Why Fertility Problems Might Develop
When a couple makes a baby, this is called conception or reproduction. When a baby is conceived naturally, a lot of things must take place for it to happen. Any change in how an organ works or a change in a hormone that’s needed for sperm development can block conception. In other words, there can be a body system malfunction that can change a man’s fertility and affect his ability to father a child. Certain health problems, including cancer, can affect these things. Here are some things that can happen in a man:
A tumor or other problem might block or press on an organ and cause it to not work properly.
Hormones that are needed to help with conception can be disrupted.
Testicles may not make healthy sperm or might make fewer or no sperm at all.
- The process of sperm ejaculation can be disrupted.
In many cases, cancer surgery or treatment can be more likely than cancer itself to interfere with some parts of the reproductive process and affect your ability to have children. Different types of surgeries and treatments can have different effects. The risk of infertility varies, depending on:
- The patients age and stage of development for example, before or after puberty, in young adulthood, in older adulthood, etc.
- The type and extent of surgery
- The type of treatment given
- The dose of treatment
Microarray Data From Geo And Oncomine Datasets
We obtained the gene expression profile of GSE21422 from Gene Expression Omnibus , a free and publicly available database. The GSE21422 dataset was based on the GPL570 platform . We use the âlimmaâ R package to screen for SPA17 between breast cancer samples and normal breast tissue samples. False discovery rate < 0.05 and |log2fold change | > 1 were chosen as the cut-off criteria.
Raise Testosterone And Boost Sperm Count
Fenugreek may help increase low testosterone and sperm levels.
In a , 50 male volunteers took an extract of fenugreek seeds for 12 weeks. About 85 percent of the participants had an increased sperm count.
The results also indicate that the extract consistently improved mental alertness, mood, and libido.
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What Is Known About The Relationship Between Oral Contraceptive Use And Cancer
Nearly all the research on the link between oral contraceptives and cancer risk comes from observational studies, both large prospective cohort studies and population-based casecontrol studies. Data from observational studies cannot definitively establish that an exposurein this case, oral contraceptivescauses cancer. That is because women who take oral contraceptives may differ from those who dont take them in ways other than their oral contraceptive use, and it is possible that these other differencesrather than oral contraceptive useare what explains their different cancer risk.
Overall, however, these studies have provided consistent evidence that the risks of breast and cervical cancers are increased in women who use oral contraceptives, whereas the risks of endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancers are reduced .
How Could Oral Contraceptives Influence Cancer Risk
Naturally occurring estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development and growth of some cancers . Because birth control pills contain synthetic versions of these female hormones, they could potentially also increase cancer risk.
In addition, oral contraceptives might increase the risk of cervical cancer by changing the susceptibility of cervical cells to persistent infection with high-risk HPV types .
Researchers have proposed multiple ways that oral contraceptives may lower the risks of some cancers, including:
- suppressing endometrial cell proliferation
- reducing the number of ovulations a woman experiences in her lifetime, thereby reducing exposure to naturally occurring female hormones
- lowering the levels of bile acids in the blood for women taking oral conjugated estrogens
Burkman R, Schlesselman JJ, Zieman M. Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004 190:S522.
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Do Injectables Cause Cancer
Name of Office: NCDPC
No. Studies show that injectable does not increase the risk of ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, injectable are associated with less chance of cancer of the lining of the uterus. International clinical studies find that there is a very small increased risk of breast cancer just after a woman begins using injectable, but there is no overall risk with long-term use.
Pro: Its Ready When You Are
Having an IUD means that as long as youre practicing safer sex, you can be spontaneous without worrying about pregnancy. Your IUD offers reliable contraception for years at a time. The copper IUD starts working instantly.
Hormone-releasing IUDs should be removed and replaced every 3-10 years, depending on the brand. The copper-wrapped IUD can stay in place and offer continuous protection for up to 12 years.
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Claim #: Semen Helps Combat Morning Sickness
Thereâs also a claim that if you swallow the semen of the person who got you pregnant, it can help with morning sickness.
How Strong Is This Research?
This claim comes from a psychologist named Dr. Gordon Gallup, who believes that morning sickness also comes from the bodyâs rejection of your partnerâs seed as a foreign body. Following this argument, you can combat morning sickness by getting your body used to the sperm â if you swallow it. Dr. Gallup claims that this practice of swallowing can even improve morning sickness in future pregnancies, because your body has even more time to get used to the foreign DNA flooding your system. However, this claim has yet to be scientifically tested.
So â¦ Is It True?
Until the anti-sickness properties of semen are rigorously tested and proven, we can chalk this up as a way for soon-to-be parents with penises to argue for head while their sweeties are pregnant.
Clinical Specimens And Collection Of Clinicopathological Parameters As Well As Follow
The 100 samples of primary breast cancer and 20 normal breast specimens analyzed in our study were obtained from patients who had undergone surgical treatment at the Department of Breast Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between June and August 2011. We excluded patients who had received preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, had recurrence and those without a complete pathology diagnostic report. Clinicopathological parameters of the patients with breast cancer were collected by reviewing their medical records. Annual follow-up was performed for each patient after surgery to ensure reliable prognostic information was obtained. Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in the study. The ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Sichuan University.
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Expression Of Spa17 Associated With The Occurrence Of Breast Cancer
In order to dynamically study the difference in SPA17 expression between breast cancer tissues and normal breast tissues, we downloaded the GSE21422 dataset, which contains 9 ductal breast carcinoma in situ samples, 5 invasive ductal breast cancer samples, and 5 normal breast tissue samples. First, we used the âlimmaâ R package to perform differential gene analysis and screen for differential genes among the three groups and constructed volcano plots and heatmap . The expression of SPA17 in DCIS and IDC samples was found to be 2.20 and 2.05 times higher, respectively, than that in normal breast tissues. There was no significant difference in the expression of SPA17 between the DCIS and IDC groups . Moreover, we reviewed the Oncomine database and found that in the Curtis and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets, the expression of SPA17 in invasive breast carcinoma was higher than that in normal breast, and the difference was statistically significant . A similar phenomenon was observed in IDC .
Figure 1. The volcano plot of SPA17 expression in DCIS vs. normal breast tissues and IDC vs. normal breast tissues . Heatmap plot of SPA17 expression in breast cancer and normal breast tissues. SPA17 expression in invasive breast carcinoma vs. normal breast tissue in Curtis and in TCGA Breast Database . SPA17 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma vs. normal breast tissue in Curtis and in TCGA Breast Database .
Benefits Of Swallowing Sperm
Nutritional content in SpermBenefits of Chemical Compounds Contained in Sperm1. Beauty.2. Prevent breast cancer.3. Increasing the body’s immunity.4. Prevent cancer.5. Teeth and bones.6. Constipation. 7. Prevent diabetes.8. Morning sickness.9. Mood ride.10. The Descendants.11. Body slender.Impact Swallowing Sperm
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Clinical And Pathohistological Features Of Spag1 In Breast Cancer
We further studied the differences in SPAG1 expression depending on different clinical and pathological parameters in breast cancer using bc-GenExMiner database,18 which is a database of breast cancer expression. SPAG1 expression was examined by age, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, lymph node status, triple negative status, basal-like status, scarff-bloom-richardson grade, nottingham prognostic index score, RSCMC subtypes and HUs subtypes.
Sperm Protein Antigen 17 Expression Correlates With Lymph Node Metastasis And Worse Overall Survival In Patients With Breast Cancer
- West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
Purpose: The expression and role of sperm protein antigen 17 , which has been confirmed to be immunogenic, in breast cancer remain unclear. We examined the expression of SPA17 in breast cancer and assessed its effect on patient prognosis and its function in breast cancer development.
Methods: SPA17 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Q-RT-PCR in 120 breast tissue samples. Correlation of SPA17 expression with the patients’ clinicopathological parameters and overall survival was assessed. The function of SPA17 was also explored.
Results: By reviewing Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, we found that SPA17 expression in ductal breast carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal breast cancer tissues was 2.20 and 2.05 times higher, respectively, than that in normal breast tissues. Our result also showed that 27% of breast cancer samples expressed SPA17 but none of the normal breast samples did. Lymph node metastasis and molecular subtyping were independent factors associated with SPA17 expression. Most importantly, SPA17 expression resulted in poor prognosis. In addition, cell function assay validated that SPA17 increased the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, but not affected the proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Our results demonstrated the vital role of SPA17 in the development and metastasis of breast cancer and that SPA17 may be a new therapeutic target in improving breast cancer prognosis.
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What Can Cause Fertility Problems
When a couple makes a baby, this is called conceptionor reproduction. When a baby is conceived naturally, a lot of things must take place for it to happen. For example, we know a female is born with all the eggs she will ever have and theyre stored in her ovaries. Any change in how the ovaries work, or a change in a hormone that’s needed to release an egg from the ovary during monthly cycles , can cause conception not to happen. In other words, there can be a body system malfunction that can change a woman’s fertility and affect her ability to get pregnant and carry a child through a pregnancy. Certain health problems, including cancer, can affect these things.
Females can be diagnosed as infertile if:
- The ovaries dont contain healthy eggs
- Hormones that are needed to help with egg release are disrupted
- A tumor or other problem might press on the ovaries or uterus and cause them not to work properly
- Damage to other parts of the reproductive system prevents eggs from being released, fertilized, or implanted
- A fertilized egg cannot grow inside the uterus
- Something happens that won’t allow a fetus to be carried through the full pregnancy, causing a miscarriage
In many cases, cancer surgery or treatments can be more likely than cancer itself to interfere with some parts of the reproductive process and affect your ability to have children. Different types of surgeries and treatments can have different effects. The risk of infertility varies depending on:
Oral Sex Increases Risk Of Throat Cancer
- Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
- Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus causes some throat cancers in both men and women. The researchers found that oral HPV infection is the strongest risk factor for the disease, regardless of tobacco and alcohol use, and having multiple oral sex partners tops the list of sex practices that boost risk for the HPV-linked cancer.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus causes some throat cancers in both men and women. Reporting in the May 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the researchers found that oral HPV infection is the strongest risk factor for the disease, regardless of tobacco and alcohol use, and having multiple oral sex partners tops the list of sex practices that boost risk for the HPV-linked cancer.
Study author and cancer virus expert Maura Gillison, M.D., Ph.D., first reported the connection between HPV and specific throat cancers in 2000, supporting previous work by other investigators. “We believed the links were strong, but needed to understand which behaviors put people at higher risk,” says Gillison.
Gillison added that “people should be reassured that oropharyngeal cancer is relatively uncommon, and the overwhelming majority of people with an oral HPV infection probably will not get throat cancer,” says Gillison. Consistent condom use may reduce risk.
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What Is An Injectable
Name of Office: NCDPC
The injectable is a modern, temporary and highly effective method of family planning. A woman can get pregnant again once the effects of the injectable wear off. It is injected into the upper arm or buttocks of the woman to prevent pregnancy.
The injectable prevents the meeting of the egg of the woman and the sperm of the man. It works by preventing the release of a mature egg from the ovary. It also thickens the cervical mucus in the neck of the uterus, making it difficult for the sperm to pass through. So sperm and egg cannot unite and no pregnancy occurs. Using injectable facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of health problems because the woman regularly goes to a health provider for her injections and checkup.
Effects Of Downregulation Of Spag1 On The Cell Cycle Progression
To further understand the role of SPAG1 in breast cancer cells, we further examined the effect of SPAG1 downregulation on cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting . Our result revealed that the shSPAG1 group had fewer cells in the G1 phase compared with the control group, but there was no significant change in the cells of S, G2/M phase .
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Shrna Expression Lentiviral Vector Construction And Cell Transfection
A short hairpin RNA targeting SPAG1 sequences and a control with scrambled non-silencing RNA were designed and synthesized to form the recombinant lentiviral SPAG1 shRNA expression vector and its control vector. The accuracy of the constructed vectors was verified via DNA sequencing. The verified lentiviral vectors carrying SPAG1 shRNA and non-silencing RNA were packaged by co-transfecting with Helper 1.0 and Helper 2.0 plasmids in 293T cells. The resulting recombinant lentiviruses were then harvested by centrifugation and purification after 48-h cell culture and named as shSPAG1 and shCtrl. For lentivirus transfection, the cells were cultured in 6-well plates before being transfected with either shSPAG1 or shCtrl according to the multiplicity of infection protocol.
Freezing Embryos And Ivf
At the moment, in vitro fertilisation is the most effective way of preserving fertility. You take hormones to stimulate your ovaries to make eggs. A doctor removes the eggs and fertilises them with sperm. It’s possible to use donor sperm if you dont have a male partner at this stage.
This creates an embryo which can be frozen and stored. After treatment, the doctor puts one or more of the eggs into your womb to try to make you pregnant.
A disadvantage of freezing embryos is that it takes time and could result in a delay to your cancer treatment.
Talk to your doctor about whether having IVF could be a possibility. It’s available for some people on the NHS but not in all parts of the country. IVF and freezing embryos are not always successful and the number of treatments you can have varies from area to area. You need to check with your doctor to find out what is available for you.
Doctors dont know what effect increasing hormone levels for women with hormone positive breast cancer is. Researchers have been looking into different ways of doing IVF including:
- natural cycle IVF using no hormones. This is at the investigation stage and so far it hasnt been as successful as regular IVF
- testing hormone therapies to stimulate the ovaries such as aromatase inhibitors either on their own or in combination with a lower dose of IVF hormones
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How Cancer Can Affect Ejaculation
This information is for adult males with cancer. If you are a transgender person, please talk to your cancer care team about any needs that are not addressed here.
Cancer treatment can interfere with ejaculation by damaging the nerves that control the prostate, seminal vesicles, and the opening to the bladder. It can also stop semen from being made in the prostate and seminal vesicles, or it can cut off the path that semen normally takes out of the body. Despite this, a man can still feel the sensation of pleasure that makes an orgasm. The difference is that, at the moment of orgasm, little or no semen comes out. This is referred to as a dry orgasm.
Over time, many men adjust to having an orgasm without semen. Some others say the orgasm does not feel as strong, while others report that the orgasm is stronger and feels more pleasurable. Men might worry that their partners may notice a change since there is no actual fluid release during sex.
Some men are most concerned that their orgasms are less satisfying than before. Others are upset by dry orgasms because they want to father a child. If a man knows before treatment that he may want to have a child after treatment, he may be able to bank sperm for future use.
A mild decrease in the intensity of orgasm is normal with aging, but it can be more severe in men whose cancer treatments interfere with ejaculation. See Treating Sexual Problems for Men With Cancer.