How Can I Protect Myself From Breast Cancer
Follow these three steps for early detection:
- Get a mammogram. The American Cancer Society recommends having a baseline mammogram at age 35, and a screening mammogram every year after age 40. Mammograms are an important part of your health history. Recently, the US Preventive Services Task Force came out with new recommendations regarding when and how often one should have mammograms. These include starting at age 50 and having them every two years. We do not agree with this, but we are in agreement with the American Cancer Society and have not changed our guidelines, which recommend yearly mammograms starting at age 40.
- Examine your breasts each month after age 20. You will become familiar with the contours and feel of your breasts and will be more alert to changes.
- Have your breast examined by a healthcare provider at least once every three years after age 20, and every year after age 40. Clinical breast exams can detect lumps that may not be detected by mammogram.
Human Antimicrobial Protein Hcap18/ll
Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein, hCAP18, and its C-terminal peptide LL-37 is a multifunctional protein. In addition to being important in antimicrobial defense, it induces chemotaxis, stimulates an giogenesis and promotes tissue repair. We previously showed that human breast cancer cells express high amounts of hCAP18, and hypothesised that hCAP18/LL-37 may be involved in tumor progression.
Invasive Carcinoma Of No Special Type
|Invasive carcinoma of no special type|
|Other names||Invasive ductal carcinoma|
|Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses, with invasive ductal carcinoma at bottom left|
|Oncology, Dermatology, Breast surgery|
Invasive carcinoma of no special type also known as invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal NOS and previously known as invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified is a group of breast cancers that do not have the specific differentiating features. Those that have these features belong to other types.
In this group are: pleomorphic carcinoma, carcinoma with osteoclast-like stromal giant cells, carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features, and carcinoma with melanotic features. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, which means that for the diagnosis to be made all the other specific types must be ruled out.
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Basal Type Breast Cancer
Basal type breast cancer has particular genetic changes in the cells. The cells make large amounts of a protein called cytokeratin 5/6.
Basal type breast cancers are often triple negative. This means that they dont have many receptors for oestrogen, progesterone, or HER2. So, hormone therapies and targeted drugs dont work for most basal type cancers.
Doctors use other treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, instead.
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Mucinous Carcinoma Of The Breast
Mucinous carcinoma, also known as colloid carcinoma, is a rare form of invasive ductal carcinoma . About 2 percent of breast cancers are pure mucinous carcinoma, while up to 7 percent of breast cancers have some component of mucinous carcinoma cells.
With this type of cancer, the tumor consists of abnormal cells that appear to float in pools of mucus when looked at under a microscope.
Its typically a less aggressive type of cancer that has a lower probability of spreading to the axillary lymph nodes than some other types of IDC.
Mucinous carcinoma tends to be more common in post-menopausal women, with the average age at diagnosis being around 60 to 70 years of age.
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What Are The Different Stages Of Breast Cancer
In addition to breast cancertype, breast cancers are also characterized by their stage. The stage helps describe where the breast cancer has spread in the body, what treatment might be needed, and what the prognosis may be.
There are five stages of breast cancer, from Stage 0-IV. Stage 0 is the earliest stage of breast cancer and means it hasnt spread. Stage IV is the most advanced stage and means the breast cancer is invasive and has spread to other parts of the body.
What Is A Breast Papilloma And Is It Cancer
Also called intraductal papilloma, a breast papilloma is a small, wartlike growth in the breasts milk ducts. This benign condition may cause a clear or bloody discharge from the nipple, or you may feel a small lump behind or next to the nipple. Having one papilloma does not raise your breast cancer risk, though having several of these growths has been linked to higher risk.
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Breast Cancer Is The Second Most Common Cancer Found In Women After Skin Cancer But That Doesnt Mean Men Arent At Risk As Well
Whether youre spending the day at the pool or beach or youre just looking for a product to wear daily to protect you, sunscreen is an important part of skin care. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, its treatable. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer. According to the american cancer society, just over 100,000 new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the united states each year. There are a number of different treatments doctors recommend. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer found in women â after skin cancer â but that doesnt mean men arent at risk as well. Not only does it help prevent sunburn, but it can also help prevent skin ca. Of course, your specialist is the main person whose advice you should follow but it doesnt do anyone harm. Skin keratosis, also known as seborrheic keratosis, are harmless, noncancerous growths that appear on the face, neck, shoulders. If you have skin cancer, it is important to know which type you have because it affects your treatment options and your outlook . Psoriasis is a skin condition that affects approximately 3% of the u.s. Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Its characterized most commonly by the appearance of dry, thickened skin patches.
Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations For Men
Screening for breast cancer in men has not been sufficiently studied to determine efficacy. A breast exam could be a useful screening tool for men with BRCA mutations or a strong family history of breast cancer. Men who are at high risk for breast cancer should discuss options with their healthcare provider.
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Angiosarcoma Of The Breast
Angiosarcoma is a rare form of cancer that begins in the endothelial cells, that line the blood and lymph vessels. There are two forms of angiosarcoma of the breast:
Primary angiosarcoma: This occurs in women who have never been treated for breast cancer before.
Secondary angiosarcoma: Thisoccurs in women who have already been treated for breast cancer.
In angiosarcoma, there can be necrosis, as well as hemorrhage.
Tubular Carcinoma Of The Breast
Tubular carcinoma is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma . This type of breast cancer gets its name due to the tube-shaped structures, which can be seen under a microscope, that make up the tumor. The tumors are usually small and tend to grow slowly.
Tubular carcinoma is rare, accounting for up to 2 percent of invasive breast cancers.
Because these tumors are small, they are most often detected during a routine mammogram. They tend to be low grade with good prognosis.
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Types Of Invasive Breast Cancer
Most breast cancers are invasive, meaning the cancer has spread from the original site to other areas, like nearby breast tissue, lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Invasive breast cancer cells break through normal breast tissue barriers and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymph nodes. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Invasive ductal carcinoma
The most common type of breast canceraccounting for roughly 70 to 80 percent of all casesis called invasive ductal carcinoma . IDC is a cancer that starts in a milk duct and grows into other parts of the breast. With time, it may spread further, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
Invasive lobular carcinoma
Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common type, accounting for roughly 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancers. ILC starts in lobules and then spreads into nearby breast tissue. Like IDC, it may metastasize. However, this cancer is harder to detect on mammograms and other exams than IDC. One in five women with ILC have both breasts affected.
Inflammatory breast cancer
Pagets disease of the breast
Angiosarcoma of the breast
Other, even more rare, types of invasive breast cancer include adenoid cystic carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and tubular carcinoma.
Types Based On The Cancer’s Genes Or Hormones
When you’re diagnosed with breast cancer, your doctor will test your cancer cells to see whether they grow in response to hormones like estrogen or progesterone, or if they contain certain genes. These tests help your doctor find the treatment that works best against your cancer.
HER2-positive. About 1 out of every 5 breast cancers tests positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 . This protein helps cancer cells grow. HER2-positive breast cancers are often more aggressive than other types. A group of drugs that include pertuzumab and trastuzumab are effective against these cancers.
Hormone receptor-positive or negative. Some breast cancer cells have areas on their surface that attach to the hormones estrogen or progesterone . These hormones help the breast cancer cells grow:
- ER-positive breast cancers have estrogen receptors.
- PR-positive breast cancers have progesterone receptors.
- Hormone receptor-positive means the cancer has one or both of these hormone receptors.
- Hormone-receptor negative means the cancer doesn’t have ER or PR receptors.
Triple negative. Around 15% of breast cancers are this type. Triple-negative breast cancer doesn’t have receptors for estrogen, progesterone, or HER2. This makes it harder to treat.
Once you learn your breast cancer type, ask your doctor what it means for your outlook and what medicines are available to treat it.
CDC: “How is Breast Cancer Treated?” “Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.”
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What Are The Common Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
- Lump in the breast or armpit discovered during bathing may be the first symptom of breast cancer
- Changes to the nipple and the surrounding area like nipple retraction and inverted nipple.
- Bloody discharge from nipple: If an individual notices blood stains on the bra, and if the secretions are unusual, they may need urgent medical attention.
- Change in color and/or thickening of skin on the breast, dimpling or thickening of breast skin that resembles an orange rind is a warning sign of breast cancer. If the breast skin changes color, typically to a pink or reddish hue that covers more than half the breast, that may also be a warning sign.
- A non-healing sore anywhere on the breast, including the nipple: A red, scaly, flaky nipple, and any persistent skin change, including blood or fluid from the nipple with non-healing sore, may be a warning sign of breast cancer.
- Increased warmth in the breast
- Pain, itching or tenderness in the breast
Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer can have several symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue.
Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it’s always best to have them checked by a doctor.
You should also see a GP if you notice any of these symptoms:
- a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
- discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
- a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
- dimpling on the skin of your breasts
- a rash on or around your nipple
- a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.
Find out more about the symptoms of breast cancer.
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What Are The Warning Signs Of Breast Cancer
- A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm that persists through the menstrual cycle.
- A mass or lump, which may feel as small as a pea.
- A change in the size, shape, or contour of the breast.
- A blood-stained or clear fluid discharge from the nipple.
- A change in the look or feel of the skin on the breast or nipple .
- Redness of the skin on the breast or nipple.
- An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast.
- A marble-like hardened area under the skin.
These changes may be found when performing monthly breast self-exams. By performing breast self-exams, you can become familiar with the normal monthly changes in your breasts.
Breast self-examination should be performed at the same time each month, three to five days after your menstrual period ends. If you have stopped menstruating, perform the exam on the same day of each month.
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
DCIS is a non-invasive cancer that is diagnosed when abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the breast milk duct. The National Breast Cancer Foundation notes that DCIS is a highly treatable cancer. Thats because it hasnt spread beyond the milk duct into any surrounding breast tissue. The American Cancer Society notes that roughly 20 percent of new breast cancer cases are instances of DCIS.
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Breast Cancer: Types Of Treatment
Have questions about breast cancer? Ask here.
ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different types of treatments doctors use for people with breast cancer. Use the menu to see other pages.
This section explains the types of treatments that are the standard of care for early-stage and locally advanced breast cancer. Standard of care means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, you are strongly encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug and how often it should be given, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Some clinical trials also test giving less treatment than what is usually done as the standard of care. Clinical trials are an option to consider for treatment and care for all stages of cancer. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. Learn more about clinical trials in the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections of this guide.
Are You Under 40 You’re Not Alone
While most cases of breast cancer occur in women over 50, around 400 New Zealand women under the age of 44 are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. These days, breast cancer is much more treatable if detected early, and there are many women still thriving decades after experiencing breast cancer at a young age. Discover the specific concerns for young women with breast cancer.
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Genetic Breast Cancer Testing Recommendations
Some inherited genes can mutate and increase the risk of breast cancer. The most important of these genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genetic testing can find mutations in these genes and may be recommended for people with:
- A known family history of a BRCA mutation
- A family history of breast cancer at a young age
- Ashkenazi Jewish decent
- Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age , regardless of family history
Not every woman needs to be tested. A healthcare provider will be able to advise whether genetic testing would be appropriate.
What Is Estrogen Receptorpositive Breast Cancer And Progesterone Receptorpositive Breast Cancer
Cells from your breast cancer can be tested for receptors on two hormones that can fuel cancer growth: estrogen and progesterone. Receptors are special proteins on cells that attach to certain substances, such as estrogen and progesterone, much like a key entering a lock. Breast cancer can contain receptors for one of these hormones, both, or neither.
- Breast cancer with receptors for estrogen is called estrogen receptor positive, or ER positive.
- Breast cancer with no receptors for estrogen is called estrogen receptor negative, or ER negative.
- Breast cancer with receptors for progesterone is called progesterone receptor positive, or PR positive.
- Breast cancer with no receptors for progesterone is called progesterone receptor negative, or PR negative.
If your cancer is ER positive, PR positive, or positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, your treatment may include a hormone therapy a drug or drugs that keep these hormones from plugging into their receptors. The idea is to cut off the cancers access to the fuel that would otherwise power its growth, much like putting a child safety cap on an electrical outlet.
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Nanotechnology In Breast Cancer
The field of nanotechnology has rapidly evolved as evidenced by the fact that there are more than 150 ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of nanotechnology based drug delivery carriers targeting cancer. Various liposomal doxorubicin formulations were developed in an effort to improve the therapeutic index of the conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy while maintaining its anti-tumor activity. For example, the efficacy of three liposomal doxorubicins are currently being used: liposomal daunorubicin , liposomal doxorubicin , and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin . Generally, these agents exhibit efficacies comparable to those of conventional doxorubicin, except with better safety profiles and less cardio toxicity. In addition to liposomal doxorubicin, albumin-bound paclitaxel is another example of an E PR based nanovector application for breast cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel is highly hydrophobic and dissolved in cremophor to prevent paclitaxel precipitation. However, cremophor-associated toxicities are severe and challenge the application of paclitaxel. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was developed to improve the solubility of paclitaxel