Clinicopathologic Features Biology And Prognosis
The comparison of clinicopathologic and prognostic features of breast cancer arising in younger women with those in their older counterparts has been the subject of published studies for decades.- Traditionally, breast cancer arising in a younger host is characterized by a more aggressive phenotype. Among 185 premenopausal women carrying a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, referred for surgery at the European Institute of Oncology from April 1997 to August 2000, those aged less than 35 years had a higher percentage of ER-negative , progesterone receptor -negative , vascular or lymphatic invasion and pathologic grade 3 tumors compared with women aged 35-50 years. Differences in tumor size, lymph node involvement, and Her2/neu status between younger and older women diagnosed with breast cancer have been less clear.-
Risk Factors For Cancers
Tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and air pollution are risk factors for cancer . ;
Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer; this is a particular issue in low- and middle-income countries. Approximately 13% of cancers diagnosed in 2018 globally were attributed to carcinogenic infections, including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus , hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and Epstein-Barr virus .
Hepatitis B and C viruses and some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancers such as cervical cancer.
Do Young Women Have Worse Breast Cancer Outcomes It Seems To Depend On The Cancers Characteristics
- Tags:Early-stage: Stage IA, Early-stage: Stage IB, Early-stage: Stage IIA, Early-stage: Stage IIB, Early-stage: Stage IIIA, Luminal A Breast Cancer, 39 and younger, Estrogen-Receptor Positive, Progesterone-Receptor Positive, Planning/Considering Hormonal Therapy, Preparing for/Undergoing Hormonal Therapy, and Hormonal Therapy After Surgery
Breast cancer in women age 40 or younger isnt common — about 6% to 7% of all breast cancers in the United States are diagnosed in women in this age group. Still, breast cancer diagnosed in younger women is likely to be more aggressive or metastatic at diagnosis, and women in this age group have worse survival compared to older women.
Researchers wondered if these statistics were really true for all diagnosed younger women, or if outcomes varied based on the characteristics of the breast cancer.
A study suggests that younger women diagnosed with luminal A breast cancer have worse survival compared to older women diagnosed with the same subtype.
The research was published online on August 1, 2016 by the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Read the abstract of Subtype-Dependent Relationship Between Young Age at Diagnosis and Breast Cancer Survival.
Eric Winer, M.D., director of the breast oncology center at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and member of the Breastcancer.org Professional Advisory Board, is one of the studys authors.
Luminal A and luminal B breast cancer are two of the four main molecular subtypes of breast cancer:
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Myth: Having A Biopsy Will Cause The Cancer To Spread
A biopsy is performed to determine if cancer is present. If the disease spreads, it is not because of the biopsy.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Breast Cancer
Being a woman and getting older are the main risk factors for breast cancer.
Studies have shown that your risk for breast cancer is due to a combination of factors. The main factors that influence your risk include being a woman and getting older. Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older.
Some women will get breast cancer even without any other risk factors that they know of. Having a risk factor does not mean you will get the disease, and not all risk factors have the same effect. Most women have some risk factors, but most women do not get breast cancer. If you have breast cancer risk factors, talk with your doctor about ways you can lower your risk and about screening for breast cancer.
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What Is Different About Breast Cancer In Younger Women
- Diagnosing breast cancer in younger women is more difficult because their breast tissue is generally denser than the breast tissue in older women, and routine screening is not recommended.
- Breast cancer in younger women may be more aggressive and less likely to respond to treatment.
- Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age are more likely to have genetic mutations predisposing them to breast and other cancers.
- Younger women who have breast cancer may ignore the warning signssuch as a breast lump or unusual dischargebecause they believe they are too young to get breast cancer. This can lead to a delay in diagnosis and poorer outcomes.
- Some healthcare providers may also dismiss breast lumps or other symptoms in young women or adopt a “wait and see” approach.
- Breast cancer poses additional challenges for younger women as it can involve issues concerning sexuality, fertility, and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment.
Inherited Breast Cancer And Risk Reduction
Family history is a known risk factor for breast cancer, with elevated risk due to both increasing number and decreasing age of first-degree relatives affected. For example, in a large, population-based study, risk of breast cancer was increased 2.9-fold among women whose relative was diagnosed prior to age 30, but the increase was only 1.5-fold if the affected relative was diagnosed after age 60 years. While twin studies indicate familial aggregation among women diagnosed with breast cancer, identification of true germline mutations, including BRCA1, BRCA2, p53 , PTEN , and STK11 , are quite rare, on the order of 5%-6%.- However, the management of young women at an increased risk of developing breast cancer via a germline mutation requires careful consideration, as screening, risk reduction, and implications for relatives are of upmost importance.
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Risk For Different Age Groups
Although females are more likely to develop breast cancer after they reach the age of 50 years, younger women can also develop this condition.
According to the NCI, the risk that a doctor will diagnose breast cancer in a female in the United States within the next 10 years is:
- 1 in 227 for those aged 30 years
- 1 in 68 for those aged 40 years
- 1 in 42 for those aged 50 years
- 1 in 28 for those aged 60 years
- 1 in 26 for those aged 70 years
The also report that of the 437,722 females that doctors diagnosed breast cancer in between 2012 and 2016:
- 1.9% were aged 2034 years
- 8.4% were aged 3544 years
- 20.1% were aged 4455 years
- 25.6% were aged 5564 years
- 24.8% were aged 6574 years
- 13.7% were aged 7584 years
- 5.6% were aged 84 years+
Age is just one risk factor for developing breast cancer. Some other risk factors that people cannot control include:
On Having A Newborn Baby And Breast Cancer
Jeanette McNalty, 32; Weyburn, Sask.
I first noticed a large lump in my left breast when I was about seven months pregnant. Finally, in December, I remembered to mention it at one of my prenatal appointments with my obstetrician. She examined it and commented that it was large; she estimated that it was 2;to 3 cm. So, we made a plan to have an ultrasound. My daughter was born on January 11, and just over 24;hours later, I was having the ultrasound on my breast.
A lucky turn of events meant that, on this particular Monday, a radiologist who specializes in breasts was working at the general hospital, instead of her usual base at Pasqua Hospital in Regina.;With great compassion, she told me that even though she was very sure that the lumps could be explained by lactation, she wanted to do a biopsy. I dont want to be the one who missed breast cancer in a 29-year-old, she said.
On February 2, we got the call that no one wants to get: the bad-results phone call.;The obstetrician told me, with total and genuine shock, that pre-cancerous changes had been found in the cells in my biopsy.;She explained that I had ductal carcinoma in situ, or Stage 0 breast cancer, in which the cancerous cells are localized to the ducts and have not invaded the surrounding breast tissue.
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Should Women Under Age 40 Get Mammograms
In general, regular mammograms are not recommended for women under 40 years old, in part, because breast tissue tends to be more dense in young women, making mammograms less effective as a screening tool. In addition, most experts believe the low risk of developing breast cancer at a young age does not justify the radiation exposure or the cost of mammography. However, screening mammograms may be recommended for younger women with a family history of breast cancer and other risk factors.
Reducing The Cancer Burden
Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and care of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated appropriately.;
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What Is Secondary Breast Cancer
Secondary breast cancer is when breast cancer spreads from the breast to other parts of the body, becoming incurable. Breast cancer most commonly spreads to the bones, brain, lungs or liver.
While it cannot be cured, there are treatments that can help control certain forms of the disease for some time and relieve symptoms to help people live well for as long as possible.
There are an estimated 35,000 people living with secondary breast cancer in the UK. In around 5% of women, breast cancer has already spread by the time it is diagnosed.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
There are many different signs and symptoms of breast cancer, so regularly checking your breasts for anything different or new is important.
The earlier breast cancer is diagnosed, the better the chance of successful treatment. Getting to know what your breasts look and feel like normally means its easier to spot any unusual changes and check them with your doctor.;Common breast cancer signs and symptoms include:
- A lump or swelling in the breast, upper chest or armpit. You might feel the lump, but not see it.
- Changes in the size or shape of the breast
- A change in skin texture i.e. puckering or dimpling of the skin
- A change in the colour of the breast – the breast may look red or inflamed
- Rash, crusting or changes to the nipple
- Any unusual discharge from either nipple
Almost half of women in the UK do not check their breasts regularly for potential signs of breast cancer.
According to;a YouGov survey commissioned by Breast Cancer Now, one in 10 women have never checked their breasts for new or unusual changes. Meanwhile, a fifth of women check their breasts once every six months or less, while 13% do this once a year or less.
Asked what stops or prevents them from checking their breasts more regularly, almost half of women said they forget. This is concerning when most cases of the disease are detected because women have spotted new or unusual changes to their breasts.
Some factors are outside our control, including:
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The Most Common Cancers In Young Adults
The types of cancers seen in young adults are not unique to this age group, but the most common types in this age range are largely different from those in children or older adults.
Some of the most common cancers in young adults are:
- Breast cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Brain and spinal cord tumors
Even within this age group, some of these cancers become more or less common as people age. For example, lymphomas are more common before age 25, whereas breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers become more common after age 25.
Many other types of cancer can occur in young adults as well.
What Is A Young Adult Cancer
There is no strict definition of what separates childhood cancers from cancers in young adults, or when exactly a person is no longer a young adult. But for statistics purposes, cancers in young adults are often thought of as those that start between the ages of 20 and 39.
Cancer is not common in young adults, but a wide variety of cancer types can occur in this age group, and treating these cancers can be challenging.
Most cancers occur in older adults. The most common cancers in older people are cancers of the skin, lung, colon and rectum, breast , and prostate . Many cancers in older adults are linked to lifestyle-related risk factors or to other environmental factors. A small portion are strongly influenced by changes in a persons genes that they inherit from their parents.
Cancers that start in children or in teens are much less common. The types of cancers that develop in children and teens are often different from the types that develop in adults. Childhood cancers are often the result of gene changes that take place very early in life, sometimes even before birth. Unlike many cancers in adults, cancers in children and teens are not strongly linked to lifestyle or environmental risk factors.
The types of cancers that occur in young adults are a mix of many of the types that can develop in children, teens, and older adults.
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Other Medical And Personal Expenses
Insurance issues can be a major concern while youre being treated for breast cancer.
Paying out-of-pocket expenses related to your treatment can be a burden. This can lead to struggles paying other expenses such as rent, groceries and car payments. There are some financial assistance programs that may help.
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The Truth Behind Common Breast Cancer Myths
- The Truth Behind Common Breast Cancer Myths | Expert Says
Many breast cancer myths and misconceptions surround this number one cancer among women. Medical Director, Dr Ong Kong Wee of;K W Ong Breast & General Surgery Clinic, addresses some of the common myths and provide the facts.
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How Is Breast Cancer Treated In Younger Women
Treatment options for breast cancer treatment are the same in young women as they are for older women.The course of treatment for breast cancer at any age is based on the extent of the persons disease including whether or not it has spread beyond the breast, as well as the womans general health and personal circumstances. Treatment options include surgery: either a lumpectomy, which involves removing the lump and some surrounding tissue, or a mastectomy, which is the removal of a breast. Breast reconstruction is an option available to most women who have a mastectomy. The options for breast reconstruction in younger women are the same as they are for older women. These include reconstruction using a breast implant or reconstruction using natural body tissue, often from the tummy. There are pros and cons for each type of reconstruction.
On How Breast Cancer Affects Your Finances
Jamie Willett, 30; St. Catharines, Ont.
I found my lump;in 2014, when I was 26, but I wasnt actually given a diagnosis until 2016.;From 2014 to 2016, the lump grew from approximately 12 mm by 21 mm to approximately 85 mm by 85 mm. When I was finally diagnosed, my doctors said I had stage III, triple negative , invasive, breast cancer that had started to spread. Due to the size of the tumour, I needed to have chemotherapy first and I needed to start as soon as possible.
Im a high school supply teacher with credentials in music, English and dance. Im also a server at the Rainforest Café. Going through treatment meant I had to miss work and, ultimately, job opportunities and career advancements. Because chemotherapy lowers your immune system, I wasnt allowed to work as a serverthough they did give me modified work to do instead. But unfortunately, this modified work always came with a pay cut.
I was glad to have an outlet to take my mind off treatments, but not being able to serve definitely hurt my bank account. My husband had to take on the full mortgage and more of the bills while I was sick. I also wanted a wig, which isnt covered by OHIP . My husbands plan only reimburses a certain amount of the cost, which, for a real hair wig similar to the length of my own hair, was approximately $1,800. I ended up getting a synthetic wig, which is;still expensive but not nearly as;pricey as a real hair wig.
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