What Is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Ductal carcinoma in situ is a very early form of breast cancer. Its the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer.
Its called ductal because its only in the milk ducts. Carcinoma means cancer that starts in the cells that line the inner or outer surfaces of tissues, including breast ducts. In situ are words in Latin that mean in its original place.
DCIS is classified as low, intermediate, or high. Grades are based on what the cells look like under a microscope. A lower grade means DCIS looks more like normal breast cells. The higher the grade, the more it looks different from normal cells.
DCIS sometimes involves the nipple, making it look red and scaly. This is a rare form of cancer called Pagets disease of the breast .
DCIS may not become invasive cancer, but researchers are still trying to learn how often that happens. They want to know if people can avoid treatment if its unlikely DCIS will become invasive cancer.
Nanotechnology In Breast Cancer
The field of nanotechnology has rapidly evolved as evidenced by the fact that there are more than 150 ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of nanotechnology based drug delivery carriers targeting cancer. Various liposomal doxorubicin formulations were developed in an effort to improve the therapeutic index of the conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy while maintaining its anti-tumor activity. For example, the efficacy of three liposomal doxorubicins are currently being used: liposomal daunorubicin , liposomal doxorubicin , and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin . Generally, these agents exhibit efficacies comparable to those of conventional doxorubicin, except with better safety profiles and less cardio toxicity. In addition to liposomal doxorubicin, albumin-bound paclitaxel is another example of an E PR based nanovector application for breast cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel is highly hydrophobic and dissolved in cremophor to prevent paclitaxel precipitation. However, cremophor-associated toxicities are severe and challenge the application of paclitaxel. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was developed to improve the solubility of paclitaxel
Types Of Breast Cancer
Medically Reviewed on April 15, 2020
©2022 National Breast Cancer Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit organization with a 501 tax-exempt status. All rights reserved. Site by GLIDE.
Read Also: Can Stage 2 Breast Cancer Be Cured
Less Common Types Of Invasive Breast Cancer
Pagets disease of the nipple
Paget’s disease of the nipple is a rare form of breast cancer in which cancer cells grow in the nipple or the areola . The nipple and areola often become scaly, red, itchy, and irritated. Many people with Pagets disease may also have either DCIS or invasive breast cancer somewhere else in the breast. The unusual changes in the nipple and areola are often the first signs that breast cancer is present.
Inflammatory breast cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and aggressive form of invasive breast cancer that affects the blood vessels in the skin and/or lymphatic vessels of the breast. This causes the breast to become red and inflamed. SeeCancer Australiafor more information about inflammatory breast cancer.
Phyllodes tumours of the breast
Phyllodes tumours of the breast are rare. Although most phyllodes tumours are benign some are malignant . Phyllodes tumours tend to grow quickly, but they rarely spread outside the breast. Phyllodes tumours develop in the breasts connective tissue or stroma i.e. outside the ducts and lobules of the breast.
Other rare breast cancers
There are also other types of very rare breast cancers such as metaplastic, medullary and mucinous breast cancer.
The USbreastcancer.orgwebsitehas a range of very clearly explained information about the rarer types of breast cancer. This is an American website and please keep in mind not all information may be relevant to Australia.
Locally advanced breast cancer
Human Antimicrobial Protein Hcap18/ll
Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein, hCAP18, and its C-terminal peptide LL-37 is a multifunctional protein. In addition to being important in antimicrobial defense, it induces chemotaxis, stimulates an giogenesis and promotes tissue repair. We previously showed that human breast cancer cells express high amounts of hCAP18, and hypothesised that hCAP18/LL-37 may be involved in tumor progression.
Also Check: What Is Advanced Stage Breast Cancer
I Was Born With No Collarbones And Now Im The Shoulder Clapping King
When it comes to past experience, Dr Kamal said that many people have said their lump has felt like a pea in a pod, or even a frozen pea.
Most of the time, he said these lumps have been on the smaller side, but have the same texture as the vegetable.
Its generally on the smoother side for texture, generally more firm, generally not painful. And it generally does not feel like a cyst, which feels like a fluid collection although even if a person feels a fluid collection, they should report that to their clinical team as well,” he added.
Another expert, an assistant professor of radiology at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Dr Alyssa Cubbison, added that these lumps can be difficult to move from side to side.
When checking your breasts, Dr Cubbison said you mainly want to feel around for something that is discrete.
What Is The Genetic Makeup Of Your Breast Cancer Cells
Health care professionals are increasingly using genetic information about breast cancer cells to categorize breast cancers. These groups help guide decisions about which treatments are best.
Breast cancer groups include:
Group 1 : This group includes tumors that are ER positive and PR positive but negative for HER2. Luminal A breast cancers are likely to benefit from hormone therapy and may benefit from chemotherapy.
Group 2 : This type includes tumors that are ER positive, PR negative and HER2 positive. Luminal B breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy, and may benefit from hormone therapy and treatment targeted to HER2.
Group 3 : This type includes tumors that are ER negative and PR negative but HER2 positive. HER2 breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy and treatment targeted to HER2.
Group 4 : This type, which is also called triple-negative breast cancer, includes tumors that are ER negative, PR negative and HER2 negative. Basal-like breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy.
How Is Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Diagnosed
Several tests can help your doctor identify and diagnose IDC, including:
Physical exam. Manual examination of your breasts by your doctor can detect lumps and other changes. If your doctor feels a lump or thickening, he or she may recommend further tests to rule out IDC.
Digital mammography is an improved method for breast imaging that is performed much like a regular mammogram. However, it is better than conventional mammography in detecting cancer in younger patients and in those with dense breast tissue. Electronic images can be enhanced with computer-aided detection systems to spot masses, calcifications and abnormalities associated with cancer.
Breast ultrasound uses sound waves to examine the breast tissue and gauge blood flow. It is safe for examining pregnant patients, and does not use radiation.
Breast magnetic resonance imaging uses a large magnet, radio waves and a computer that can detect small breast lesions, and may be especially useful in examining patients with a high risk of breast cancer, such as those with BRCA1, BRCA2 or other gene mutations associated with cancer.
How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed
Your health care provider may use many tools to diagnose breast cancer and figure out which type you have:
- A physical exam, including a clinical breast exam . This involves checking for any lumps or anything else that seems unusual with the breasts and armpits.
- A medical history
- Blood chemistry tests, which measure different substances in the blood, including electrolytes, fats, proteins, glucose , and enzymes. Some of the specific blood chemistry tests include a basic metabolic panel , a comprehensive metabolic panel , and an electrolyte panel.
If these tests show that you have breast cancer, you will have tests which study the cancer cells. These tests help your provider decide which treatment would be best for you. The tests may include:
- Genetic tests for genetic changes such as BRCA and TP53
- HER2 test. HER2 is a protein involved with cell growth. It is on the outside of all breast cells. If your breast cancer cells have more HER2 than normal, they can grow more quickly and spread to other parts of the body.
- An estrogen and progesterone receptor test. This test measures the amount of estrogen and progesterone receptors in cancer tissue. If there are more receptors than normal, the cancer is called estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly.
Don’t Miss: How Is Stage 0 Breast Cancer Treated
Us Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool
The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.
See how the rates of new breast cancers or breast cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.
What Is Invasive Lobular Carcinoma
Invasive lobular carcinoma starts in the breasts lobules. These are small round sacs that make breast milk. This cancer spreads to nearby tissue. ILC is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer, after invasive ductal carcinoma. Out of every 100 cases of breast cancer, 10 to 15 are ILC.
People who have ILC may notice a thick or full area that does not feel like the rest of the breast. ILC doesnt always form a lump.
Understanding Your Risk Of Breast Cancer
Several breast cancer risk assessment tools have been developed to help a woman estimate her chance of developing breast cancer. The best studied is the Gail model, which is available on the National Cancer Institutes website at www.cancer.gov/bcrisktool. After you enter some personal and family information, including race/ethnicity, the tool provides you with a 5-year and lifetime estimate of the risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Because it only asks for information about breast cancer in first-degree family members and does not include their ages at diagnosis, the tool works best at estimating risk in women without a strong inherited breast cancer risk. For some women, other ways of determining the risk of breast cancer may work better. For example, women with a strong family history of breast cancer risk should consider talking to a genetic counselor.
It is important to talk with your doctor about how to estimate your personal risk of breast cancer and to discuss risk-reducing or prevention options .
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
Learning everything you can about your diagnosis can help you make informed decisions about your health. Here are some questions you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Where is the tumor located?
- Has the tumor spread?
- What stage breast cancer do I have?
- What do the estrogen receptor , progesterone receptor and HER2 tests show and what do the results mean for me?
- What are my treatment options?
- Is breast cancer surgery an option for me?
- Will I be able to work while I undergo treatment?
- How long will my treatment last?
- What other resources are available to me?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Being diagnosed with breast cancer can feel scary, frustrating and even hopeless. If you or a loved one is facing this disease, its important to take advantage of the many resources available to you. Talk to your healthcare provider about your treatment options. You may even want to get a second opinion before making a decision. You should feel satisfied and optimistic about your treatment plan. Finally, joining a local support group can help with feelings of isolation and allow you to talk with other people who are going through the same thing.
What Is Lobular Carcinoma In Situ What Is Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia
Lobular neoplasia is when there are abnormal cells in the breasts lobules . It rarely becomes cancer. Types of lobular neoplasia include:
- Lobular carcinoma in situ , a condition that is not breast cancer or a precancer. Often, it does not become invasive cancer if its not treated.
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia , a condition that is not cancer. Its when there are more cells than usual in your breasts lobules . The extra cells are abnormal.
Both LCIS and ALH raise your risk of getting breast cancer in the future. If you have been diagnosed with either of them, talk with your doctor. Ask how often you should bescreened for breast cancer and if you should have more screening tests.
Genetic Variation In Stromal Proteins Decorin And Lumican With Breast Cancer: Investigations In Two Case
The stroma is the supportive framework of biologic tissue in the breast, consisting of various proteins such as the proteoglycans, decorin and lumican. Altered expression of decorin and lumican is associated with breast tumors. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the decorin and lumican genes may contribute to breast cancer.
Don’t Miss: How To Get Screened For Breast Cancer
What You Should Know About Cancer In Pregnancy
Overview Although it is rare, one can be diagnosed with cancer while they are pregnant. It is also possible to get pregnant, while you already have cancer. Being pregnant usually doesnt make cancer grow faster in the body. However, hormone changes can stimulate specific cancer, such as melanoma. Cancer usually …
Stages Of Breast Cancer
When cancer is diagnosed, a stage is assigned to it, based on how advanced it is. The stage helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment and the prognosis. Stages of breast cancer may be described generally as in situ or invasive. Stages may be described in detail and designated by a number .
Recommended Reading: Triple Negative Breast Cancer Immunotherapy
Can Breast Cancer Be Prevented
You may be able to help prevent breast cancer by making healthy lifestyle changes such as:
- Staying at a healthy weight
- Limiting alcohol use
- Limiting your exposure to estrogen by
- Breastfeeding your babies if you can
- Limiting hormone therapy
If you are at high risk, your health care provider may suggest that you take certain medicines to lower the risk. Some women at very high risk may decide to get a mastectomy to prevent breast cancer.
It’s also important to get regular mammograms. They may be able to identify breast cancer in the early stages, when it is easier to treat.
NIH: National Cancer Institute
What Is Metastatic Cancer
Metastatic cancer is cancer thats spread to a different part of the body than where it originated. You may also see metastatic cancer referred to as stage 4 cancer.
In some cases, the cancer may have already spread by the time of initial diagnosis. Other times, the cancer may spread after the initial treatment. For example, a person who has been treated for early-stage breast cancer may later be diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.
Metastasis can occur with almost every type of cancer and is considered advanced-stage cancer. Cancer metastasis may occur months to years after initial breast cancer treatment.
Theres also a type of metastatic cancer called oligometastatic cancer. This is where theres only a few small areas of metastatic cancer. Because this type of metastatic cancer is only found in a few locations, researchers hope it will be
You May Like: Breast Cancer That Has Spread To Lymph Nodes
You May Like: What Are Symptoms Of Metastatic Breast Cancer
Who Is Mainly Affected By Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women, second only to skin cancer. Its most likely to affect women over the age of 50.
Though rare, men can also develop breast cancer. Approximately 2,600 men develop male breast cancer every year in the United States, making up less than 1% of all cases.
Transgender women are more likely to develop breast cancer compared to cisgender men. Additionally, transgender men are less likely to develop breast cancer compared to cisgender women.
What age does breast cancer occur?
Breast cancer is most often diagnosed in adults over the age of 50, but it can occur at any age.
What race is most affected by breast cancer?
Overall, women who are non-Hispanic white have a slightly higher chance of developing breast cancer than women of any other race or ethnicity. Women who are non-Hispanic Black are almost as likely as non-Hispanic white women to develop the disease. Statistically, women who are Asian, Hispanic or Native American are the least likely to develop breast cancer.
Is Breast Cancer A Death Sentence
Breast cancer is curable, its okay to be afraid to get screened but dont let fear cause you to lose your life. Breast cancer doesnt have to be a death sentence. Read on breast cancer, go and get screened by a medical professional at least once a year, learn to examine your breast by yourself and do it regularly.
Don’t Miss: Can Breast Reduction Surgery Cause Cancer