What About Breast Cancer In Men
The stages of breast cancer relate to how much the cancer has grown and how far its spread. Generally, the earlier breast cancer is diagnosed and treated, the higher the chances for long-term survival.
|Stage 0||This is a precancerous stage with no invasive cancer cells.|
|Stage 1||The tumor is small and localized to the breast. There may be a small amount of cancer in nearby lymph nodes.|
|Stage 2||The tumor is still localized to the breast but is larger and may have spread to several nearby lymph nodes.|
|Stage 3||This stage includes cancers that have spread to the skin, chest wall, or multiple lymph nodes in or near the breast.|
|Stage 4||This is metastatic breast cancer, meaning its spread to one or more distant parts of the body, most commonly to the bones, lungs, or liver.|
The stages of breast cancer are based on the following factors:
- whether the lymph nodes contain cancer cells
- whether the cancer has metastasized, meaning its spread to other, more distant parts of the body
Since 2018, the following factors have also been used to determine breast cancer stage:
- whether the cancer cells have hormone receptors and need estrogen or progesterone to grow
- whether the cancer cells have the HER2 protein that helps them grow
- tumor grade, meaning how aggressive the cells look under the microscope
What Increases The Risk Of Breast Cancer In Men
- Age. Most men who get breast cancer are over 60, although younger men can be affected.
- High oestrogen levels. High oestrogen levels can increase the risk. High oestrogen can happen with chronic liver damage, obesity and some genetic conditions.
- Obesity. Being very overweight seems to increase the risk of male breast cancer, especially for men over 35 years of age.
- Kleinfelters syndrome. This is a rare genetic condition where a man is born with an extra female chromosome. For men who have this syndrome the risk of breast cancer is 20 times greater than the average.
- Radiation. Men who have had repeated and prolonged exposure to radiation can be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. For example, radiotherapy treatment to the chest wall, particularly at a young age.
- Significant family history or genetic link. Men with a significant family history of female breast cancer are also at a higher risk of breast cancer. This includes a mother or sister, particularly if the relative was under the age of 40 when diagnosed. Read more about cancer and genes.
Survival Rates By Stage
Breast cancer survival rates compare the number of women with breast cancer to the number of women in the overall population to estimate the amount of time women with breast cancer are likely to live after theyre diagnosed.
For example, if the survival rate for a stage of breast cancer during a 5-year period is 90 percent, it means that women diagnosed with that cancer are 90 percent as likely to survive for 5 years following their diagnosis as women who do not have the cancer.
As we mentioned earlier, survival rates are based on information from the SEER database, which the NCI maintains.
SEER does not group breast cancers by stages 0 through 4. Instead, it groups them by the following stages:
- localized: when the cancer has not spread outside of the breast
- regional: when its spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes
- distant: when its spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones
It should be noted that theres a substantial racial disparity gap in survival rates between white women and Women of Color, especially for late-stage breast cancer diagnoses. The chart below, courtesy of the
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What Is Stage Iv Breast Cancer
Stage IV is the most advanced stage of breast cancer. It has spread to nearby lymph nodes and to distant parts of the body beyond the breast. This means it possibly involves your organs such as the lungs, liver, or brain or your bones.
Breast cancer may be stage IV when it is first diagnosed, or it can be a recurrence of a previous breast cancer that has spread.
Survival Rates Of Stage 3 Breast Cancer
According to data from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, breast cancer survival rates have improved significantly over time due to earlier detection and improved treatment options. In general, the earlier the breast cancer is first diagnosed, the better the outcome. The current 5-year relative survival rate of women first diagnosed with Stage 3 breast cancer is 80.6%.
Although survival rates can provide an estimate of what percentage of patients with the same stage of breast cancer are alive after a certain period of time , they cannot predict how long any specific individual with breast cancer will live. The length of survival varies from person to person. Factors that influence this include:
- Response to treatment
- The type of breast cancer that you have
- The rate of tumour growth
- Other factors such as your age, medical history and overall health
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Bc Death By Ihc Subtype Grade And Ptn Status
To assess the independent contribution of each factor to breast cancer death, we stratified by all three variables IHC subtype, grade and pTN status in models adjusted for age, year and surgery type . Among ER+ subtypes, an increasing grade was associated with increased mortality in all subtypes and levels of pTN status. Larger tumour size and positive nodal status were consistently associated with increased mortality in all ER+ subtypes and levels of grade, and larger size was associated with increased mortality also among node-negative tumours . Among small tumours with no nodal spread, ER+PRHER2 subtype of grade III was associated with a particularly high mortality and of similar magnitude to TNBC grade III tumours . Women with larger tumours and any nodal spread had the highest mortality although numbers were low for this group. Among ER subtypes, high-grade tumours were associated with higher mortality than intermediate-grade tumours for pT1pN0 tumours, while for other pTN status the mortality rates were similarly elevated for intermediate- and high-grade tumours.
Table 2 Adjusted hazard ratios for breast cancer death by IHC subtypes, grade and pTN
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Histological Grade And Ki67
Histological grade information was available from the ICD-O-3 code and categorized as low , intermediate and high according to the Elston-Ellis modification of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system . Women with anaplastic carcinoma were excluded, leaving n=24,137 women for the analysis . Ki67 has been recorded routinely since 2011 and was categorized as low , intermediate or high according to cutoffs in the Norwegian treatment guidelines .
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Will I Die Of Breast Cancer
This is a difficult question to answer early in your cancer care but it is still worth asking. Many people just diagnosed with cancer have no idea how much of a risk to their life their unique situation poses. Most breast cancers carry a low risk of recurrence, especially early-stage cancers. The answer is usually reassuring.
Er Pr Her2 And Ihc Subtypes
Information on ER, PR and HER2 status was obtained from pathology reports for the whole study period . From 2005 to January 2010, tumours were classified as ER negative if < 10% ER expression, and from February 2010 onwards if < 1% ER expression. PR-negative tumours were defined as < 10% PR expression throughout the study period. HER2 expression was routinely assessed with IHC and verified with in situ hybridization if the IHC results were borderline. We created six IHC subtypes: ER+PR+HER2, ER+PRHER2, ER+PR+HER2+, ER+PRHER2+, ERPRHER2+ and ERPRHER2 . Women with the rarer combinations ERPR+HER2 or ERPR+HER2+ were set to missing in the analysis . In total, n =21,786 women had known IHC subtype, while n =2351 women lacked information on ER, PR or HER2 status .
Table 1 Clinicopathologic characteristics by IHC subtype for women with invasive breast cancer, Norway 20052015 age 2074 years
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Hormonal Breast Cancer Survival Rate
What is breast cancer? What are the symptoms of breast cancer? What is the cause?
- Personal history of breast cancer: A family history of breast cancer. Some of these cases originated from a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are second. Typically, this gene acts as a tumor suppressor that protects against breast cancer, but a woman can inherit copies of genes containing mutations that promote the development of the disease If they do, the risk for breast cancer may be as high as 80 percent. It is estimated that between 5 and 10 percent of all breast cancer cases stemmed from inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2. Rare mutations in another gene that can affect the risk of breast cancer, but not to BRCA1 and BRCA2.
- Giving birth after the age of 30: increased risk of breast cancer in women who have never had children or who first gave birth after the age of 30.
- Exposure to Estrogen: Throughout a womanâs life, the less he has to be exposure to estrogen , the lower the risk of disease. For this reason, women who start menstruating late and reach menopause early are at risk because of lower estrogen levels are highest during a womanâs reproductive years.
How is breast cancer diagnosed?
Survival Rate With Metastatic Breast Cancer
Many people wonder about the life expectancy for stage 4 breast cancer . Itâs important to note that everyone is different and survival rates vary widely. There are some people who survive many years and even decades with stage 4 disease. At the same time, itâs important to understand that stage 4 breast cancer isnât curable.
It can be helpful to look at current statistics and consider the many variables that affect life expectancy. While itâs important not to raise false hope, it may help to know the reality that there are some long-term survivors.
Some people want to know the statistics, but many donât. If youâre living with stage 4 breast cancer, there is absolutely no requirement that you know the prognosis. The information provided here is only for those who truly wish to know what the current research iseven this research has many limitations.
Survival depends on mortality. You start with 100 percent of the people in the group.
100 percent mortality rate = survival rate
Say, the mortality rate in the group of people is 5 percent. Survival would be 95 percent .
Similarly, the number of people in a group who survive depends on the number of people who die. Say, 500 people are in the group and 1 person dies. This means 499 people survived .
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How Long Can You Live After Being Diagnosed With Breast Cancer
When assessing the outlook of cancer, doctors use a measurement called the 5-year survival rate.
The 5-year cancer survival rate is a comparison based on the overall population. For example, if your cancer has a 90 percent 5-year survival rate, that means youre 90 percent as likely as someone without cancer to live for at least 5 years after your diagnosis.
To determine 5-year survival rates, the
that looks at several factors when staging cancer:
- T the size of the tumor given as a score from 0 to 4
- N the spread to lymph nodes given as a score from 0 to 3
- M the presence of metastasis given as a score that is either 0 or 1
- ER the estrogen receptor status
- PR the progesterone receptor status
- HER2 whether the cancer makes a certain amount of the protein HER2
- G the grade of cancer, or how closely the cancer cells resemble normal cells
Doctors assess all this information and assign a stage ranging from l to lV . The lower the number, the less advanced the cancer is, and the more likely it is that treatment will be successful.
Doctors use the term cured when theres no longer any sign of your cancer 5 years after your diagnosis. For many cancers, the chance of a recurrence at this stage is very low.
However, a future relapse is still possible since cancer cells can remain in the body for many years.
Breast Cancer Survival By Age
Five-year survival for female breast cancer shows an unusual pattern with age: survival gradually increases from 85% in women aged 15-39 and peaks at 92% in 60-69 year olds survival falls thereafter, reaching its lowest point of 70% in 80-99 year-olds for patients diagnosed with breast cancer in England during 2009-2013.
Breast Cancer , Five-Year Net Survival by Age, Women, England, 2009-2013
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Is Inoperable Breast Cancer Still Treatable
Although stage 3C breast cancer is defined as either operable or inoperable, an inoperable diagnosis doesnt necessarily mean that it cant be treated.
The term inoperable may mean that all the cancer in the breast and surrounding tissue cant be removed through simple surgery. When breast cancer is removed, a rim of healthy tissue around the tumor, called a margin, is also removed.
For breast cancer to be successfully removed, there needs to be healthy tissue in all margins of the breast, from your clavicle down to a few inches below the breast mound.
It is possible for inoperable breast cancer to become operable following a treatment to shrink the cancer.
Pearls And Other Issues
Breast cancer patients are advised to be followed up for life to detect early recurrence and spread. Yearly or biannual follow-up mammography is recommended for the treated and the other breast. The patient must be informed that they must visit a breast clinic if they have any suspicious manifestations. Currently, there is no role for repeated measurements of tumor markers or doing follow-up imaging other than mammography.
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How Life Expectancy And Relapse Differ From Positive Tumors
Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.
Questions about the survival rate and recurrence rate are very common when someone is diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. While prognosis is, on average, poorer than with hormone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive tumors, triple-negative breast cancer is a very diverse disease.
On a positive note, and unlike hormone-positive tumors that commonly recur late , late recurrence is less common with triple-negative tumors. The recent approval of immunotherapy only for triple-negative disease is also optimistic.
This article looks at factors that may affect survival or recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer, as well as the statistical rates of both. It also discusses life expectancy with stage 4 and recent case reports of some longtime survivors.
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Tumour Size Nodal Status And Tnm Stage
Pathologic T and N status was coded according to AJCC 4th edition for 20052008 and AJCC 6th edition for 20082015 and categorized as pT1 , pT2 , pT3 , pT4, pN0 , pN1 , pN2 , pN3 and pN+ , and combined as pT1pN0, pT2pN0, pT1-2pN+ and pT3-4pN0/+ according to Norwegian treatment guidelines. Patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment were missing pTN status. Pathologic TNM stage was categorized into I, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB or IV . This was combined with a SEER summary stage variable based on clinical data when pTNM missing into a TNM stage variable .
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Predictors For Breast Cancer Survival Rates
It has to be remembered that every single breast cancer patient has itsown , unique scenario. Thus, prognosis and breast cancer survival rates are a rough guide ONLY.
However, there are consistent predictors for breast cancer survival rates and these include:-
- The stage of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis
- The Grade of the breast cancer
- A patients age at diagnosis
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Exposure Covariate And Outcome Data
We retrieved information on the following exposures and covariates from the registries: date of diagnosis , age at diagnosis , menopausal status , screening detection , tumor size , tumor grade , estrogen receptor status , progesterone receptor status , HER2 status , Ki67 , type of surgery , adjuvant radiotherapy , adjuvant endocrine treatment , and adjuvant chemotherapy .
The prespecified primary outcome was breast cancer death , defined as breast cancer listed as the underlying cause of death in the Cause of Death Register . Secondary outcomes included death from any cause and metachronous breast cancer , defined as ipsilateral or contralateral breast cancer registered in the Cancer Registry at any date after the index period.
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Factors Influencing Metastatic Breast Cancer Prognosis
There are several factors that can impact the prognosis of metastatic breast cancer, these include:
- Hormone receptors on cancer cells
- The type of tissue involved
- The number of tumors/extent of metastasis
- A persons overall attitude and outlook on the prognosis
Of course, no factors can accurately predict the exact prognosis for a person with metastatic breast cancer. These statistics are based on many clinical research studies, looking at survival rates for people diagnosed with breast cancer at all stages. But the prognosis of each person is different, regardless of what the statistics indicate.
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