Benefits And Other Risks Of Hrt
Many women decide the benefits of taking HRT outweigh the risks.
While HRT increases breast cancer risk, it also helps to relieve many womens menopausal symptoms. It can also reduce a womans risk of developing osteoporosis in the short term and improve muscle strength.
It has some side effects such as headaches, feeling sick and breast tenderness. These usually happen in the first few months. Taking HRT also slightly increases the risk of having a blood clot or a stroke, and might slightly increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
Breast Cancer Funding & Financial Burden
- The estimated national costs of care for breast cancer is expected to reach $20.5 billion by 2020.
- The economic value of life lost due to premature death from breast cancer is estimated to reach $121 billion by the year 2020.
- Theres a low level of federal and NGO funding for breast cancer prevention and etiology research. Low funding levels in this area may be a result of a research funding strategy that is more focused on developing cures rather than on prevention.
How Common Is Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in American women, except for skin cancers. The average risk of a woman in the United States developing breast cancer sometime in her life is about 13%. This means there is a 1 in 8 chance she will develop breast cancer. This also means there is a 7 in 8 chance she will never have the disease.
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Breast Cancer Incidence Rates Worldwide
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide.
Its estimated more than 2 million new cases of breast cancer occurred worldwide among women in 2020 .
Breast cancer incidence rates around the world vary
In general, rates of breast cancer are higher in developed countries than in developing countries .
Breast Cancer At A Glance
Breast Cancer in the U.S.:
- Breast cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death among non-white women nationwide.
- Breast cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death among white women.
- 14.1% of the estimated U.S. cancer cases in 2012 will be due to breast cancer.
- In 2015, it is estimated that 231,840 U.S. women will develop breast cancer, and 40,290 will die of it.
- Nationwide, the probability of developing breast cancer in a lifetime is 1 in every 8 women.
- 80% of all breast cancer cases are found in women over the age of 50.
Major breast cancer risk factors:
- Women over age 50
- Women whose mothers or sisters have had breast cancer
- Women who are childless or who start their families after they are 30
- Women who have had cancer in one breast
- Women who are overweight
- About 410 women die each year from breast cancer in Mississippi.
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Metastatic Breast Cancer Statistics
The number of women under 40 being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer is increasing.
Metastatic breast cancer means that the cancer has advanced to stage 4 and has moved beyond the breast tissue into other areas of the body, such as the bones or the brain. Survival rates are lower for cancer that has metastasized to other parts of the body.
According to the American Cancer Society , the 5-year survival rate for those with breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is 27 percent for women of all ages. However, one found no significant differences in median survival rate between younger and older women with metastatic breast cancer.
What Can I Do To Reduce My Risk
If several members of your family have had breast or ovarian cancer, or one of your family members has a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, share this information with your doctor. Your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. In men, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
If genetic testing shows that you have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, your doctor will explain what you should do to find cancer early, if you get it.
All men can lower their risk by keeping a healthy weight and exercising regularly.
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Types Of Mastectomy The Following Types Of Mastectomy May Be Offered
A total mastectomy, or simple mastectomy, removes all of the breast and the tissue that covers the chest muscles . The lymph nodes, nerves and muscles in the chest are left in place. The nipple may or may not be removed.
If you plan to have a breast reconstruction, your doctors may try to do a skin-sparing mastectomy when they remove the cancer. A skin-sparing mastectomy is like a total mastectomy except that the surgeon doesnât remove the skin that covers the breast. This approach means that breast reconstruction can be done with very little scarring that can be seen.
Modified radical mastectomy
A modified radical mastectomy removes all of the breast, the nipple, most or all of the lymph nodes in the armpit and the tissue that covers the chest muscles . Nerves and muscles are usually left in place.
This type of mastectomy is used for breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also used to treat inflammatory breast cancer.
A radical mastectomy is an operation that removes more muscle, lymph nodes and other tissues than a modified radical mastectomy. It is now very rarely used to treat breast cancer.
Health Disparities In Young African Americans
In addition to these unique issues, research has shown that young African American women face even greater challenges.
- African American women under age 35 have rates of breast cancer two times higher than caucasian women under age 35.14
- African Americans under age 35 die from breast cancer three times as often as caucasian women of the same age.14
- Researchers believe that access to healthcare and the quality of healthcare available may explain these disparities. But scientists continue to investigate.
- Research also shows that young African Americans are more likely to get aggressive forms of breast cancer than anyone else.14
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How Much Does Hrt Increase Risk
The risk of developing breast cancer between the ages of 50 and 69 is around:
- 63 in every 1,000 women who have never used HRT
- 83 in every 1,000 women who use combined HRT for five years from the age of 50
- 68 in every 1,000 women who use oestrogen-only HRT for five years from the age of 50
Oestrogen-only HRT increases the risk of womb cancer, so is generally only offered to women who have had their womb removed .
Tibolone is another type of HRT that contains a steroid that acts like oestrogen and progesterone. Tibolone users also have an increased risk of breast cancer, but probably less so than combined HRT users.
What Is Cancer Prevalence
Cancer prevalence is defined as the number of living people who have ever been diagnosed with cancer. It includes people diagnosed with cancer in the past as well those who were recently diagnosed. It does not include the number of people who may develop cancer in their lifetime.
Cancer prevalence is determined by how often a cancer occurs and by how long people normally live after diagnosis . This means prevalence counts are highest for the most common cancers with the longest survival. And, a common cancer with shorter survival may have a lower prevalence count than a less common cancer with longer survival.
For example, although lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in both men and women, the prevalence count for lung cancer is lower than that for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a less common cancer. This is because people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma survive longer than those with lung cancer, so there are more people living after a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma than after a diagnosis of lung cancer.
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Fact : The Breast Cancer Epidemic Is Ongoing
The increase in the incidence of breast cancer that began some 40+ years ago was abrupt. Moreover, this tragic epidemic continues, as evidenced by the annual number of new cases of breast cancer in U.S. women at the beginning of each of the last five decades: 1970 , 1980 , 1990 , 2000 , and 2010 . This trend represents an alarming, even if slowing, rate of increase in the American breast cancer epidemic. Increases by decade have been: 1970s , 1980s , 1990s , and 2000s .
Breast cancer has clearly become much more common in the United States, and other developed Western countries, as well as developing nations . The essential question is why?
Incidence Rates And The Number Of New Cases
To know whether or not breast cancer rates are changing over time, you have to compare rates, rather than the number of new cases.
For example, lets compare the number of new cases of breast cancer in U.S. in 2009 to the number of new cases in 2016. In 2009, there were an estimated 192,370 new cases of breast cancer in U.S. women . In 2016, there were an estimated 246,660 new cases .
Although more breast cancer cases occurred in 2016 than in 2009, this doesnt mean the rate of breast cancer increased over this time period.
We expect the number of cases to increase over time because the population of the U.S. increases over time . The more people there are, the more cancers there will be.
Our population is also living longer . Since age increases the risk of breast cancer, we expect to have more breast cancers over time.
To know if breast cancer rates are changing over time, we look at incidence rates, rather than the number of new cases. The incidence rate shows the number of breast cancer cases in a set population size. Its usually written as the number of cases in a population of 100,000 people.
The breast cancer incidence rate among women in 2009 was 131 and the estimated breast cancer incidence rate in 2016 was also 131 . This means there were 131 breast cancer cases per 100,000 women in the U.S. population in both time periods.
So, although the number of breast cancer cases increased over time, breast cancer rates were fairly stable.
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How Common Is It
Breast cancer isnt common in women under 40.
A womans risk of breast cancer throughout her 30s is just 1 in 227, or about 0.4 percent. By age 40 to 50, the risk is roughly 1 in 68, or about 1.5 percent. From age 60 to 70, the chance increases to 1 in 28, or 3.6 percent.
Out of all types of cancer, though, breast cancer is the most common among U.S. women. A womans risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime is about 12 percent.
Breast Cancer Statistics In Young Adults
Although breast cancer in young adults is rare, more than 250,000 living in the United States today were diagnosed under age 40. In young adults, breast cancer tends to be diagnosed in its later stages. It also tends to be more aggressive. Young adults have a higher mortality rate. As well as a higher risk of metastatic recurrence .
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Examples Of Rates Versus Numbers
Say, town A has a population of 100,000 and town B has a population of 1,000. Over a year, say there are 100 breast cancer deaths in town A and 100 breast cancer deaths in town B.
The number of breast cancer deaths in each town is the same. However, many more people live in town A than live in town B. So, the mortality rates are quite different.
In town A, there were 100 breast cancer deaths among 100,000 people. This means the mortality rate was less than one percent .
In town B, the mortality rate was 10 percent .
Although the number of deaths was the same in town A and town B, the mortality rate was much higher in town B than in town A .
Lets look at another example. In 2021, its estimated among women there will be :
- 100 breast cancer deaths in Washington, D.C.
- 720 breast cancer deaths in Alabama
- 4,730 breast cancer deaths in California
Of the 3, California has the highest number of breast cancers. However, that doesnt mean it has the highest rate of breast cancer. These numbers dont take into account the number of women who live in each state. Fewer women live in Alabama and Washington, D.C. than live in California.
Other factors may vary by state as well, such as the age and race/ethnicity of women. So, to compare breast cancer mortality , we need to look at mortality rates.
In 2021, the estimated mortality rates are :
- 26 per 100,000 women in Washington, D.C.
- 22 per 100,000 women in Alabama
- 19 per 100,000 women in California
Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool
The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.
See how the rates of new breast cancers or breast cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
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Trends In Breast Cancer Deaths
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. The chance that a woman will die from breast cancer is about 1 in 39 .
Since 2007, breast cancer death rates have been steady in women younger than 50, but have continued to decrease in older women. From 2013 to 2018, the death rate went down by 1% per year.
These decreases are believed to be the result of finding breast cancer earlier through screening and increased awareness, as well as better treatments.
What Is The Average American Womans Risk Of Developing Breast Cancer During Her Lifetime
Based on current incidence rates, 12.9% of women born in the United States today will develop breast cancer at some time during their lives . This estimate, from the most recent SEER Cancer Statistics Review , is based on breast cancer statistics for the years 2015 through 2017.
This estimate means that, if the current incidence rate stays the same, a woman born today has about a 1 in 8 chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer at some time during her life. On the other hand, the chance that she will never have breast cancer is 87.1%, or about 7 in 8.
For men born in the United States today, the lifetime risk of breast cancer is 0.13%, based on breast cancer statistics for the years 2015 through 2017. This means that a man born today has about a 1 in 800 chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer at some time during his life.
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Global Breast Cancer Statistics
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide.
- In 2020, there were 2.3 million women diagnosed with breast cancer and 685,000 deaths globally with breast cancer surpassing lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer.
- As of the end of 2020, there were 7.8 million women alive who were diagnosed with breast cancer over the past five years.
Lifetime Risk Of Breast Cancer Worldwide
Women who live in developed countries tend to have a higher lifetime risk of breast cancer than women who live in developing countries .
Although we dont know all the reasons for these differences, lifestyle and reproductive factors likely play a large role .
Low screening rates and incomplete reporting can make rates of breast cancer in developing countries look lower than they truly are and may also explain some of these differences.
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Fact : Oral Contraceptives Are An Established Risk Factor For Breast Cancer
Evidence for an estrogenbreast cancer link was published in a New England Journal of Medicine review, Estrogen Carcinogenesis in Breast Cancer . Estrogen levels are 1050 times higher in breast tissue than in blood, and are higher yet in cancerous tissue than normal tissue. Yager and Davidson stated that, The strongest evidence for the role of estrogen in breast cancer has emerged from the experience with the anti-estrogenic chemotherapy drug, tamoxifen, which has been shown to reduce the risk of cancer by 38 percent in the cancer-free breast .
OCs are known to accelerate cell division in girls and young women who take them before their FFTP. A Mayo Clinic Proceedings meta-analysis by Kahlenborn et al. demonstrated a 52 percent increase in the risk of premenopausal breast cancer among parous women who used OCs four or more years before their FFTP . In an accompanying editorial Cerhan noted, that a higher risk of breast cancer for OC use before first full-term pregnancy was first described more than 25 years ago . In other words, this overview finding by Kahlenborn et al. was not an outlier, but reflected a long-standing, even if seldom discussed, scientific understanding.
What was the media’s response to this study with its troubling finding linking OCs and breast cancer? According to Dennis Byrne of the Chicago Tribune, their main response has been silence .