What Is The Female Breast Made Of
Also called the mammary glands, female breasts are mostly made of fatty tissue along with blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes, bands of connective or fibrous tissue to hold everything together, and the milk system, including ducts and lobes. The amount of fat largely determines your breast size.
Research Publication And Presentation
The fellow is expected to participate in clinical investigations under the guidance of attending preceptors. Research interests are discussed with each fellow at the beginning of the one-year program. Many active research programs exist in every aspect of breast oncology, and the fellow is encouraged to submit abstracts to the Society of Surgical Oncology, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the American Society of Breast Surgeons. A research project manager, a project coordinator, and seven research assistants are employed by the Breast Service to assist with chart extraction, data entry, and the research projects of the breast fellows. Statistical analysis is provided by a biostatistician from the MSKCC Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. The Breast Service shares an editor to proofread and assist in the submission of research manuscripts for publication consideration.
How Often Should I Be Screened For Breast Cancer
Screening guidelines developed by Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers recommend an annual clinical breast examination by a healthcare professional starting at age 25 and an annual mammogram starting at age 40 for women of average risk without symptoms.
Ask your doctor if you need earlier or more frequent screening or additional tests if you are at above-average risk for breast cancer due to any of the following factors:
- a family history of breast cancer, particularly in close relatives such as your mother or sister, or in several family members
What Is Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow and multiply abnormally. This can happen if the genes in a cell that control cell growth no longer work properly. As a result, the cell divides uncontrollably and may form a tumor. You may be able to feel it as a lump under the skin, or you may not realize its there at all until its found on an imaging test, such as a mammogram .
Keep in mind that most breast lumps are benign . That means they cant spread and are not life-threatening. Malignant tumors are cancerous. If left untreated, the cancer can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
This Memorial Sloan Kettering Researcher Is Trying To Identify Early Breast Cancer Metastasis To Save More Lives
Susan G. Komen has been deeply invested in supporting researchers at New York cancer institutions since its founding in 1982. Over the last forty years, Komen has awarded 209 grants to New York-based researchers, totaling $58.4 million.
Pedram Ravazi, M.D., Ph.D., a medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, is a Susan G. Komen grantee. He recently spoke with Komen about a three-part study hes leading that analyzes circulating tumor cell DNA from early-stage breast cancer patients to detect and monitor patients for microscopic breast cancer metastases. Metastatic breast cancer is when cancer spreads beyond the breast and becomes deadly.
Komen:Could you explain the focus of your research? Razavi: Were working with patients who have stage 1 to 3 high-risk breast cancers to identify early microscopic breast cancer metastasis, when it can potentially be treated more effectively with the goal of eradicating the residual cancer and preventing its progression to deadly metastatic breast cancer.
We know that neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies work by eradiating microscopic metastatic tumors, and these therapies can almost double the chances for curing breast cancer. The problem is that we have no good way of knowing whether a patients tumor has already metastasized. Basically, we offer treatments almost blindly based on assessment of baseline risk of recurrence to all our high-risk patients.
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What Are The Stages Of Breast Cancer
The stages of breast cancer are used to describe the extent of your cancer at the time of diagnosis. Your doctor will base the stage of your cancer on a physical exam and other diagnostic tests. This is known as clinical stage. The final, or pathologic, stage is determined after surgery when the size of the cancer is measured under a microscope and it is definitely known if there is cancer in the lymph nodes.
If you have breast cancer, knowing the stage helps guide your treatment plan. Breast cancer is typically staged with Roman numerals ranging from 0 to IV . Cancer stages are based on:
- whether the cancer is invasive or noninvasive
- the size of the tumor
- whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, and if so, to how many of them
- whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or liver
At Work: Radiation Oncologist And Breast Cancer Specialist Samuel Bakhoum
Physician-scientist Samuel Bakhoum says, Seeing trainees beaming over a new discovery is worth its weight in gold.”
Samuel Bakhoum is a radiation oncologist who cares for people with breast cancer. His laboratory group conducts research on chromosomal instability and its role in how cancer forms, spreads, and resists drugs. He is a member of the Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program. This interview took place in early 2019.
My life has taken a circuitous route. I was born in Nigeria and grew up in Alexandria, Egypt. I went to high school in Italy college in Vancouver, Canada then got my MD-PhD in New Hampshire at Dartmouth College. After a year in Boston doing a medical internship, I came to New York in 2014 for residency training at Memorial Sloan Kettering and research fellowship training at Weill Cornell. Ive lived in many places, but I feel most at home here in New York City because its so international and cosmopolitan.
Around that time, I became interested in chromosomal instability, also called CIN. At any moment, millions of our cells are dividing. They must equally distribute their chromosomes. This is controlled by what is called the mitotic spindle. Sometimes the spindle can malfunction, and the distribution can go drastically wrong. Parts of chromosomes, or even entire chromosomes, end up outside the nucleus in micronuclei. Envelopes surrounding micronuclei often rupture and spill DNA into the cytoplasm, which is the liquid that surrounds the cell.
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What Kind Of Follow
We recommend that you ask your doctor for a personalized Survivorship Care Plan that summarizes your treatment and provides medical guidance for the follow-up care you need to stay cancer free, including how often you should be screened for breast cancer recurrence and which tests should be used. At MSK, we offer a wide range of specialized services for breast cancer survivors to prevent, detect, and treat any complications that may arise from breast cancer treatment and help our patients return to as full and healthy a life as possible:
- Individual and family counseling is available to help you and your family cope with your disease. Our patient and caregiver support program lets you connect with other breast cancer survivors who have completed their treatment, understand your challenges and concerns, and can provide encouragement and helpful tips. Your caregivers can also receive support through these programs.
- Rehabilitation programs for breast cancer survivors help you heal and return to a full, active life. We also have healthcare professionals with specialized training in providing personalized care for older patients who may have other health conditions besides breast cancer. Learn more about help for older patients.
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center the worlds oldest and largest private cancer center has devoted more than 135 years to exceptional patient care, innovative research, and outstanding educational programs. Today, we are one of 51 National Cancer Institutedesignated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, with state-of-the-art science flourishing side by side with clinical studies and treatment.
The close collaboration between our physicians and scientists is one of our unique strengths, enabling us to provide patients with the best care available as we work to discover more-effective strategies to prevent, control, and ultimately cure cancer in the future. Our education programs train future physicians and scientists, and the knowledge and experience they gain at Memorial Sloan Kettering has an impact on cancer treatment and biomedical research around the world.
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How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed
If a clinical breast exam, a mammogram, or another imaging test shows a suspicious change in your breast, the next step is usually a breast biopsy. A biopsy is the only test that can make a definite diagnosis of breast cancer. It involves taking a sample of your breast tissue, which is checked under a microscope for cancer cells by a pathologist . There are several ways to do a breast biopsy.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
Many breast cancers are discovered through routine breast screening exams such as mammograms, even when a woman has no other signs of disease. However, on your own, you may notice symptoms that could be suspicious. See your doctor right away if you have any of these conditions:
- a lump or thickness in or near the breast or under the arm
- unexplained swelling or shrinkage of the breast, particularly on one side only
- dimpling or puckering of the breast
- nipple discharge other than breast milk that occurs without squeezing the nipple
- breast skin changes, such as redness, flaking, thickening, or pitting that looks like the skin of an orange
- a nipple that becomes sunken , red, thick, or scaly
Expertscape Publishes Top 10 Specialists In Breast Cancer
Expertscape, a web platform that identifies and objectively ranks physicians and researchers that excel in the treatment and diagnosis of specific disease states, has released their rankings for US physicians who specialize in breast cancer.
Using Expertscapes patented algorithm, Hope Rugo, MD, of University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, is at the top of an esteemed list of experts. Among her many publications in 2020, Dr. Rugo contributed, along with fellow physicians Eric Winer, MD, of Dana Farber Cancer Center and Lisa Carey, MD, of University of North Carolina Linberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, to the 5th ESO-ESMO international consensus guidelines for advanced breast cancer. Among the findings outlined in this paper is ABC is a treatable disease with several available therapies and many others in development. However, their impact on survival and quality of life of ABC patients has been slowand different for de novo versus recurrent ABC, with the latter becoming much harder to treat in recent years.
The following 10 physicians have dedicated enormous time, energy, and commitment to advance our understanding and treatment of breast cancer, and as we observe Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we are pleased to recognize and celebrate their individual and collective contribution to medicine and cancer therapies.
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What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer
There are many types of breast cancer. Most cancers form in the milk ducts and are called ductal carcinoma. Others start in the breasts milk-producing lobules these types are referred to as lobular carcinoma. Rarely, cancer can start in the breasts connective tissue, a type known as sarcoma, or in the skin of the nipple, which is called Pagets disease.
Tumor samples are analyzed in a lab by pathologists who determine whether the tumors are sensitive to the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which can fuel breast cancer. Some genes and the proteins they create also affect cancer cell growth. One of those is HER2/neu. In some cases, the HER2 protein goes out of control and helps tumors grow.
The Path To Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes
ONCOLOGY® recently sat down with Tiffany A. Traina, MD, a medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, to discuss recent developments in breast cancer care, the upcoming clinical trials that may change the standard of care, and her current work in targeting the androgen receptor pathway for patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
With the rise of genetic sequencing and rapidly advancing targeted therapies, outcomes for patients with breast cancer are improving. As the understanding of driver genes and clinical pathways continues to increase, newer treatments for patients with various specific forms of breast cancer are beginning to emerge.
ONCOLOGY® recently sat down with Tiffany A. Traina, MD, a medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, to discuss recent developments in breast cancer care, the upcoming clinical trials that may change the standard of care, and her current work in targeting the androgen receptor pathway for patients with triple-negative breast cancer .
Q: What are the most exciting developments going on in breast cancer treatment?
Q: Youve done a fair amount of work on targeting the AR, even in TNBC. Why is that approach working, and which subset of TNBC patients is it working for?
Q: The use of enzalutamide, and similar agents, is typically associated with treating prostate cancer. Will all these agents be considered to treat breast cancer?
Q: What trial results are you most looking forward to seeing?
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Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centeroldest & Largest Private Cancer Center
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is the world’s oldest and largest private cancer center caring for cancer patients for more than 130 years. This cancer center works by keeping the patients at the center of all the work, focusing on caring and supporting the patients and their families at every instance.
The word “cancer” is terrifying, but doctors and scientists now know a lot more about this deadly illness than before, and the treatment success rate has never been better before. Nowadays, doctors are able to cure more than 50 % of individuals diagnosed with cancer, and many live long and relatively normal lives with cancer. Memorial Sloan Kettering offers you the best available treatment for your exact problem.
Cancer patients from all over the world are welcome at MSK. This cancer center delivers exceptional care and support by formulating treatment plans for each patient, irrespective of the treatment stage.
Top Breast Cancer Oncologists Picked By Big Data
What’s below is the result of a challenge: can a company that helps patients find the right doctor identify the best physicians over all, or at least come close?
Last year, I wrote a magazine profile of a company called Grand Rounds, which aims to meticulously comb through data on physicians everything from what they prescribe to the wait times in their parking lotsto match patients with the right doctor for them. The companys founder, Owen Tripp, even used the service himself when a type of tumor was found in his ear. It’s not that there aren’t good doctors, and it’s certainly not that there aren’t enough of them, Tripp said last week at the Forbes Healthcare Summit. The problem is measurement.
There are limitations to this analysis. Grand Rounds says it misses excellent doctors who belong on it. Efforts to find outside experts who could vet Grand Rounds algorithms were unsuccessful. Like many efforts in machine learning or artificial intelligence, the results emerge from a black box thats hard for outsiders to evaluate. And Grand Rounds is a private company, with the skepticism it entails. But this list, and the other, are at the least thought-provoking. And I can confirm, based on years of reporting, that many of the physicians included are indeed the best in their fields.
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Prof Andrew D Seidman: New Opportunities For Improving Outcomes For Breast Cancer
Submitted Aug 13, 2014. Accepted for publication Nov 27, 2014.
Andrew D. Seidman, M.D. is an Attending Physician for the Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and a Professor of Medicine, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He is a medical oncologist with expertise in the management of both early stage and advanced breast cancer. His research interests include the clinical investigation of novel chemotherapeutic and targeted agents in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
GS: Could you please briefly introduce the current situation of breast cancer in America?
Prof. Seidman: Certainly. For an American woman with breast cancer, the chances of long-term survival are excellent, provided that she is diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer, where we know that chemotherapy, surgery, sometimes radiotherapy, will lead to very high chance for cure. For metastatic breast cancer, we still dont use the word cure very comfortably, but we do talk about treatments that we know can extend survival.
GS: How to early diagnose the breast cancer and do you have any suggestions for the young doctors?
GS: We know that you have profound experience in chemotherapy and targeted therapy for breast cancer. In your opinion, which one is more effective for breast cancer especially for metastatic breast cancer?
GS: Are there any new targets in the recent studies?