Signs Of Breast Cancer In Men
Breast cancer in men is very rare, with only one chance in one thousand of diagnosis. Even so, breast cancer in men is just as serious as that which women experience. The American Cancer Society estimates that around 2,500 new cases of breast cancer in men are reported every year, claiming the lives of 460 men. Breast cancer in men is more common in older adults.
As youll see, many similarities exist between male and female breast cancer. There are also some differences that require addressing. First, the pathology of breast cancer is similar in both sexes. Genetics, hormonal imbalances, family history, and lifestyle choices play roles.
Other factors known to increase breast cancer risk in men include:
- Estrogen exposure
- Excess body weight
- Gene mutation
- Heavy alcohol use
- Testicle disease or surgery
Male Breast Cancer Treatment
All factors of male breast cancer play a role in your treatment. This includes size, location, type, grade, and stage. The size of the mass doesnt change the outlook, but it can affect treatment options. Other aspects include your age, general health, and personal lifestyle choices. Talk to your doctor in detail about the risks and side effects of each treatment.
Treatment can include one or more of the following:
A South African Breast Cancer Survivor Has Taken To Twitter To Educate Her Followers On Early Signs Of Breast Cancer And Symptoms For Both Men And Women As She Has Experienced
The_OfficialBiz, the Twitter username of this survivor narrated how cancer developed in her, took over her tissues and blood cells, and finally took away her beautiful breast due to surgery to get rid of the malady.
She stressed the early signs of breast cancer among both genders and entreated check-up and self-assessment of ones breast.
She wrote; Some warning signs of breast cancer
New lump in the breast or underarm .Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area.
Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.Any change in the size or the shape of the breast.Pain in any area of the breast.Keep in mind that these symptoms can happen with other conditions that are not cancer.
Young adults CAN and DO get breast cancer. When it comes to breast cancer symptoms and signs of the disease, you are looking for more than just a lump. Breast cancer statistics show that nearly 80% of young adults find their abnormality themselves.
So its important to get familiar with your breasts and aware of the signs and symptoms. Tell your doctor right away if you notice any changes in your breasts
Breast cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages. Signs and symptoms often appear when the tumor grows large enough to be felt as a lump in the breast or when cancer spreads to surrounding tissues and organs.
Qualities And Hormones Influence Cancer Development
Geneticists are beginning to figure out how qualities influence the development of cancer and have even distinguished one: the HER2 quality. This quality fills development of breast cancer cells. Drugs can help shut this quality down.
Like qualities, hormones may likewise accelerate the development of certain sorts of breast cancers that have hormone receptors.
In the event that a cancer is estrogen receptor-positive, it reacts to estrogen.
In the event that a cancer is progesterone receptor-positive, it reacts to progesterone.
In the event that a cancer is hormone receptor-negative, it has no hormone receptors.
How Do Health Care Professionals Diagnose Male Breast Cancer
Diagnosis of breast cancer requires identifying cancer cells in tissue specimens obtained by taking a sample of the growth — also called a “mass” or “tumor” — by the technique of biopsy. Since men have little breast tissue, cancers in male breasts are easily palpable and are often found on self-examination. Also, they are therefore easily accessible to biopsy. Fine needle aspiration or needle biopsy of a suspicious mass can usually establish a diagnosis. A doctor inserts a needle into the mass to withdraw tissue from the suspicious area. Microscopic examination of the tissue by a pathologist establishes the diagnosis.
Other techniques that may be used to diagnose breast cancer in men include incisional or excisional biopsy of a breast mass. If nipple discharge is present, microscopic examination of a smear of the discharge can sometimes establish the diagnosis.
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Male Breast Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Breast
Breast cancer may occur in men. Breast cancer may occur in men at any age, but it usually occurs in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer.
The following types of breast cancer are found in men:
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma: Cancer that has spread beyond thecells liningducts in the breast. This is the most common type of breast cancer in men.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ: Abnormal cells that are found in the lining of a duct; also called intraductal carcinoma.
- Inflammatory breast cancer: A type of cancer in which the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm.
- Paget disease of the nipple: A tumor that has grown from ducts beneath the nipple onto the surface of the nipple.
Lobular carcinoma in situ , which sometimes occurs in women, has not been seen in men.
Diagnosing Breast Cancer In Men
If you have symptoms of breast cancer, such as a hard, painless lump in one of your breasts, your GP will carefully examine you.
During the examination, they’ll also look for other possible signs of male breast cancer, such as swollen lymph nodes .
It’s likely your GP will refer you for further tests if there’s a possibility you may have breast cancer. These tests are described below.
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Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- What treatments do I need?
- How will cancer treatment affect my daily life?
- Should I participate in clinical trials?
- What is the outlook of my breast cancer?
- If Im at high risk of breast cancer, should I see a genetic counselor?
- What is the chance of my cancer returning, and what are the signs or symptoms?
What Are The Types Of Male Breast Cancer
Breast cancer in men usually begins in the breast ducts. Ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. Although men have milk ducts and glands that create milk, they dont work like the ducts and milk-producing glands in women.
The types of male breast cancer include:
- Invasive ductal carcinoma: Cancer begins in the breast ducts and spreads to other parts of the breast. Cancer cells may also spread to other areas of the body. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in people regardless of gender.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma: Cancer begins in the lobules . Lobular breast cancer can also spread to other parts of the body.
- Ductal carcinoma in situ : Cancer cells grow in the lining of the breast ducts. They have not spread to other parts of the breast or the rest of the body. Ductal carcinoma in situ is uncommon in men.
- Inflammatory breast cancer: Usually a type of invasive ductal carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer is very rare in men. The breast tissue is swollen and red. It feels warm to the touch, and the skin may be dimpled, but there is no lump.
- Pagets disease of the nipple: Cancer cells grow in the ducts and spread to the nipple and the area around the nipple. Pagets disease of the nipple is also called Pagets disease of the breast or mammary Paget disease.
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Statistics And Survival Rates
The prognosis for breast cancer in men is similar to that in women.
According to the American Cancer Society, the chances of surviving 5 years or more after diagnosis are, on average:
- 96% when cancer affects only the breast tissue at diagnosis
- 83% when it affects nearby areas as well as the breast
- 23% when it has spread to other parts of the body
For this reason, it is essential to seek help as soon as a person notices changes. Early stage breast cancer responds well to treatment.
Diagnostic methods and treatments have improved in the last few years, and so the chances of living for at least 5 years after diagnosis are probably higher than the above figures for people currently receiving a diagnosis.
If a person notices changes in their breast, they should see a doctor.
The doctor will symptoms and the individuals personal and family medical history, including any history of estrogen use or radiation treatment.
They will also carry out a physical examination.
They may suggest the following tests:
- a mammogram
- a nipple discharge test
- a biopsy
Sometimes, a doctor will recommend removing a lump and carrying out a biopsy at the same time. They may only remove a part of the area that appears to be affected and carry out a test, or they may remove the whole area, including some of the normal breast tissue surrounding it.
Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer In Men
Possible symptoms of breast cancer to watch for include:
- A lump or swelling, which is often painless
- Skin dimpling or puckering
- Redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin
- Discharge from the nipple
Sometimes a breast cancer can spread to lymph nodes under the arm or around the collar bone and cause a lump or swelling there, even before the original tumor in the breast is large enough to be felt.
These changes aren’t always caused by cancer, but if you notice any breast changes, you should see a health care professional as soon as possible.
Our team is made up of doctors and;oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
Burstein HJ, Harris JR, Morrow M. Ch. 79 – Malignant tumors of the breast. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’sCancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.
Morrow M. Chapter 3: Physical Exam of the Breast. In: ;Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.
Wolff AC, Domchek SM, Davidson NE et al. Ch 91 – Cancer of the Breast. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds.;Abeloffs Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier: 2014.
Last Revised: April 27, 2018
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Blood In Your Pee Or Stool
These can be among the first signs of cancer of the bladder, kidneys, or colon. It’s a good idea to see your doctor for any bleeding thats not normal, even if you don’t have other symptoms, Lepor says. Although you’re more likely to have a problem that’s not cancer, like hemorrhoids or a urinary infection, it’s important to find and treat the cause.
Changes In Lymph Nodes
Tenderness of swelling in your lymph nodes, the small bean-shaped glands found in your neck, armpits, and other places, often signal that something’s going on in your body. Usually, it means your immune system is fighting a sore throat or cold, but certain cancers can also trigger the changes. Have your doctor check any swelling or tenderness that doesn’t get better in 2 to 4 weeks, Meyers says.
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How Is Breast Cancer Treated
Treatment for breast cancer is the same in men as in women. It depends on how big the tumor is and how far it has spread. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. For more information, see the National Cancer Institutes Male Breast Cancer Treatment.external icon
Outlook For Breast Cancer In Men
The outlook for breast cancer in men varies depending on how far it has spread by the time it’s diagnosed.
It may;be possible to cure breast cancer if it’s found early.
A cure is much less likely if the cancer is found;after it has spread beyond the breast. In these cases,;treatment can relieve;your symptoms and help you live longer.
Speak to your breast care nurse if you’d like to know more about the outlook for your cancer.
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Common Types Of Breast Cancer
Lobular carcinoma in situ
Lobular carcinoma in situ refers to an area of abnormal cells confined to the milk-producing glands of the breast in females.
Because these cells do not spread to surrounding tissues, experts do not consider lobular carcinoma in situ to be a true cancer. However, it can increase the chances of developing other types of breast cancer.
Invasive lobular carcinoma
This develops in the breasts lobules glands that can produce milk and invades nearby breast tissue.
In the early stages, invasive lobular carcinoma may not cause symptoms. Or, a person may experience:
- thickening or hardening of breast tissue, rather than a distinct lump
- an area of fullness or swelling in the breast
- a change in the texture of the breasts skin
- the nipple turning inward
Ductal carcinoma in situ
Ductal carcinoma in situ refers to an area of abnormal cells that are confined to one of the breasts milk ducts.
When a person receives this diagnosis, it means that the cells have not invaded surrounding breast tissue. However, having ductal carcinoma in situ can increase the risk of developing an invasive breast cancer later on.
This condition generally does not cause symptoms. Rarely, a person may notice a lump in the breast or some discharge from the nipple.
Invasive ductal carcinoma
People with this type of cancer may also experience:
If Cancer Is Found Tests Are Done To Study The Cancer Cells
- How quickly the cancer may grow.
- How likely it is that the cancer will spread through the body.
- How well certain treatments might work.
- How likely the cancer is to recur .
Tests include the following:
- Estrogen and progesterone receptor test: A test to measure the amount of estrogen and progesterone receptors in cancer tissue. If there are more estrogen and progesterone receptors than normal, the cancer is called estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly. The test results show whether treatment to block estrogen and progesterone may stop the cancer from growing.
- HER2 test: A laboratory test to measure how many HER2/neu genes there are and how much HER2/neu protein is made in a sample of tissue. If there are more HER2/neu genes or higher levels of HER2/neu protein than normal, the cancer is called HER2/neu positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly and is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. The cancer may be treated with drugs that target the HER2/neu protein, such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab.
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What Are The Different Types Of Male Breast Cancer
The most common type of male breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which is also a common type of breast cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to cancers with origins in the ducts of the breast, and the term infiltrating means that the cancer cells have spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding tissue. On the other hand, lobular cancers , common in women, are extremely rare in men since male breast tissue does not normally contain lobules.
Other less common types of cancers of the breast that have been reported in men include ductal carcinoma in situ , cystosarcoma phylloides , and Paget’s disease of the breast . Some other types of breast cancer that occur in men are named for their growth patterns and microscopic appearance of the cancer cells, including papillary carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer , and medullary carcinoma.
About 85% of breast cancers in men have estrogen receptors on their cell membranes. Estrogen receptors on the cell membranes allow estrogen molecules to bind to the cancer cells. Estrogen binding to the cancer cells can stimulate cell growth and multiplication.
The most common clinical sign of breast cancer in men is a firm, usually painless mass located just under the nipple. There may not be other associated symptoms. The average size of breast cancer in men when first discovered is about 2.5 cm in diameter. The cancer may cause skin changes in the area of the nipple. These changes can include
Testing For And Diagnosing Breast Cancer In Men
Experts at the Magee-Womens Breast Cancer Program use a variety of tests and procedures to diagnose and screen for breast cancer, including:
- An imaging procedure of the breast using low-energy x-rays to screen for or detect breast cancer and other abnormalities.
- A digital mammogram uses a phosphor plate, rather than film, to view mammography images.
- CAD is software that highlights tissue abnormalities in a mammogram.
- The use of a needle to extract a tissue sample from the breast to test for cancer cells.
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