Alpelisib And Hormone Therapy
Alpelisib is a PI3 kinase inhibitor.
PI3 kinase is an enzyme important in cell growth. The PIK3CA gene helps control PI3 kinase enzyme activity. Some breast cancers have a PIK3CA gene mutation. This gene mutation is in the genes of breast cancer, not the person.
PI3 kinase inhibitors are a class of drugs designed to interrupt PI3 kinase signals and stop the growth of breast cancer cells with PIK3CA gene mutations.
Alpelisib in combination with the hormone therapy fulvestrant is FDA-approved to treat hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancers with a PIK3CA gene mutation that have been treated with hormone therapy in the past.
The combination of alpelisib and fulvestrant can give more time before the cancer spreads compared to fulvestrant alone .
If alpelisib is being considered for your treatment plan, your tumor will be checked to see if it has a PIK3CA gene mutation. This can be done by testing tumor tissue or testing for tumor DNA in your blood .
Alpelisib is a pill.
Some possible side effects include high blood sugar, diarrhea, nausea, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, fatigue and hair loss.
Blood sugar levels are monitored while taking alpelisib because nearly everyone who takes it gets high blood sugar levels.
Its recommended you take an antihistamine, such as cetirizine , to lower the risk of rash.
Adapted from select sources .
Breast Cancer Is Sometimes Caused By Inherited Gene Mutations
The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a persons parents. Hereditary breast cancer makes up about 5% to 10% of all breast cancer. Some mutated genes related to breast cancer are more common in certain ethnic groups.
Women who have certain gene mutations, such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, have an increased risk of breast cancer. These women also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer, and may have an increased risk of other cancers. Men who have a mutated gene related to breast cancer also have an increased risk of breast cancer. For more information, see the PDQ summary onMale Breast Cancer Treatment.
There are tests that can detect mutated genes. Thesegenetic tests are sometimes done for members of families with a high risk of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers for more information.
Surgery For Breast Cancer
Most women with breast cancer have some type of surgery. Common types of breast surgery are lumpectomy, mastectomy, and taking out lymph nodes from the underarm. Women who have a mastectomy may also decide to have the breast shape rebuilt, either at the same time or later on.
Choosing between lumpectomy and mastectomy
Lumpectomy only takes out the lump and a little bit around it. It lets you keep most of your breast. The downside is that youll most likely need radiation treatment after surgery. But some women who have a mastectomy also need radiation afterward.
When choosing between a lumpectomy and mastectomy, be sure to get all the facts. At first you may think that a mastectomy is the best way to get it all out. Some women tend to choose mastectomy because of this. But in most cases, lumpectomy is just as good as mastectomy. Talk to your cancer care team. Learn as much as you can to make the right choice for you.
If you have a mastectomy, you may want to think about having your breast shape rebuilt. This is called breast reconstruction. Its not done to treat the cancer. Its done to build a breast shape that looks a lot like your natural breast.
If youre going to have a mastectomy and are thinking about having reconstruction, you should talk to a plastic surgeon before the mastectomy is done. Your breast can be rebuilt at the same time the mastectomy is done or later on.
Side effects of surgery
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What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer
The most common types of breast cancer are:
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast. It then breaks through the wall of the duct and invades the surrounding tissue in the breast. This is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for 80% of cases.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ is ductal carcinoma in its earliest stage, or precancerous . In situ refers to the fact that the cancer hasn’t spread beyond its point of origin. In this case, the disease is confined to the milk ducts and has not invaded nearby breast tissue. If untreated, ductal carcinoma in situ may become invasive cancer. It is almost always curable.
- Infiltrating lobular carcinoma. This cancer begins in the lobules of the breast where breast milk is produced, but has spread to surrounding tissues in the breast. It accounts for 10 to 15% of breast cancers. This cancer can be more difficult to diagnose with mammograms.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ is a marker for cancer that is only in the lobules of the breast. It isn’t a true cancer, but serves as a marker for the increased risk of developing breast cancer later, possibly in both or either breasts. Thus, it is important for women with lobular carcinoma in situ to have regular clinical breast exams and mammograms.
What Are Possible Side Effects Of Radiation Therapy
There are usually no immediate side effects from each radiation treatment given to the breast. Patients do not develop nausea or hair loss on the head from radiation therapy to the breast.
Most patients develop mild fatigue that builds up gradually over the course of therapy. This slowly goes away one to two months following the radiation therapy. Most patients develop dull aches or sharp shooting pains in the breast that may last for a few seconds or minutes. It is rare for patients to need any medication for this. The most common side effect needing attention is skin reaction. Most patients develop reddening, dryness anditching of the skin after a few weeks. Some patients develop substantial irritation.
Skin care recommendations include:
- Keeping the skin clean using gentle soap and warm but not hot water
- Avoiding extreme temperatures while bathing
- Avoiding trauma to the skin and sun exposure
- Avoiding shaving the treatment area with a razor blade
- Avoiding use of perfumes, cosmetics, after-shave or deodorants in the treatment area
- Using only recommended unscented creams or lotions after daily treatment
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Morepowerful Natural Treatments For Breast Cancer Revealed
Vitamin D isonly the first of several natural and complimentary treatments for breast cancer that work exceptionally well.Click on each link below to discover more of the most phenomenal breast cancer remedies, that sadly for censorship reasons , you just don’t hear about in themainstream news…
Transdermal And Oral Iodine For Breast Cancer Treatment
Dr. Tullio Simoncini states, Every tumor of the skin can be completely removed with iodine tincture 7%, brushed many times once a day. When the crust is formed, dont take it away, but treat the area continuously and wait until it falls without any other intervention except the iodine tincture. When the crust falls down the third time, the patient is healed.
Though caution is always necessary, because iodine can be very caustic on the skin sometimes, we can use transdermal iodine to directly saturate breast tissue. What Simoncini never recognized was that we can saturate the tissues from within with the oral intake of iodine at high enough levels to beat back cancer and infections.
After iodine dries, the woman or her attending companion or nurse could tenderly apply a topical cannabinoid salve/cream to the breasts, thus soaking them with all of marijuanas anti-cancer effects. Other topical treatments to the breasts can and should include magnesium oil massaged into the breasts, clay packs, slow breathing and even infrared treatments. In the future, we will see sound waves used to heat the tissues to the point where cancer cells cannot survive but normal healthy cells do. Every cancer patient should be using sodium bicarbonate to alkalinize his or her tissues.
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Episode #16 How To Heal Breast Cancer Naturally
Tara has chosen a path to heal breast cancer that is completely outside of mainstream norm. She said No to chemotherapy, No to radiation and instead chose the natural healing route with diet, herbs and many other natural healing protocols. A path that in my opinion requires tremendous courage, trust and clarity given the approach of mainstream society.
In this podcast, she shares with us the ups and downs of her healing journey, what she does on a daily basis, how she copes and how she is healing.
Treatments For Breast Cancer
If you have breast cancer, your healthcare team will create a treatment plan just for you. It will be based on your health and specific information about the cancer. When deciding which treatments to offer for ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma, your healthcare team will consider:
- the stage
- if you have reached menopause
- the hormone receptor status of the cancer
- the HER2 status of the cancer
- the risk that the cancer will come back, or recur
- your overall health
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Who Is A Candidate For A Lumpectomy
Lumpectomy is typically recommended for women with newly diagnosed, early-stage breast cancers such as:
- stage I breast cancer
There are a few other factors that determine whether you are a good candidate:
- your tumor is small relative to your breast size
- your tumor is in one area of your breast
- youre able to receive radiation treatments after lumpectomy
For women with larger tumors, MSKs breast cancer team also offers several approaches that can make lumpectomy possible.
- MSKs medical oncologists can sometimes use chemotherapy to shrink the tumor first. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
- In addition, our plastic surgeons may be able to perform partial breast reconstruction, also known as oncoplastic surgery, during your lumpectomy. When possible, this approach allows us to achieve a good cosmetic outcome for you without the need for a mastectomy.
Biomarker Testing Is Used To Find Out Whether Breast Cancer Cells Have Certain Receptors
Healthy breast cells, and some breast cancer cells, have receptors that attach to the hormonesestrogen and progesterone. These hormones are needed for healthy cells, and some breast cancer cells, to grow and divide. To check for these biomarkers, samples of tissue containing breast cancer cells are removed during a biopsy or surgery. The samples are tested in a laboratory to see whether the breast cancer cells have estrogen or progesterone receptors.
Another type of receptor that is found on the surface of all breast cancer cells is called HER2. HER2 receptors are needed for the breast cancer cells to grow and divide.
For breast cancer, biomarker testing includes the following:
- Triple negative. If the breast cancer cells do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or a larger than normal amount of HER2 receptors, the cancer cells are called triple negative.
- Triple positive. If the breast cancer cells do have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and a larger than normal amount of HER2 receptors, the cancer cells are called triple positive.
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Which Treatment Is Right For Me
Choosing the treatment that is right for you may be hard. Talk to your cancer doctor about the treatment options available for your type and stage of cancer. Your doctor can explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and their side effects. Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.
Sometimes people get an opinion from more than one cancer doctor. This is called a second opinion. Getting a second opinionexternal icon may help you choose the treatment that is right for you.
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Learning That Less Is More
Two generations ago, when a woman was diagnosed with breast cancer, she had a radical mastectomy a grueling procedure to remove the breast, the underlying chest muscle and the lymph nodes. This caused incredible disfigurement. A major step forward came in the 1960s when a randomized clinical trial showed that a simple mastectomy that left the chest muscle intact resulted in similar survival.
It was the beginning of realizing that sometimes less is more.
Its hard to pull back on treatment. It takes a certain type of patient and a certain type of bravery to be willing to forgo treatment in order to help determine if thats an option for future generations, says Anne Schott, M.D., professor of internal medicine and associate director of clinical research at the U-M Rogel Cancer Center.
Over time, studies have allowed surgeons to scale back treatment even more. Lumpectomy followed by radiation is just as effective as mastectomy. Many women do not need all their axillary lymph nodes removed, a procedure that can cause severe swelling and serious infections.
Weve come to understand that radical surgical treatment is not universally beneficial, says Jacqueline Jeruss, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Breast Care Center at the U-M Rogel Cancer Center.
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Healing Cancer At Healingnewscom
To Heal Cancer is something many have written and spoken about, yet how many of us have ever been briefed on why it happens, or ways and means of curing cancer naturally?
If this interests you, the following article have been streamlined to give you “cutting edge” information, based on numerous sources, and what is available to reverse this mostly misunderstood problem called Cancer that many have. I hope you find what you are looking for here, and feel free to contribute links or articles that could compliment what has been posted…
Bee Venom In Cancer Therapy
The bee venom anti-cancer activity was studied by Liu et al., 2002 Hu et al., 2006 Putz et al., 2006 Moon et al., 2006 and many others.Several cancer cells including renal, lung, liver, prostate, bladder, and mammary cancer cells, as well as leukemia cells, can be targets of melittin, the major constituent of bee venom.
How does bee venom work?
The cell cytotoxic effects through the activation of PLA2 by melittin have been suggested to be the critical mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of bee venom.
In contrast to normal eukaryotic cells with a low membrane potential, the cell membranes of prokaryotic and cancer cells maintain a large membrane potential. Hence, many lytic peptides selectively disrupt the cancer cell membranes rather than those of normal cells. The cell cytotoxic effect through the activation of PLA2, caspase and MMP, which destroy cancer cells, is suggested as an important basic mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of bee venom .
A conjugation of melittin with hormone receptors, and gene therapy carrying melittin can be useful as a novel targeted therapy for some types of cancers such as prostate and breast cancer because these delivery system can more effectively to kill cancer cells .
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Limited Success With Immunotherapy
Breast cancer is in many ways ahead of other solid tumors in terms of targeted therapies. But one of the most exciting recent advances in cancer research has largely passed by breast cancer.
Immunotherapy has had tremendous success in melanoma, kidney cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. But no immunotherapy drugs have been approved for breast cancer. Unlike melanoma, breast cancer does not seem to generate much of an immune response.
Wicha and others at U-M are taking a number of approaches to make breast cancer cells more immune responsive. Research has found the immune system plays a role in cancer stem cells. The thinking is to create a vaccine against the cancer stem cells, rather than against all the cancer cells.
Do I Need Additional Treatment After A Lumpectomy
Cancer doctors typically recommend that women under 70 who opt for a lumpectomy also receive radiation therapy to the affected breast. This is to kill any stray breast cancer cells that remain after surgery and to prevent the cancer from coming back. This approach, also known as breast conservation therapy, has been show to be equally as effective at treating early-stage breast cancer as mastectomy.
MSKs radiation therapy teams are highly experienced in caring for women with breast cancer. We are one of just a few centers with a dedicated and specialized radiation team focused solely on treating breast cancer.
Many women also benefit from drug therapies such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy. The goal of all of these treatments is to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurring or metastasizing .
Your doctors recommendations for drug therapy are based on the molecular characteristics of your breast cancer.
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Hormone Therapy For Postmenopausal Women
After menopause, hormone therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer can be an aromatase inhibitor, tamoxifen, fulvestrant or other hormone therapy drug.
If the first hormone therapy stops working and the cancer starts to grow again, a second hormone therapy can be used. If the second drug stops working, another can be tried.
Ovarian suppression isnt helpful for postmenopausal women because their ovaries have already stopped producing large amounts of estrogen.