Impact Of Modifiable Risk Factors On Brca
Women who inherit a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation face a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, between 69 and 72% compared to 12% in the general population . Among BRCA mutation carriers, primary prevention of breast cancer is limited to prophylactic bilateral mastectomy however, mutation carriers frequently inquire about less invasive prevention options . Both the incomplete penetrance and the regional differences in penetrance of an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation suggest that environmental exposures may influence risk . While various reproductive and hormonal factors have shown to impact BRCA-associated cancer risk , suggestive evidence exists that lifestyle factors, including body weight, adolescent physical activity, calorie restriction, and non-smoking, may contribute to a decrease in the number of BRCA-associated breast cancer cases .
A prospective evaluation of multiple lifestyle behaviors, collected at various time points, with the utilization of objective methods to capture body size, physical activity, and dietary habits, is crucial to provide evidence-based, safe, and effective strategies for this high-risk group. Moreover, providing measurable data is necessary to facilitate the counselees’ understanding of both non-modifiable and modifiable risk information .
Atypical Hyperplasia Or Atypia
Either atypical hyperplasia or atypia indicates the growth of abnormal cells in the breast. The diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia can be made from a core biopsy or excisional biopsy, and has been correlated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
The diagnosis of atypia can be made from nipple aspiration, ductal lavage, or fine needle aspiration , and also indicates an increased breast cancer risk. Although these cells are not yet cancerous, they do raise a woman’s risk of eventually developing breast cancer. While biopsies and FNAs are usually reserved for when there is a current indication that a woman might have breast cancer, nipple aspiration and ductal lavage are methods that may help assess a woman’s future risk of breast cancer.
Regulation Of Oxidative Stress
It is well established that the role of reactive oxygen species is paradoxical, in that it has the potential to be beneficial and detrimental to the progression of tumors, depending on the balance of antioxidants . For simplicity, this review will only discuss the pro-tumorigenic impact of ROS. This notion of oxidative stress arises from inefficient clearance of excess free radicals, and is commonly associated with the initiation of cancers, as it can cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, contributing to genomic instability and mutation . This process can occur naturally with aging, from external environmental stressors, such ultraviolet radiation, and also from lifestyle factors, such as nutritional choices. During overnutrition, the uptake of carbohydrates, lipids and protein trigger the production of ROS, predominantly due to the excess supply of energy substrates for mitochondrial metabolism . This continued state of overnutrition can result in mitochondrial dysfunction and further increase oxidative stress and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. In addition to food consumption, there has also been a strong link between alcohol intake and breast and prostate cancer risk through the production of ROS species and acetaldehyde arising from alcohol metabolism .
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The Need For Cultural Change And Individualised Health Messages
Both staff and women recognised a need for a wider cultural change before fully accepting the need to accept, act on and acknowledge alcohol as a modifiable risk for breast cancer.
I think as a nation we are not very honest about the harms of alcohol, and that goes across the board in terms of doctors and nurses as well .
There appeared to be an unacknowledged collusion of denial where staff and women avoided being proactive in discussing alcohol as part of the dialogue around preventing breast cancer
I mean when is the best time for health promotion, I dont know .
This suggests a challenge of dealing with alcohol as a risk for breast cancer on both sides, where women seemed to assume staff would tell them about risks that are important and where staff would not ask women about their alcohol intake as they did not see it as part of their role.
Staff agreed that breast screening appointments could be ideal opportunities for preventative information
because youve already got yourself a self-selecting audience, people who feel its important enough to turn up,
though did not see it as part of their role to deliver this information.
A key motivator for women appears to be whether a risk factor applies to them specifically
If you dont own it, youre not going to act on it are you? .
Ive got it on both sides of my family, Icheck what I eat.and I dont drink a lot anyway
they seldom talked of changes to alcohol consumption.
Versin Impresa Issn 0300
MONCADA-MADRAZO, Mariana et al. Modifiable risk factors for breast cancer: a comparison between women younger and older than 40 years-old. Ginecol. obstet. Méx. . 2020, vol.88, n.3, pp.131-138. Epub 30-Ago-2021. ISSN 0300-9041. .
To analyze the differential impact of the main modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer among patients younger than 40 years of age.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Cohort, retrospective, observational and descriptive study. The information of the patients with diagnosis or treatment of breast cancer treated in a hospital in Northeast Mexico between January 2016 and December 2017 was collected. The association between the different variables and the age groups was determined with the test of Pearsons 2 and the values p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
524 clinical records of patients with breast cancer were reviewed, with age limits between 22 and 99 years. From this group, patients under 40 years of age were selected, representing 14.31% of the total number of patients treated, a percentage that coincides with the prevalence of breast cancer in young women reported in the Mexican literature. A similar impact was found on the risk of breast cancer between both groups with the following modifiable risk factors: nulliparity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle and hormonal contraception. Obesity had a greater impact on women 40 years.
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Cannabis Stocks Will Gain Traction
The legal weed industry has been booming lately. Dispensaries, considered essential businesses, have seen a nearly 40% increase in sales year-over-year. This trend is expected to continue, with sales projected to reach $37 billion by 2024. A major contributing factor to this growth is changing public opinion. More voters than ever before support the medicinal and recreational legalization of weed, and there is hope that federal decriminalization and legalization will occur if the Democrats win the presidential election. Another driver of the legal weed industry is the current economic climate. With unemployment rates rising, more people are turning to weed for both recreational and medical purposes. At the same time, states are looking for ways to increase tax revenue, and legalization would provide a much-needed boost. With so many factors working in its favor, the bull case of the legal cannabis industry is flourishing.
Vitamin A And Carotenoids
Important in cell division and cell differentiation, vitamin A and carotenoids have been studied extensively for their potential impact on cancer risk. Existing evidence indicates that there is a small reduction in the risk of breast cancer associated with a high intake of carotenoids . Although a number of observational studies have suggested an association between carotenoid intake and a decreased risk of lung cancer, randomised trials of beta-carotene intake found either no effect or an elevated risk of lung cancer .
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A Detailed Procedure Of Dental Bone Graft
There are a lot of ways dental bone grafting can be performed, but the basic procedure remains the same: An oral surgeon or dentist makes an incision in the jaw & grafts & attaches other bone material to the jaw.
There are many dental bone graft complications, and it is generally implemented if someone has lost one or more than one adult teeth or suffering from gum disease. Both of these cases can lead to bone loss in the jaw. The most preferred approach for dental bone grafting is to use an own bone from the tibia, hip, or back of the jaw. This is called an autograft. Autografts are usually regarded as the gold standard, because they increase bony support in the jaw & promote a new bone formation & faster healing. In a research study, it was discovered that a bone graft was necessary to treat the defected area during implant surgery. More than 50% of the sextants require a bone graft for implant installation. Anterior maxillary sextant needs bone graft in about 77.23 % of the total cases.
Excessive Body Weight Distribution Of Fat Mass Insulin Signaling And Breast Cancer Risk
Notably, adipose tissue is a major source of estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal women, an established risk factor in breast carcinogenesis, and evidence supports a clear association between body fatness and a substantially increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer . In a meta-analysis of prospective studies examining the association between BMI and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, Renehan et al. found a 12% increase in risk per 5 kg/m² increase in BMI. Carpenter et al. provided evidence that the positive association between BMI and postmenopausal breast cancer risk may be modified by family history of breast cancer: Postmenopausal women who had at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer and who had a current BMI of 27.1 kg/m² were at a 2.9 times greater breast cancer risk than women with a positive family history whose current BMI was < 21.7 kg/m² .
In addition to a higher risk of developing breast cancer, overweight women tend to present with larger tumors at the time of diagnosis when compared with their normal-weight counterparts .
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In English Spanish Portuguese
SYNOPSIS Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common disease in women and constitutes the second leading cause of cancer death in this population. The factors that contribute to the risk of occurrence are divided into nonmodifiable and modifiable factors. Although there are interventions in primary care to prevent the disease, these measures have not produced the desired changes in women’s health. This article reviews the major modifiable risk factors for breast cancer and describes how these factors can affect the incidence of cancer in women. This information shows that modifiable risk factors can influence the occurrence of breast cancer, in part depending on the life stage of a woman, including menopausal status. Timely prevention at the primary care level is one of the most important areas on which health professionals need to focus in order to help reduce the incidence of breast cancer.
A Buyers Guide For Baby Car Seats
A baby car seat isnt usually the first thing that comes to mind before childbirth. However, after delivery, when you are making plans to go home with your newborn, thats when it will dawn on you that you need to get an infant car seat. As the babys primary caretaker, getting an infant car seat is crucial as it ensures safe travel as you run errands. Unless you plan to keep the baby indoors for the next seven years, it is necessary to purchase a car seat for your new member of the family. You should also not forget that the law in Singapore requires kids below 1.35m to be secured by a booster seat.
For most first-time parents, buying a baby car seat can be overwhelming. But that doesnt have to be the case. Here is a buyers guide to ensure you get the best car seat for your baby.
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Strengths And Limitations Of This Study
A mixed methodological approach enabled a broader exploration of knowledge and attitudes to alcohol as a risk factor for breast cancer than achievable using a single research method.
Participants were women attending the NHS Breast Screening Programme mammograms, symptomatic breast clinics and healthcare professionals based in a single hospital, to understand how attitudes and information needs in this area may differ across these groups.
Cross-sectional survey results were explored in a series of five focus groups with women and eight semi-structured interviews with health professionals, to enable triangulation of data.
Research in this area is at an early stage, such that there are no standardised tools to measure the constructs explored.
The study was conducted in a single UK centre, limiting the potential generalisability of the results.
A Brief Idea On The Dental Bone Graft Substitutes Market
The Dental Bone graft substitutes are also known as ceramic-based bone graft substitutes that include calcium sulphate, calcium phosphate, and bioglass that are used alone or in combination for example, ProOsteon, OsteoGraf, OsteoSet, etc. The Bone graft substitutes are widely available based on silica, synthetic alumina chemistry, and natural calcium salts & these materials are often combined with the natural polymers like collagen, & synthetic polymers such as PHEMA, PMMA, & UHMWPE. With an overall market size of USD 550 Mn in 2020, the market is poised to grow up to a value of nearly USD 995.24 Mn by 2030 with a CAGR of around 6.11%. The European Union held the largest proportion of the market share with nearly 39% in 2020, followed by the North American territory.
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No History Of Breastfeeding
If you breastfed, your risk of developing breast cancer may be reduced, especially if you did it for a year or longer. Breast cancer reduction is just one of many benefits associated with breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding for about the first six months of life, then continuing to breastfeed, supplementing with appropriate foods, for one year or longer.
What to do: Consider breastfeeding, if possible, as it also protects your baby from many diseases.
Limitation Of Alcohol Use
Excess alcohol intake is responsible for more than 1.8 million deaths each year . Data have emerged on the benefits of moderate alcohol use in terms of reducing cardiac and diabetes risk, but alcohol remains a risk factor for cancer mortality . Alcohol use is a primary cause of oesophageal and oral cancer, and even moderate intake is associated with an increased risk of breast and colorectal cancer. Persistent, heavy alcohol use has been linked to elevated liver cancer risk. In addition to contributing to a higher risk of malignancy, there are a variety of other health risks associated with alcohol use, including hypertension, addiction, suicide, accident, and pregnancy complications.
Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may raise cancer risk by acting as a solvent , an irritant , or possibly a transporter .
It is recommended that people be made aware of the risks and benefits of alcohol use. Individuals who do not drink should not be encouraged to start, and those who do drink should limit alcohol intake to a moderate amount .
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Being Overweight Or Obese
Women who are overweight after their menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who are not overweight. Men also have an increased risk of breast cancer if they are overweight or obese. For both men and women, the risk increases as more weight is gained.
Body mass index is a measure that uses your height and weight to work out whether you are a healthy weight. For most adults, an ideal is between 18.5 to 24.9. Being overweight means having a BMI of between 25 and 30. Obesity means being very overweight with a BMI of 30 or higher.
Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet.
Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer in women. The risk increases with each extra unit of alcohol per day. The number of units in a drink depends on the size of the drink, and the volume of alcohol.
The latest UK government guidelines advise drinking no more than 14 units of alcohol a week.
Modifiable Risk Factors For Breast Cancer: A Comparison Between Women Younger And Older Than 40 Years
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Sun Yi-Sheng, et al. Risk Factors and Preventions of Breast Cancer. International Journal of Biological Sciences 2017 13 : 1387-97. doi:10.7150/ijbs.21635.
Kamiska, Marzena, et al. Breast cancer risk factors. Przeglad menopauzalny = Menopause review. 2015 14 : 196-202. doi:10.5114/pm.2015.54346
Courtney GA, et al. Breast cancer in young women. BCR. 2010 12 : 212. doi:10.1186/bcr2647.
Villarreal-Garza C, et al. Cáncer de mama en mujeres jóvenes. Experiencia en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Rev Mex de Mast. 2015 5 : 12-17. https://www.medigraphic. com/pdfs/revmexmastol/ma-2015/ma151c.pdf
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Población. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía , 2015. https://www.inegi.org.mx/temas/estructura/
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Weight Control And Obesity Prevention
As a result of pervasive changes in diet and physical activity patterns, obesity is increasing at epidemic rates around the world and is estimated to account for over 2.5 million deaths each year . Currently, almost 65% of American adults are overweight, and over 30% are considered obese . Although certain segments of the population have experienced a higher rate of increase than others, this epidemic has affected people of all ages, races, ethnicities, socioeconomic levels, and geographic locations.
Excess weight alters levels of hormones and growth factors. It also causes severe health consequences. Overweight and obesity cause many types of cancer, including colorectal, postmenopausal breast, endometrial, renal, and oesophageal cancer, with a population attributable risk that ranges from 9% to 39% . In addition to these cancers, a recent study by suggests that obesity also may influence cancers of the prostate, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, ovary, and cervix in addition to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Overall, obesity may cause 14% of cancer deaths in men and 20% of cancer deaths in women.
In addition to this large impact on cancer, overweight and obesity also increase the risk of a multitude of other diseases and conditions, such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, and pregnancy complications.