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What Is Triple Positive Breast Cancer

Triple Positive Breast Cancer Survival Rates

What is the meaning & survival rate of triple negative breast cancer? -Dr. Nanda Rajaneesh

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What Is A 5

A relative survival rate compares women with the same type and stage of breast cancer to women in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of breast cancer is 90%, it means that women who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as women who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

Treatment Strategies For Triple

MBC that is positive for both hormone receptors and HER2 is called triple positive. Approximately 10% of MBC is triple positive. Triple-positive MBC is different from hormone receptor-positive or HER2-positive MBC because triple-positive cancer is fueled by both hormone receptors and HER2. The interactions between HER2 and estrogen receptors may lead to resistance to hormone therapy or HER2 targeted therapy.

Read below for more information about triple-positive MBC, current thinking about treatment strategies, and results from a clinical trial testing first-line treatment.

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Breast Cancers Survival Is Influenced By Tumor Grade

Grade identifies the size and shape of the malignant breast cancer cells. At the event the breast cancer cells look very different than normal breast tissue cells, and random in appearance, they can be called, that was badly differentiated and described as âhigh gradeâ. Higher level breast cancer cells tend to really have a poorer prognosis.

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Types Of Invasive Breast Cancer

CDC

Most breast cancers are invasive, meaning the cancer has spread from the original site to other areas, like nearby breast tissue, lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Invasive breast cancer cells break through normal breast tissue barriers and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymph nodes. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Invasive ductal carcinoma

The most common type of breast canceraccounting for roughly 70 to 80 percent of all casesis called invasive ductal carcinoma . IDC is a cancer that starts in a milk duct and grows into other parts of the breast. With time, it may spread further, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.

Invasive lobular carcinoma

Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common type, accounting for roughly 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancers. ILC starts in lobules and then spreads into nearby breast tissue. Like IDC, it may metastasize. However, this cancer is harder to detect on mammograms and other exams than IDC. One in five women with ILC have both breasts affected.

Inflammatory breast cancer

Pagets disease of the breast

Angiosarcoma of the breast

Phyllodes tumors

Other, even more rare, types of invasive breast cancer include adenoid cystic carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and tubular carcinoma.

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Why Receptor Status Matters

Breast cancer is not a single disease, and researchers now have the ability to break down breast cancer into different subtypes based on the receptor status of the tumors. Among the variations between different types of breast cancers are the proteins found on cell surfaces, which are involved tumor growth. These proteins are related to the genetic material of cancer cells.

For example, with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, estrogen binds to specific receptors on breast cancer cells, stimulating proliferation. Similarly, HER2 receptors on the surface of breast cancer cells are stimulated by HER2 protein, promoting the growth and spread of breast cancer.

It’s important to note, however, that all breast cellsboth cancerous and noncanceroushave HER2 receptors on their surfaces. The difference is that HER2-positive breast cancer cells have 40 to 100 times more receptors than HER2-negative breast cancer cells or normal breast cells. In positive cases, the abundance of receptors fuels the cancer.

Breast Cancer Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide for your next healthcare provider’s appointment to help you ask the right questions.

Cancer Alters Your Life And It Never Really Leaves You

For those beginning their cancer journey, Carol has two bits of advice. “Definitely don’t put off getting anything suspicious checked.” She doubts she would have found the cancer early if she weren’t seeing Dr. Khoo regularly. “Lastly, know that cancer never leaves you. Post-cancer PTSD and anxiety is real, even after treatment ends, and that’s OK.”

Because El Camino Health knows that the emotional toll may continue long after cancer treatment ends, they’ve developed the Survivorship Program to support patients like Carol who may have questions or fears about what’s happening with their mind, body or emotions.

Now at age 33, Carol’s life is basically back to normal, although she still struggles with the possibility that she may not be able to have more children through natural means.

“As much as cancer sucked,” states Carol, “I truly appreciate the many new perspectives it gave me: A glimpse of the lives of the doctors and nurses providing care. The depths of empathy of everyone on a cancer journey. And it forced me to jump off the never-ending achievement treadmill with no regrets. Life is such a gift!”

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Survival Rates For Triple

Triple-negative breast cancer is considered an aggressive cancer because it grows quickly, is more likely to have spread at the time its found, and is more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. The outlook is generally not as good as it is for other types of breast cancer.

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.

Stage 3a Breast Cancer

Triple positive breast cancer patient doing well after treatment by Loyolas multidisciplinary team

If you are diagnosed with Stage 3A breast cancer, it means that one of the following applies to you:

Either:

The tumour is less than 5 cm and breast cancer cells have been found in:

  • 4-9 lymph nodes in the armpit. or
  • 1 or more lymph nodes under the breastbone

The tumour is larger than 5 cm and breast cancer cells have spread to 1-9 lymph nodes.

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With So Much At Stake Carol Seeks A Second Opinion

Dr. Dormady designed a personalized plan of treatment for her, but before beginning Carol sought a second opinion outside the El Camino Health network. She needed more assurance that she wasn’t going to be overtreated and left infertile. The second opinion concurred with Dr. Dormady’s recommended treatment plan.

“I had spoken with a couple other oncologists even before meeting Dr. Dormady,” shares Carol. “But I was really drawn to the level of care at El Camino Health. They deal with cancer every day, but instead of being jaded or callous, they are sincerely caring and personal.”

What Does It Mean To Have Stage 3 Breast Cancer

Stage 3 cancer means the breast cancer has extended to beyond the immediate region of the tumor and may have invaded nearby lymph nodes and muscles, but has not spread to distant organs. Although this stage is considered to be advanced, there are a growing number of effective treatment options.

This stage is divided into three groups: Stage 3A, Stage 3B, and Stage 3C. The difference is determined by the size of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and surrounding tissue.

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Is Triple Negative Breast Cancer An Aggressive Form Of Cancer

Its true that triple negative breast cancers can grow quickly. But your prognosis or expected outcome depends on more factors than your cancer subtype. Healthcare providers will also consider your tumors size and whether it has spread to your lymph nodes and other parts of your breast. Its also helpful to know researchers are focusing on ways to slow the spread of TNBC.

What Is Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Dr arun Triple Negative Breast cancer Presentation

As its name suggests, inflammatory breast cancer often causes the breast to become red, swollen, and inflamed. Some women with IBC also notice thickened or discolored breast skin with tiny dimples, puckers, or ridges that make it look like an orange peel. While the symptoms may sound like an infection, the real culprit is cancer that is blocking lymphatic vessels in the skin and breast tissue, causing a buildup of fluid and, in some cases, pain, discoloration, and sudden swelling of the breast. Also called inflammatory breast carcinoma or locally advanced breast cancer, IBC can spread quickly, making prompt diagnosis and treatment essential.

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer Stages

Triple negative breast cancer stages are assigned based on the extent of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, including the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to other areas of the body. Approximately 15 percent of all breast cancer cases are classified as triple negative, or hormone receptor negative, which means that the cancer cells lack receptors for estrogen, progesterone and HER-2/neu hormones. While triple negative breast cancers are sometimes treated differently than hormone-receptor-positive cancers, the staging process is the same for all types of cancer.

Breast cancers are typically staged using a numerical scale that ranges from zero to four, with higher numbers indicating progressively larger and more invasive cancers. Triple negative and other types of breast cancer stages include:

  • Stage 0 Abnormal cells are confined to the milk ducts or lobes
  • Stage 1 Small, localized cancers that have not spread beyond a single, nearby lymph node
  • Stage 2 Moderate, regional cancers that have not spread beyond the lymph nodes in the underarm area
  • Stage 3 Regionally advanced cancers that have spread beyond the breast but have not metastasized to distant organs
  • Stage 4 Metastatic malignancies that have spread to distant organs

For more information about triple negative breast cancer stages, call or request to schedule an appointment online. No referrals are necessary to meet with Moffitts oncologists who specialize in breast cancer.

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What Is Estrogen Receptorpositive Breast Cancer And Progesterone Receptorpositive Breast Cancer

Cells from your breast cancer can be tested for receptors on two hormones that can fuel cancer growth: estrogen and progesterone. Receptors are special proteins on cells that attach to certain substances, such as estrogen and progesterone, much like a key entering a lock. Breast cancer can contain receptors for one of these hormones, both, or neither.

  • Breast cancer with receptors for estrogen is called estrogen receptor positive, or ER positive.
  • Breast cancer with no receptors for estrogen is called estrogen receptor negative, or ER negative.
  • Breast cancer with receptors for progesterone is called progesterone receptor positive, or PR positive.
  • Breast cancer with no receptors for progesterone is called progesterone receptor negative, or PR negative.

If your cancer is ER positive, PR positive, or positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, your treatment may include a hormone therapy a drug or drugs that keep these hormones from plugging into their receptors. The idea is to cut off the cancers access to the fuel that would otherwise power its growth, much like putting a child safety cap on an electrical outlet.

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Multivariate Analysis Of Data From The Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry

CI=confidence interval HER2=human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 TNBC=triple-negative breast cancer ER=estrogen receptor PR=progesterone receptor.

*p-values were determined using a Cox regression forward conditional stepwise model TNM stages were determined according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

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Statistics Dont Account For Late Recurrences

What is Triple Negative Breast Cancer?

When comparing triple-negative breast cancer to positive tumors, its important to keep in mind late recurrences. Most statistics are presented as five-year survival rate, and in this setting, triple-negative breast cancer can look more ominous. But looking at longer periods of time, say 20 years following diagnosis, this may be different.

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Tumour Reviewtriple Positive Breast Cancer: A Distinct Subtype

HER-2, ER and PgR have a key role in treatment decision making in breast cancer.

Triple positive tumours exhibit a unique clinical and biological behavior.

TP breast cancer behavior might be also driven by HR status.

TP tumors with low disease burden and high HR expression resemble luminal tumours.

The identification and characterization of this subset may avoid overtreatment.

What Is Invasive Breast Cancer Versus Noninvasive Breast Cancer

Noninvasive cancer means the abnormal cells are contained in the milk ducts of the breast and lack the ability to spread to surrounding tissue or elsewhere in the body. Invasive breast cancer means the cancer has grown beyond its original location into surrounding normal breast tissue and has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

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What Is Stage 3 Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Typically, triple-negative breast cancer patients will receive a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Research shows that survival rates are higher when chemotherapy is used to shrink the tumor before surgery. Doing chemotherapy before surgery usually means fewer cancer cells in the body at the time time of surgery. This makes it less likely for cancer cells to spread to other areas of the body during the surgery.

Another option to treat triple-negative breast cancer is using drugs that inhibit the poly ADP-ribose polymerase enzyme. Particularly in patients that also test positive for BRCA mutation, PARP inhibitors make it harder for the cancer cells to survive.

Finally, a combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy may treat advanced triple-negative breast cancer that tested positive for the PD-L1 protein. Immunotherapy helps the patients immune system work harder to fight the cancer cells, in this case also fighting the PD-L1 protein.

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer, request an appointment to meet with one of our breast cancer specialists located in the Denver area, Colorado Springs, Boulder, and other areas throughout the Colorado Front Range. We are also happy to quickly schedule a second opinion to help you with making the cancer treatment decision youre confident in.

Progress In Treating Her2

What

    HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer are among the most aggressive forms of breast cancer and traditionally have had lower survival rates than other types of the disease. However, early detection with routine screening has contributed to improved survival for both in recent years. Further, treatment advancesall available at Regional Cancer Care Associates , one of the nations largest networks of cancer specialists with locations in New Jersey, Maryland, and Connecticutalso have helped improve outcomes in HER2-positive cancer. Meanwhile, intensive research and emerging therapeutic strategies are offering new hope for women with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Four RCCA medical oncologists recently explained what drives the development of these breast cancers, how they are treated, and how women can play an important and potentially life-saving role in identifying the cancers in their earliest stages, when they can be treated most effectively.

    Aileen Chen, MD, a board-certified medical oncologist practicing with RCCA in Freehold and Holmdel, NJ says, Its an exciting time in the fight against breast cancer. Next-generation sequencing technology is detecting genetic mutations that we can treat with targeted therapies in many forms of the disease. This has enhanced our ability to practice personalized medicine by customizing a patients treatment based on her molecular and genetic profiles.

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    Univariate Analysis Of Overall Survival And Recurrence

    ReferenceHER2=human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 KBCS=Korean Breast Cancer Society CMC=Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital of the Catholic Medical Center CI=confidence interval N/A=not assessed.

    *p-values were estimated using the log-rank test p-values were estimated using the generalized Wilcoxon test 6 Cases of trastuzumab data were missed in triple-positive group §7 Cases of trastuzumab data were missed in HER2-enriched group.

    Table 3

    Risk Factors For Triple

    Doctors arent sure what makes you more likely to get triple-negative breast cancer. Not many women do it only affects up to 20% of those who have breast cancer. Youre most at risk for triple-negative breast cancer if you:

    • Are African-American or Latina

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    Stage Iia & Iib Treatment Options

    Stage II is divided into subcategories known as IIA and IIB.

    In general, stage IIA describes invasive breast cancer in which:

    • no tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or in the lymph nodes near the breast bone or
    • the tumor measures 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes or
    • the tumor is larger than 2 cm but not larger than 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes

    Still, if the cancer tumor measures between 2 and 5 cm and:

    • has not spread to the lymph nodes or parts of the body away from the breast

    it will likely be classified as stage IB.

    Similarly, if the cancer tumor measures between 2 and 5 cm and:

    it will likely be classified as stage IA.

    In general, stage IIB describes invasive breast cancer in which:

    • the tumor is larger than 2 cm but no larger than 5 cm small groups of breast cancer cells larger than 0.2 mm but not larger than 2 mm are found in the lymph nodes or
    • the tumor is larger than 2 cm but no larger than 5 cm cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone or
    • the tumor is larger than 5 cm but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes

    Still, if the cancer tumor measures between 2 and 5 cm and:

    • cancer is found in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes

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