What Does Triple Negative Mean In Terms Of Breast Cancer
Normal breast cells have receptors that respond to hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which allows them to grow and regress in response to the hormone level. Hormone receptors may or may not be present in breast cancer. About two-thirds of breast cancers are positive and contain these receptors like normal breast cells do. These are less aggressive cancers that are less likely to need chemo and are often treated with hormone therapy and surgery. Radiation may or may not be needed.
HER2/neu , is a protein molecule that has a role in cell proliferation in normal cells. In some breast cancers, this protein is overly produced or positive. For HER2-positive tumors, there a specific medication that targets this protein.
Triple-negative breast cancers are not positive for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors or HER2 protein. Since these targets are absent in triple-negative breast cancer, chemotherapy is needed, Sun says. Triple-negative breast cancer is often very sensitive to chemotherapy, which, despite the side effects, is an effective treatment that can save lives. Because this is an aggressive cancer, treatment is aggressive also. But there are several ways we can address it.
What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares women with the same type and stage of breast cancer to women in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of breast cancer is 90%, it means that women who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as women who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
Takeaways From A Triple Negative Breast Cancer Survivor
Though 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime, nothing about the experience feels normal. While every individual and every cancer are unique, we can all agree that breast cancer has a lasting impact on patients, survivors, and loved ones.
Shannon provides a candid glimpse into her journey with dense breast tissue and a triple negative breast cancer diagnosis. She faced breast cancer shortly after turning 40, with the support of her husband and community, while caring for her two young daughters. Shannon is the Head Drill Team Director at Highland Park High School in Dallas, TX. Only a couple months out of treatment, her memories are still fresh.
I thought I knew a little bit about breast cancer, so I didnt worry too much when I felt a small lump in the shower. Id had a mammogram within the past two years, and Id had benign issues prior to that. So I watched the lump for a few weeksa few weeks longer than I should have.
The doctor at my first visit told me that I had an 80% chance of the lump being absolutely nothing, but wed just check it out to be sure. The radiologist at my follow-up mammogram was concerned. But later that week, the doctor who biopsied me said the areas of concern looked benign to her. Lab results proved otherwise, and a day or two later, I got the dreaded phone call.
I want to share the following information not to frighten anyone, but to empower you with the knowledge I wish Id had:
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Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the breast.
- Regional: The cancer has spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver, or bones.
How Do These Foods Fight Triple Negative Breast Cancer
There are literally thousands of research studies on the health benefits of cruciferous vegetables for the prevention of diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimers, and cancer. They work so well because researchers have found they have a direct effect on your DNA.
Cruciferous vegetables turn off cancer promoting genes, such as HDACs or histone deacetylases, which promote cancer cell growth.
The chemicals found in cruciferous vegetables are what does this. Glucosinolates are a natural chemical found in these vegetables known to promote general health. When you chew these vegetables, glucosinolate gets converted to sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol. These cancer-fighting chemicals are often formulated into health supplements that you can find at your local nutrition store.
So the chemicals found in these vegetables have a variety of effects In the body, all of which act to prevent cancer:
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Calorie Restriction Slows Spread Of Triple
Dietary changes have been shown to boost the effects of radiation in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
A plethora of books, blogs, and infomercials offer cures for cancer, often in the form of special diets. While some of these plans are based in science, many are notand the worst of them are merely money-grabbing schemes. So with all the misinformation out there, the legitimate discovery of a cancer-busting diet is very exciting.
A recent study conducted at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia shows that calorie restriction can decrease chances for metastases in patients with triple-negative breast cancer, one of the most aggressive forms of the disease. The study, published in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, points to a simple and cost-effective treatment that, while commonly associated with weight loss, has major implications in cancer research.
Diet May Influence The Spread Of A Deadly Type Of Breast Cancer Study Finds
A single protein building block commonly found in food may hold a key to preventing the spread of an often-deadly type of breast cancer, according to a new multicenter study published today in the medical journal Nature.
Investigators found that by limiting an amino acid called asparagine in laboratory mice with triple-negative breast cancer, they could dramatically reduce the ability of the cancer to travel to distant sites in the body. Among other techniques, the team used dietary restrictions to limit asparagine.
Foods rich in asparagine include dairy, whey, beef, poultry, eggs, fish, seafood, asparagus, potatoes, legumes, nuts, seeds, soy and whole grains. Foods low in asparagine include most fruits and vegetables.
“Our study adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests diet can influence the course of the disease,” said Simon Knott, PhD, associate director of the Cedars-Sinai Center for Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics and one of two first authors of the study. The research was conducted at more than a dozen institutions.
If further research confirms the findings in human cells, limiting the amount of asparagine cancer patients ingest could be a potential strategy to augment existing therapies and to prevent the spread of breast cancer, Knott added.
The researchers discovered that the appearance of asparagine synthetasethe enzyme cells used to make asparaginein a primary tumor was strongly associated with later cancer spread.
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Survival Rates For Triple
Triple-negative breast cancer is considered an aggressive cancer because it grows quickly, is more likely to have spread at the time its found, and is more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. The outlook is generally not as good as it is for other types of breast cancer.
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as they are familiar with your situation.
Surviving Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Hope Treatment And Recovery
In honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, weve pulled the following excerpt from Surviving Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Hope, Treatment, and Recovery by Patricia Prijatel. She provides a quick guide on how to eat healthy in order to better fight the disease.
This is the approach I take, based on the research I have done. It works for me, but you have to find what works best for you. Choose an approach you know you can stick to. Dont try to be Super Healthy Cancer Woman that just adds more stress. Aim to be as healthy as you can be, and allow yourself to fall off the wagon occasionally. That is the only way you will stay on long-term.
Breakfast: According to the National Weight Control Registry at Brown University Medical School, 78 percent of the people who lost more than 30 pounds and kept it off for more than a year regularly ate breakfast. I always eat breakfast my two approaches to it:
- A breakfast smoothie with blueberries , flax- seeds , bananas, black cherry juice, and yogurt . This gives me two servings of fruits and one serving of calcium. Make sure you use ground flaxseed, because whole seeds just go right through you. And once they are ground, store them in the refrigerator.
- Cooked oatmeal with blueberries. Its simplejust follow the directions for one serving on the oatmeal box, and add about1/2 cup of blueberries. Oatmeal soaks up cholesterol, so it is good for your heart as well.
Midday snack: Some of my favorites:
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Survival Rates And Prognosis
The outlook for breast cancer is often described in terms of relative survival rates.
Relative survival rates are an estimate of the percentage of people who will survive their cancer for a given period of time after diagnosis. Survival among people with cancer is compared to survival among people of the same age and race who have not been diagnosed with cancer.
Five-year relative survival rates tend to be lower for triple-negative breast cancer than for other forms of breast cancer.
According to the American Cancer Society, the overall 5-year relative survival rate for TNBC is . However, an individuals outlook depends on many factors, including the stage of the cancer and the grade of the tumor.
Your healthcare professional will be able to give you a more precise outlook based on:
- the stage of your TNBC
- your age
Stages Of Breast Cancer
The stage of breast cancer is based on the size and location of the tumor, as well as whether the cancer has spread beyond the part of the breast in which it originated. To determine the stage of breast cancer, healthcare professionals use a scale of stage 0 to stage 4.
Stage 0 breast cancers are isolated in one part of the breast, such as a duct or lobule, and show no sign of spreading into other tissue.
Stage 1 is typically localized, although further local growth or spread may cause the cancer to move into stage 2.
In stage 3, the cancer may be larger and has affected the lymph system. Stage 4 cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes, and into other organs and tissues of the body.
In addition to stages, breast cancers are given grades based on the size, shape, and activity of the cells in the tumor. A higher-grade cancer means a greater percentage of cells look and act abnormal, or they no longer resemble normal, healthy cells.
On a scale of 1 to 3, with 3 being the most serious, TNBC is often labeled grade 3.
American Cancer Society , the symptoms of TNBC can be the same as those for other types of breast cancer. ACS recommends regular screenings such as mammograms to detect breast cancer before symptoms appear, the time when treatment is most effective.
Other signs of breast cancer include:
Any of these signs can be caused by other conditions. But it is always good to have them checked out by your healthcare professional.
- radiation therapy
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Onc201 With A Methionine
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.|
|Recruitment Status : Terminated First Posted : November 7, 2018Results First Posted : March 10, 2022Last Update Posted : March 10, 2022|
|Drug: Akt/ERK Inhibitor ONC201Dietary Supplement: Methionine-Restricted Diet||Phase 2|
I. To determine objective response rate to ONC201 with a methionine-restricted diet in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer .
I. To determine progression-free survival to ONC201 with a methionine-restricted diet in patients with metastatic TNBC.
II. To determine clinical benefit rate at 4 months to ONC201 with a methionine-restricted diet in patients with metastatic TNBC.
III. To determine overall survival to ONC201 with a methionine-restricted diet in patients with metastatic TNBC.
IV. To assess metabolic indices in patients with metastatic TNBC treated with ONC201 and a methionine-restricted diet.
V. To assess the expression of TRAIL receptor in circulating tumor cells prior, during and upon progression in patients with metastatic TNBC treated with ONC201 with a methionine-restricted diet.
Brca1 Function And Regulation
Figure 2. The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor binds directly to the BRCA1 promoter and activates its expression in the presence of estrogen. However, in the presence of either agonists or antagonists, the bound AhR is recruited to xenobiotic responsive elements harbored in the BRCA1 promoter and inhibits its estrogen-mediated transactivation, by blocking the recruitment of ER, p300, SRC1, and histone modifications that enhance transcription while promoting the association of factors and histone modifications that repress transcription. Binding of the xenobiotic TCDD activates AhR-mediated activity of P450 enzymes, including CYP1B1, which mediates estrogen metabolism.
Recently, a novel non-genomic role for BRCA1 has been described in which the BRCA1 protein in the cytoplasm interacts with acetyl CoA carboxylase in a phospho-dependent manner, and this interaction modulates lipogenesis . In this model, IGF-1 induces phosphorylation of ACCA, and inhibits its association with BRCA1 . Cytoplasmic BRCA1 is rare in less aggressive ER-positive BC and has been linked to metastasis in older patients . In ER positive cells, Koobotse et al. concluded that inhibiting the association between cytoplasmic BRCA1 and ACCA, e.g., by increasing IGF-1 activity or reducing BRCA1 levels, would induce fatty acid synthesis and promote cell growth. Further studies are necessary to elucidate how the BRCA1/ACCA/IGF-1 axis contribute to tumorigenesis.
What You Need To Know
- Triple-negative breast cancer accounts for about 10% to 20% of all breast cancer cases.
- Every cancer diagnosis is unique, but in general, triple-negative breast cancer is a more aggressive type of tumor with a faster growth rate, higher risk of metastasis and recurrence risk. Therefore, it often requires chemotherapy as part of the treatment.
- Surgery is also an important part of treatment, but if a tumor is small and localized, mastectomy may not be necessary. Chemotherapy can shrink triple-negative breast tumors, and patients can become candidates for less-extensive surgery.
- Triple-negative cancers are more common in patients with hereditary genetic mutations, and genetic counseling and testing should be considered.
Diet And Breast Cancer Risk
Maintaining a healthy weight is linked to a lower risk of breast cancer after menopause .
However, only a few dietary factors appear to be related to breast cancer.
- Eating fruits and vegetables may be linked to a risk of breast cancer
- Drinking alcohol is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer
We also know some foods and beverages are not related to breast cancer risk. Others are under study for possible links to breast cancer.
This section gives a summary of the research on dietary factors and breast cancer risk.
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Can Diet Help Triple Negative Breast Cancer
A new diet that uses methionine depletion is being tested as a possible target for triple negative cancers. Methionine is an amino acid that is part of our diet. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin conducted experiments to see how cancer behaves when this amino acid is removed from the diet. Let me say first that this study was conducted in a laboratory with triple negative breast cancer cells in a petri dish . The study was not performed on people. But based on the results of the lab study, a clinical trial is underway to do just that.
Calorie Restriction For Other Cancers
As with many health issues, maintaining weight is crucial. Calorie restriction has potential in treating other kinds of cancers, and the results from this study could pave the way for other medical possibilities. Researchers envision a drug that mimics decrease of production of the microRNAs associated with metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer, although the results might not be as successful as with real calorie restriction.
The results have a high chance of being similar in men with breast cancer, according to Simone, because many cases of male breast cancer are triple-negative. This particular study examined only female mice.
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