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Why Women Get Breast Cancer

A Unique Set Of Challenges

Why Would More Under-40 Women Get Breast Cancer?

About 1 percent of all breast cancers diagnosed in the United States are in men. In 2019, about 2,700 men are projected to develop breast cancer, according to the American Cancer Society, compared to 270,000 women. Breast cancer in women is the most common cancer diagnosed in the United States. Measured alone, breast cancer in men would rank behind at least 30 other cancers in the number of yearly diagnoses. Discover more breast cancer statistics.

Inherited Versus Acquired Dna Mutations

Normal breast cells become cancer because of changes in DNA. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes. Genes have the instructions for how our cells function.

Some DNA mutations are inherited or passed to you from your parents. This means the mutations are in all your cells when you are born. Some mutations can greatly increase the risk of certain cancers. They cause many of the cancers that run in some families and often cause cancer when people are younger.

But most DNA mutations linked to breast cancer are acquired. This means the change takes place in breast cells during a person’s life rather than having been inherited or born with them. Acquired DNA mutations take place over time and are only in the breast cancer cells.

Mutated DNA can lead to mutated genes. Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die. Changes in these genes can cause the cells to lose normal control and are linked to cancer.

Why Are Older Women More Vulnerable To Breast Cancer New Clues

Date:
DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Summary:
More insights into why older women are more susceptible to breast cancer has been gained by researchers. They found that as women age, the cells responsible for maintaining healthy breast tissue stop responding to their immediate surroundings, including mechanical cues that should prompt them to suppress nearby tumors.

Scientists from the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have gained more insights into why older women are more susceptible to breast cancer. They found that as women age, the cells responsible for maintaining healthy breast tissue stop responding to their immediate surroundings, including mechanical cues that should prompt them to suppress nearby tumors.

Their work sheds light on how aging alters cellular and molecular functions, and how these changes contribute to the prevalence of breast cancer in older women. The disease is most frequently diagnosed among women aged 55 to 64, according to the National Cancer Institute.

The research appears online June 5 in the journal Cell Reports. It was led by Mark LaBarge of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division, with help from first author Fanny Pelissier and other Berkeley Lab scientists, and researchers from UC Berkeley and Norways University of Bergen.

We think this is a defense mechanism. The epithelia tissue recognizes that stiffness isnt good and produces tumor suppressants, says LaBarge.

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Estrogen Exposure And Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding for over 1 year appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Extended exposure to estrogen appears to increase the risk of breast cancer.

This could be due to a person starting their periods earlier or entering menopause at a later than average age. Between these times, estrogen levels are higher.

Breastfeeding, especially for over 1 year, appears to reduce the chance of developing breast cancer. This is possibly due to the drop in estrogen exposure that follows pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Why Do Women Get Breast Cancer More Than Men

Breast Cancer

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How Much Do Anastrozole And Exemestane Lower The Risk Of Breast Cancer

Studies have shown that both anastrozole and exemestane can lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at increased risk of the disease.

In one large study, taking anastrozole for five years lowered the risk of developing estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by 53 percent. In another study, taking exemestane for three years lowered the risk of developing estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by 65 percent.

The most common side effects seen with anastrazole and exemestane are joint pains, decreased bone density, and symptoms of menopause .

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/31/2018.

References

Can Cancer Form In Other Parts Of The Breast

Cancers can also form in other parts of the breast, but these types of cancer are less common. These can include:

  • Angiosarcomas. This type of cancer begins in the cells that make up the lining of blood or lymph vessels. These cancers can start in breast tissue or breast skin. They are rare.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer. This type of cancer is rare and different from other types of breast cancer. It is caused by obstructive cancer cells in the skins lymph vessels.
  • Paget disease of the breast, also known as Paget disease of the nipple. This cancer affects the skin of the nipple and areola .
  • Phyllodes tumors. These are rare, and most of these masses are not cancer. However, some are cancerous. These tumors begin in the breasts connective tissue, which is called the stroma.

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Why Is Weight A Factor

Women who are overweight or obese have higher levels of estrogen in their bodies. Even though the ovaries stop making estrogen after menopause, the hormone is still stored and produced in fat tissue. Estrogen causes certain types of breast cancer to grow and spread. Work with your doctor to develop a weight loss plan that fits your life, if necessary.

How To Get Relief From This Pain

Why Are So Many Young Women Getting Breast Cancer?

You can use ice packs to get relief from this pain. Applying this two to three times a day provides relief in both pain and swelling.

Before bathing daily, you should massage the breast for some time by mixing some amount of camphor in light warm olive oil. You will also feel a lot of relief from this. Apart from this, massaging by mixing two spoons of any ordinary oil with castor oil also provides a lot of relief.

Consumption of Vitamin E and Vitamin B6 also provides relief in breast pain. If you want, you can also take vitamin E capsules daily. Apart from this, you should eat those things in which magnesium is found in abundance. It is helpful in controlling the pain caused due to muscles.

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Using The Oral Contraceptive Pill

A number of studies suggest a womans breast cancer risk is increased while she is taking the oral contraceptive pill and for up to 10 years after stopping it. For most young women in their 20s and 30s the increase in risk is small, but for older women and those with other strong risk factors the risk may be greater.

What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer

The most common types of breast cancer are:

  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This cancer starts in the milk ducts of the breast. It then breaks through the wall of the duct and invades the surrounding tissue in the breast. This is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for 80% of cases.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ is ductal carcinoma in its earliest stage, or precancerous . In situ refers to the fact that the cancer hasn’t spread beyond its point of origin. In this case, the disease is confined to the milk ducts and has not invaded nearby breast tissue. If untreated, ductal carcinoma in situ may become invasive cancer. It is almost always curable.
  • Infiltrating lobular carcinoma. This cancer begins in the lobules of the breast where breast milk is produced, but has spread to surrounding tissues in the breast. It accounts for 10 to 15% of breast cancers. This cancer can be more difficult to diagnose with mammograms.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ is a marker for cancer that is only in the lobules of the breast. It isn’t a true cancer, but serves as a marker for the increased risk of developing breast cancer later, possibly in both or either breasts. Thus, it is important for women with lobular carcinoma in situ to have regular clinical breast exams and mammograms.

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Women Under 35 Face Higher Risk Of Breast Cancer Spreading Study

Analysis of 400 studies found risk of secondary cancer ranges from 6% to 22% depending on different factors

Women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 35 face a higher risk of it spreading, according to the first global study of its kind.

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer, with 2.3 million people diagnosed every year. Survival rates are generally good, which is largely because of screening, early diagnosis and improved treatment.

However, until now, little has been known about the risk of secondary breast cancer, where the disease spreads to other parts of the body and becomes incurable.

A meta analysis of more than 400 studies has found the risk of breast cancer spreading to another part of the body ranges from 6% to 22%. The results of the study are being presented at the sixth International Consensus Conference for Advanced Breast Cancer .

The findings also suggest certain women face a higher risk, including those diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 35, those with larger tumours when initially diagnosed and those with specific types of the disease, for example luminal B.

Kotryna Temcinaite, senior research communications manager at the charity Breast Cancer Now, said the analysis provides helpful insight into who is most at risk.

Secondary breast cancer can develop many years after an initial cancer diagnosis, so its vital that we understand it better and find new ways to prevent it.

Your Race And Ethnicity

Reasons Why Many Women Experience Breast Cancer ...

White and Black women have the highest risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic/Latina womens breast cancer rates fall in between two major groupings while American Indian and Alaska Native women are on the lowest end of risk.

While white women are more likely to develop breast cancer than Black women overall, they tend to be diagnosed at an older age . Black women have the highest breast cancer rates among women under age 40. Black women make up a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancer cases.

What to do: If your race or ethnicity places you at higher risk, make sure you follow all screening recommendations to improve your chances of catching cancer early.

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% Of This Type Of Cancer Occurs In Women Over The Age Of 50

Genetics and family history may determine the likelihood of getting the Big C. If a close relative has it, the risk of you contracting it is high. That said, breast cancers are common, and a majority of them are not hereditary. The possibility of breast cancer may arise if you had benign breast lumps.

They include atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma. There is a likelihood of them metastasizing if they develop again. Further, women with high levels of estrogen are more likely than their peers to have breast tumors. If you had your periods earlier than other women your age, be alert to this.

How heavy you are may decide whether you get breast cancer or not. Obese menopausal women are more likely than their slimmer peers to develop growths in their mammary glands. They tend to produce higher levels of estrogen.

An interesting point to note is that taller women are more prone to breast cancer than shorter ones, though experts still need to establish the reason for this. Women who consume more alcohol have a higher risk than others of developing breast cancer.

If you want to kick cancer to the curb, take no more than one alcoholic beverage per day.

Breast cancer raises its ugly head because of increased levels of estrogen and progesterone in the female body.

Breast Cancer Statistics In Young Adults

Although breast cancer in young adults is rare, more than 250,000 living in the United States today were diagnosed under age 40. In young adults, breast cancer tends to be diagnosed in its later stages. It also tends to be more aggressive. Young adults have a higher mortality rate. As well as a higher risk of metastatic recurrence .

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Detection And Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer In Young Women

Organised breast cancer screening aims to detect breast cancers at an early stage in women. In Australia, population-based screening is performed by BreastScreen Australia and involves mammograms . As there is currently insufficient evidence that mammography is an effective nation wide breast cancer screening strategy for young women, routine breast screening for under 40s is not offered.

An effective method for early detection of breast cancer in young women is breast awareness. Women of all ages should become aware of how their breasts normally look and feel, and to report any new or unusual changes) to their general practitioner without delay.

Young women classified as being at high risk of developing breast cancer should discuss an individual routine screening program with their general practitioner. Breast imaging use to investigate breast symptoms or for surveillance of young women may include breast ultrasounds, breast mammograms and breast MRIs.

What Are The Treatment Options

Why do you get Breast Cancer?

Treatment depends on the size, location of the tumor and how advanced the cancer is. Possible treatments include anti-estrogen and chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

Because male breast cancer is so rare, occurring 100 times less frequently than female breast cancer, there is little specific research into its diagnosis and treatment. Advances in research and new technologies and treatments for breast cancer in women, however, have also yielded positive outcomes in treating breast cancer in men.

In a national database study I conducted in 2015, there were no significant changes in male breast cancer treatment from 1998 to 2011, Ye says. However, the same study also showed that male breast cancer shares many similarities to female breast cancer. Its prognosis is closely related to the grade , histology , stage of the disease and presence of estrogen receptors on the cells.

Thus, thanks in part to the advances in research for breast cancer in women, with survival rates climbing as new technologies and treatments are discovered, there is hope for men with breast cancer as well.

For 40 years, the National Cancer Institute has recognized USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center as one of the leading comprehensive cancer centers in the country.

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Previous Breast Cancer Or Lump

If you have previously had breast cancer or early non-invasive cancer cell changes in breast ducts, you have a higher risk of developing it again, either in your other breast or in the same breast.

A benign breast lump does not mean you have breast cancer, but certain types of breast lumps may slightly increase your risk of developing cancer.

Some benign changes in your breast tissue, such as cells growing abnormally in ducts , or abnormal cells inside your breast lobes , can make getting breast cancer more likely.

Personal History Of Early Breast Cancer

Women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer are at a higher risk of developing cancer in their other breast.

There are also a number of non-invasive breast conditions that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These include ductal carcinoma in situ , lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical ductal hyperplasia .

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Which Types Of Breast Cancer Are Young Women Prone To Getting

Younger women are more likely to have higher grade and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Higher-grade tumors look very different from normal cells. They divide quickly and are more likely to spread. They often respond well to treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, which destroy quickly dividing cells.

Hormone receptor-negative cancers dont need the female hormones estrogen and progesterone to grow. Unlike hormone receptor-positive cancers, they cant be treated with hormone therapies such as tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Hormone receptor-negative cancers tend to grow more quickly than hormone receptor-positive cancers.

Triple-negative breast cancer doesnt respond to estrogen and progesterone. It also doesnt respond to a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC is more common in young women and African-American women. It also has lower survival rates.

Dairy Meat And Vegetables

Quiet Corner:Why Women in China Rarely Get Breast Cancer ...

There is a widespread concern that elements of the modern diet add to breast cancer risk. But the belief that preservatives and pesticides are major contributors has never been confirmed.

Similarly, no risk increase has been found for people consuming dairy products. Eating meat appears to cause little or no risk. But the fifth of the population eating the highest levels of red or processed meats have a 25% higher risk of breast cancer than the fifth who eat the least and appear to have increased rates of other cancers. This is probably because processing causes small amounts of cancer-causing toxins to form in the meat.

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There is some limited evidence that eating more fish reduces breast cancer risk. This may be due to the protective effect of omega-3 fats. And there is relatively strong proof that vegetable consumption lessens risk, although how this works is not known.

Despite much being said about the protective powers of super veggies, such as kale, broccoli, tomatoes and strawberries, there is so far no evidence they are really better than others. Similarly, organically grown vegetables do not give greater protection than those grown in the usual way.

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