Early Recurrence Vs Late Recurrence
A recurrence of breast cancer at any time can be devastating. While 6% to 10% of breast tumors are diagnosed when the disease is already metastatic , 90% to 94% of metastatic breast cancers represent a distant recurrence of previous early-stage breast cancer .
Since distant metastases are responsible for around 90% of breast cancer deaths, finding ways to reduce the risk of recurrence is critical in improving the survival rate from the disease. Overall, it’s estimated that around 30% of breast cancers will recur at distant sites.
Breast Cancer And Birth Control
Some research has shown that taking hormonal birth control slightly increases the risk of breast cancer. However, once you stop using hormonal birth control, risk levels eventually return to normal.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center also notes that the overall cancer risk for teens remains low, even though using hormonal birth control minimally increases the risk of developing cancer.
If you use hormonal birth control and youre concerned about your cancer risk, please discuss your options with your doctor before stopping your birth control.
According to research, including a , use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of early onset breast cancer in people under 25 years old who have a BRCA gene mutation.
Doctors should exercise caution before recommending oral contraceptives to someone in this group.
That said, an increased breast cancer risk is just one of many factors to consider before deciding on the right birth control method.
Teens going through the earlier stages of puberty may notice lumps near their nipples. Tenderness and soreness are also possible. These occur during normal breast development and arent a cause of concern on their own.
Your period can also cause tenderness and soreness in the breasts.
Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Or After Pregnancy
Being pregnant at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer has been associated with a worse outcome. In one study of 797 such cases, compared with 4,177 non-pregnancy-associated breast cancer controls, women diagnosed while pregnant had larger, more advanced tumors, a greater incidence of receptor-negative tumors, and a higher death rate . A smaller study found no association between pregnancy and increased mortality. In contrast, pregnancy and childbirth following a diagnosis of breast cancer do not increase mortality, and actually may improve survival. One study found that 438 women age < 45 years at diagnosis, who delivered a child 10 or more months following a diagnosis of breast cancer, had a decreased relative risk of death , compared to women who did not bear children following diagnosis. Women who were pregnant at the time they were diagnosed had a mortality rate similar to the latter group. This suggests that childbirth following breast cancer diagnosis does not increase mortality.
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What Is The Connection Between Breast And Cervical Cancer
There are a number of connections between breast and cervical cancer. Most patients affected with breast cancer are women, and all cervical cancer patients are female. Women are routinely screened for both of these types of cancer in the hopes that an early diagnosis will allow for more effective treatment. Some risk factors, such as prolonged oral contraceptive use and smoking, are considered to increase the likelihood of developing these cancers. A rare disease called Peutz-Jeghers syndrome can cause both types of cancer in some affected women.
The clearest connection between these cancers is that they are diseases primarily seen in women. Cervical cancer is only seen in females. Breast cancer, although much more common in women, can still affect men because they have small amounts of breast tissue under their nipples. Male breast cancer represents less than 2 percent of all diagnosed breast cancers.
The Breast Cancer Centers At Ctca
At the Breast Cancer Centers at each of our CTCA® hospitals, located across the nation, our cancer experts are devoted to a single missiontreating breast cancer patients with compassion and precision. Each patients care team is led by a medical oncologist and coordinated by a registered oncology nurse, who helps track the various appointments, follow up on tests and answer questions that come up along the way. Your care team also may include a breast surgeon, radiation oncologist, radiologist, pathologist and a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with advanced training in helping patients restore function and appearance. Fertility preservation and genetic testing are also available for qualifying patients who need them.
Our pathologists and oncologists are experienced and trained in tools designed to diagnose, stage and treat different types of breast cancer, from early-stage ductal carcinoma in situ to complex diseases such as triple-negative and inflammatory breast cancer. As part of our patient-centered care model, which is designed to help you keep strong during treatment, your multidisciplinary care team may recommend various evidence-informed supportive therapies, such as naturopathic support, psychosocial support, nutritional support, physical and occupational therapy and pain management. The entire team works together with a whole-person focus, which is at the heart of our centers dedication to personalized and comprehensive care.
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What Are Risk Factors For Breast Cancer In Men
A risk factor is anything that may increase your chance of having a disease. Risk factors for a certain type of cancer might include smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. The exact cause of someones cancer may not be known. But risk factors can make it more likely for a person to have cancer.
Things you should know about risk factors for cancer:
Risk factors can increase a person’s risk, but they do not necessarily cause the disease.
Some people with 1 or more risk factors never develop cancer. Other people can develop cancer and have no risk factors.
Some risk factors are very well known. But there is ongoing research about risk factors for many types of cancer.
Some risk factors, such as family history, may not be in your control. But others may be things you can change. Knowing the risk factors can help you make choices that might lower your risk. For example, if an unhealthy diet is a risk factor, you may choose to eat healthy foods. If excess weight is a risk factor, your healthcare provider may check your weight or help you lose weight.
Risk factors for breast cancer in men include:
Female relatives with breast cancer
A breast cancer 2 gene mutation in the family
What Are The Symptoms Of Breast Cancer In Men
The most common symptoms of breast cancer in men include:
Breast lump or swelling
Nipple that turns inward
Fluid leaking from the nipple discharge, that may be bloody
A pain or pulling sensation in the breast
Skin or nipple changes such as dimpling, puckering, redness, or scaling
Many of these symptoms may be caused by other health problems. Its important to see a healthcare provider if you have these symptoms. Only a healthcare provider can tell if you have cancer.
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Does Deodorant Cause Cancer
Using deodorant or antiperspirant does not cause breast cancer.
Claims that deodorants or antiperspirants increase your risk of breast cancer have been around for several years.
Some people have also claimed that aluminium in antiperspirants can increase your risk.
However, theres no convincing evidence of a link between breast cancer and deodorants, antiperspirants or their ingredients.
Coping With The Fear Of Recurrence
Coping with the fear of recurrence can be challenging, especially when the risk of recurrence persists as with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. In the past, many people sensed that if they hit the five-year mark, the chances they were home free were high. Longer-term research has, unfortunately, dispelled this belief.
Some degree of fear can be a good thing. An awareness that breast cancer can come back often prompts people to be careful with follow-up appointments and to pursue healthy lifestyle changes to reduce risk. Yet, too much fear can be paralyzing.
If you’re struggling with this fear, seeking professional help can be wise. And in fact, there have even been studies linking psychological support with survival.
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Relative Risks Less Than 1
A relative risk less than 1 means the risk factor lowers the risk of disease.
For example, women who breastfeed for a year have a relative risk of breast cancer of about 0.94 compared to women who dont breastfeed.
You may see:
- Women who breastfeed have a 6 percent lower risk of breast cancer compared to women who dont breastfeed.
Does Stress Cause Cancer
Theres no conclusive evidence that stress increases your risk of breast cancer.
A number of studies have looked at the links between stress and breast cancer, but there isnt enough evidence to show a clear association.
Stress can be linked to a rise in other lifestyle behaviours, such as being less active or drinking alcohol, which could increase your risk of breast cancer.
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Invasive Breast Cancer Symptoms
Most breast cancers start in the ducts, or the tubes that carry milk to the nipple, or in the lobules, the little clusters of sacs where breast milk is made. Invasive breast cancer refers to breast cancer that spreads from the original site to other areas of the breast, the lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. In these cancers that form in the ducts or lobules, invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma , the cancer spreads from the ducts or lobules to other tissue. Depending on the stage, you may notice symptoms.
Invasive breast cancer symptoms may include:
- A lump or mass in the breast
- Swelling of all or part of the breast, even if no lump is felt
- Skin irritation or dimpling
- A lump or swelling in the underarm lymph nodes
Example Of Breast Cancer Risk Going Up
Many studies have shown that women who have two or more alcoholic drinks each day have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. You may hear this relative risk described as a percentage or a number:
- Compared to women who do not drink, women who have two or more drinks per day have a 50% higher risk of breast cancer. Put another way, they are 50% more likely to develop breast cancer over the course of a lifetime than nondrinkers are. This doesnt mean that their lifetime risk of getting breast cancer is 50% it means that their risk of getting breast cancer is 50% higher relative to people who dont drink. This percentage is how you are likely to see relative risk reported by television, the Internet, and newspapers.
- Compared to women who do not drink, women who have two or more drinks per day have a relative risk of 1.5. This number is how researchers and scientific papers would usually talk about relative risk. The number 1 is assigned to the baseline group , since their risk remains the same. The .5 describes the relative increase in risk for the other group it is another way of expressing the 50% higher lifetime risk .Another way of saying this is that women who drink two or more alcoholic drinks per day have 1.5 times the risk of developing breast cancer than women who do not drink.
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Risk Of Developing Breast Cancer
The term risk is used to refer to a number or percentage that describes how likely a certain event is to occur. When we talk about factors that can increase or decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, either for the first time or as a recurrence, we often talk about two different types of risk: absolute risk and relative risk.
Why Is Weight A Factor
Women who are overweight or obese have higher levels of estrogen in their bodies. Even though the ovaries stop making estrogen after menopause, the hormone is still stored and produced in fat tissue. Estrogen causes certain types of breast cancer to grow and spread. Work with your doctor to develop a weight loss plan that fits your life, if necessary.
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How Is Breast Cancer Treated In Younger Women
Treatment decisions are made based whether or not it has spread beyond the breast, as well as the woman’s general health and personal circumstances.
Treatment options include:
Surgery: either a lumpectomy, which involves removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue, or a mastectomy, which is the removal of a breast.
Radiation is generally used following a lumpectomy, and chemotherapyand hormone therapy often are recommended after surgery to help destroy any remaining cancer cells and prevent a return.
Breast cancer treatment can affect your sexuality, fertility, and pregnancy. If youâd like to have children, talk to your doctor it before you begin treatment.
Guidelines For Breast Cancer Screening
If you have a genetic risk factor for breast cancer, regular screening is an essential part of your care. Specialists have access to additional resources for calculating patients breast cancer risk, and can use these data to recommend screening schedules. Your doctor will recommend a screening plan thats most appropriate for you.
At Johns Hopkins, enhanced surveillance for high-risk patients consists of a breast exam every six months, alternating mammograms with MRI scans to minimize radiation exposure, says Ninan. For women with a family history of breast cancer but with no known gene mutation, screening can begin five years before the earliest age at diagnosis in the family. For example, if your mother was diagnosed when she was 35, you should begin screening when you are 30.
For women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, screening could start as early as age 25, Ninan says. There is some concern that the radiation exposure from mammograms performed before age 30 could increase breast cancer risk, especially in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. With that in mind, screening early in life usually consists of breast exams and MRI scans, if called for.
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Breast Cancer Statistics In Young Adults
Although breast cancer in young adults is rare, more than 250,000 living in the United States today were diagnosed under age 40. In young adults, breast cancer tends to be diagnosed in its later stages. It also tends to be more aggressive. Young adults have a higher mortality rate. As well as a higher risk of metastatic recurrence .
Does Abortion Affect Hormones During Pregnancy
Concern about a possible link between abortion and breast cancer has been raised because abortion is thought to interrupt the normal cycle of hormones during pregnancy. Some believe that this interruption might increase a womans risk of developing breast cancer.
There are different types of abortion:
- Spontaneous abortion, which most people refer to as a miscarriage, is the loss of a fetus before 5 months into the pregnancy. It is often caused by problems with the fetus or with the maternal environment in which it is growing.
- Stillborn birth is usually considered to be the death of a fetus after 5 months gestation while still in the uterus .
- Induced abortion is a medical procedure done to end a pregnancy. It is what most people think of when they hear abortion.
All of these have been studied to see what effect they may have on a womans risk of developing breast cancer later in life.
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Can Squeezing Or Being Hit In The Breast Cause Cancer
An injury, such as falling or being hit in the chest, will not cause breast cancer. Squeezing or pinching the breast or nipple will not cause breast cancer either.
It may cause bruising and swelling to the breast, which can be tender or painful to touch.
Sometimes an injury can lead to a benign lump known as fat necrosis. This is scar tissue that can form when the body naturally repairs the damaged fatty breast tissue.
Are The Recommendations Any Different For Someone With A History Of Breast Cancer
If someone has a history of breast cancer and theyve had a COVID-19 vaccine and they feel a lump in the underarm on the same side as the shot, certainly its OK to wait for a week or two at the most to see if that swelling goes down. But if it doesnt go down, then, given their history, its better to just reach out to the provider and make sure that the imaging the provider recommends is being done. It has increased follow-up imaging a bit for our patients, because if they have a history of breast cancer, we dont want to just assume that its the vaccine. A lot of times if the radiologist sees that, they will say, Lets just get a repeat ultrasound six to 12 weeks later, just to confirm that this swelling has improved.
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Who Should Be Tested For Genetic Breast Cancer Risk
Ninans recommendation to anyone who suspects he or she might be carrying a gene that increases cancer risk: Start with genetic counseling.
Deciding to undergo the testing is a big decision, and not an easy choice to make. It is important to consider the potential impact of test results on your well-being, your career, your family and other aspects of your life, she explains.
Knowing the results could affect your health and affect other family members, including your siblings and children. For instance, someone with a genetic mutation has about a 50% chance of passing that trait to his or her children.
Ninan says the guidelines for who should be tested change over time, but in general, your doctor might want to discuss gene testing with you if:
- Someone in your family has tested positive for carrying a mutated gene.
- You are of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
- You were diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50.
- A man in your family has been diagnosed with breast cancer.
- You were diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
- There are multiple breast cancers on one side of your family.
- You or a relative has had cancer diagnosed in both breasts.