do not need treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Other times, a biopsy can tell the doctor how aggressive a cancer appears to be and what the extent of the disease may be. This refers to a cancers stage and grade. A biopsy can also explain what type of cancer cells are inside the tumor. All of this information helps determine the best course of action for treating the cancer.
How Fast Breast Cancer Grows
People may wonder about growth or doubling time when considering how long to wait to begin treatment. This growth is also very important to understand if you have a lump and have been advised to simply observe it over time.
Unless your healthcare provider is extremely confident that a lump is benign, it should be evaluated right away rather than waiting.
In general, the growth of breast cancer can be quite variable, but several studies provide at least an estimate of what may be happening.
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Breast Cancer And Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid diseases such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and autoimmune conditions are not the only connections between the function of this gland and breast cancer. Studies show that breast cancer and thyroid cancer are also related.
Nielsen et al. reviewed available evidence on this subject and found that a woman whos had breast cancer is 1.55 times more likely to develop thyroid cancer than a woman without a breast cancer history. At the same time, a woman with thyroid cancer is 1.18 more likely to develop breast cancer compared to a woman who doesnt have a history of thyroid cancer.
Its not quite clear why the two cancers are connected, but radiation and exposure to iodine during treatment could be the reason. In addition, some genetic mutations could also be the link between thyroid cancer and breast cancer. Hormonal risk factors are involved as well.
More precisely, exposure to estrogens and thyroid-stimulating hormones could contribute to the formation of a secondary thyroid or breast cancer. Basically, treatment for first cancer could affect the risk of developing the second. For instance, radiation is a common cancer treatment measure for breast cancer, but it can increase the risk of other types of cancer including that affecting thyroid.