Menopause And Age Effect
Several studies describe an increased tendency toward weight gain in premenopausal women compared to postmenopausal women. However, inconsistencies in defining menopause in retrospective studies and the issue of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea complicate the interpretation of this effect on weight gain. Goodwin and colleagues identified the greatest weight gains in premenopausal women who experienced chemotherapy-associated amenorrhea and became postmenopausal.
When weight gain is assessed following the use of regimens less likely to cause chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, younger age rather than menopausal status appears as a significant risk factor. Makari-Judson et al, employing recursive partitioning analysis found women younger than age 59 gained the most weight with no independent effect of menopausal status. Irwin and colleagues determined associations between weight gain and both younger age and postmenopausal status this was further refined as younger post-menopausal women gaining significantly more than older post menopausal women and women who developed treatment-associated menopause after diagnosis. Tredan and associates found no influence of menopausal status on weight gain.
Some Of The Most Common Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer
Although every case is different, some general signs and symptoms of cancer include:
Most of the time, these symptoms arent caused by cancer. A benign tumor or another problem may be the culprit. But you shouldnt ignore symptoms that are persistent, severe, or dont go away.
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Diet And Cancer Report 2018
In 2018, we produced the Diet and Cancer Report, the third in our series of major reports looking at the many ways in which our diets, and how active we are, affect our cancer risk. You can find out much more about weight gain and the risk of cancer by . Please note, however, that this webpage may have been updated since the report was published.
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Weight Gain Following Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Implication And Proposed Mechanisms
Correspondence to: Grace Makari-Judson, MD, Baystate Regional Cancer Program, Baystate Medical Center/Tufts University School of Medicine, 376 Birnie Avenue, Springfield, MA 01199, United States.
Telephone: +1-413-7945433 Fax: +1-413-7943613
What Signs Of Cancer Can I Look Out For
We have listed some key signs and symptoms you can be aware of. Most signs and symptoms listed here are caused by something less serious than cancer – but if it is cancer, spotting it early can make a real difference. If you notice any changes that are not normal for you, or something that wont go away – dont ignore it, speak to your doctor. Whether its on this list or not, get it checked out. You can find advice on talking to your doctor here.
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Can Unexpected Weight Gain Be A Sign Of Cancer
Weight gain is also common and may be unexpected. It can happen before, during and after cancer treatment. Some tumours can cause an increase in weight, possibly because of their size, and fluid in the tumours can also cause weight gain. If you are overweight or obese, your doctor may advise you to lose weight to reduce your risk of developing cancer.
Rule Out Other Causes
Nothing is scarier than a potential cancer diagnosis. The possible symptoms outlined here are especially terrifying given that they can all be symptoms of something else entirely . This process of determining whether your symptoms might be related to something else is called differential diagnosis and for breast cancer symptoms these can include a benign breast disease such as cysts, or eczema or another rash, among many other things.
While you should absolutely talk to your doctor if youre having concerning symptoms, remember that as we get older our bodies naturally change and start doing different things. Perform your monthly breast self exams and keep track of them in a journal. Note any odd things you find, or other symptoms youre having, and talk to your doctor if you notice something truly out of the ordinary.
The only real way to know whether what youre experiencing is breast cancer is to see your doctor. While you are your own best advocate for getting the care you need, and for noticing changes in your body, you cant diagnose breast cancer alone. Seek out professional expertise to determine whats going on with your body and what your next steps may be.
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How To Reduce Risk
There is no guaranteed way to prevent breast cancer, but there are certain steps a person can take to lower their risk.
Actions that may lower the risk of breast cancer include:
- Get to a healthy weight: High body weight and weight gain as an adult increase the risk of breast cancer after menopause. The
Several benign breast conditions can cause symptoms that resemble those of cancer. Some of these issues require treatment, while others go away on their own.
Though these conditions are benign, they can cause:
- discomfort or pain
Some common benign breast conditions include:
If a person is unsure what is causing any breast-related symptom, they should talk with a doctor as soon as possible.
As with most cancers, early breast cancer detection and treatment leads to a better outcome. People should attend regular breast examinations and tell a doctor about any breast-related symptoms or changes.
According to the ACS , when a doctor diagnoses breast cancer before it has spread beyond the breast, the relative 5-year survival rate is 99%.
Relative survival rates can help people understand the likelihood of treatment being successful. A relative 5-year survival rate indicates the percentage of people living 5 years after their diagnosis compared to people without the disease.
When breast cancer has spread beyond the breast to the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 86%. The same survival rate for cancer that has spread to other organs is 29%.
Is Breast Cancer Lower Before Menopause
Body weight and breast cancer risk before menopause. Women who are overweight or obese before menopause have a 20-40 percent lower risk of breast cancer than those who are lean . Although being overweight or obese is linked to a lower risk of breast cancer before menopause, weight gain should be avoided.
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Specific Demographic Medical Menopausal And Lymphoedema Details Requested In The Survey
State of residence, highest level of education, ethnicity, employment status, relationship status, current age and age at diagnosis were included to describe the characteristics of women.
Women were asked about their diagnosis, treatments received including treatments received to the axilla, the number of lymph nodes removed, whether they had a reconstruction, use of hormonal treatments, menopausal state , presence of other medical conditions and symptoms such as hot flushes and the presence and severity of lymphoedema.
Women were asked to describe the type of breast cancer they were diagnosed with as either ductal cancer in-situ , localised stage breast cancer , metastatic breast cancer or inflammatory breast cancer. For convenience, inflammatory breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer were then combined and referred to as advanced breast cancer. Women were also asked to indicate the treatments they received such as Lumpectomy alone, Lumpectomy and radiation, mastectomy alone, mastectomy and radiation, removal of lymph nodes, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy , and other. As chemotherapy is invariably not provided to women with DCIS, we recoded the diagnosis as localised if a woman indicated that she had received chemotherapy.
Lymphoedema severity was defined as either no problem , mild , moderate , severe as described elsewhere .
Lobular Carcinoma In Situ Symptoms
Lobular carcinoma in situ does not cause symptoms and cannot be seen with a mammogram. This condition is usually found when a doctor is doing a breast biopsy for another reason, such as to investigate an unrelated breast lump. If a person has LCIS, the breast cells will appear abnormal under a microscope.
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Does Weight Gain Occur After Menopause
Weight gain after menopause. Its not just the weight a woman gains after age 18 that seems important to risk. The weight a woman gains after menopause also appears to be linked to an increased risk of breast cancer . One large study showed women who gained 20 pounds or more after menopause had an 18 percent higher risk
Living With Breast Cancer
Being diagnosed with breast cancer can affect daily life in many ways, depending on what stage its at and what treatment youre having.
How women cope with their diagnosis and treatment varies from person to person. You can be reassured that there are several forms of support available, if you need it. For example:
- your family and friends can be a powerful support system
- you can communicate with other people in the same situation
- find out as much as possible about your condition
- dont try to do too much or overexert yourself
- make time for yourself
Read more about breast screening
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Three Habits That Cause Weight Creep And What To Do About Them
With breast cancer, weight creep may be attributed to a completely different set of habits and thought patterns then research on non-breast cancer subjects reveals.
This is where our circumstances create unique weight loss challenges. But dont give up. You can do something about it!
HABIT #1 You decide to worry about the weight after you get through treatment. It ended six months ago.
The extra weight can wait, you said.
It took everything you had to get through treatment. The disruption, appointments, emotional upheaval, turmoil and chaos left you with enough focus and energy to handle only things screaming for immediate attention.
Ignore them and there were immediate consequences.
For example, skipping a doctor appointment because you didnt feel like driving would result in immediate consequences.
But weight gain? Theres no immediate consequence.
Your bodys felt crappy for so long youve accepted it as your new normal. Yoga pants and t-shirts are your new wardrobe who cares that your clothes dont fit? You feel so tired that take-out has become your new personal chef.
And NOTHING bad has happened.
Solution: Forget your body. Start with your mind. What belief prevents you from taking care of yourself? Is practicing self-care and self-love not yet automatic? Are you self-sabotaging your healthy behaviors?
While you may have some physical limitations, becoming more active could lead to a noticeable improvement in how your body feels.
What Is A Normal Breast
No breast is typical. What is normal for you may not be normal for another woman. Most women say their breasts feel lumpy or uneven. The way your breasts look and feel can be affected by getting your period, having children, losing or gaining weight, and taking certain medications. Breasts also tend to change as you age. For more information, see the National Cancer Institutes Breast Changes and Conditions.
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Symptoms Of Angiosarcoma Of The Breast
Another rare form of breast cancer, angiosarcoma forms inside the lymph and blood vessels. Only a biopsy may definitively diagnose this type of cancer. Angiosarcoma can cause changes to the skin of your breast, such as the development of purple-colored nodules that resemble a bruise. These nodules, if bumped or scratched, may bleed. Over time, these discolored areas may expand, making your skin appear swollen in that area. You may or may not have breast lumps with angiosarcoma. If you also have lymphedema, which is swelling caused by a buildup of lymphatic fluid, angiosarcoma may occur in the affected arm. Cancer treatment sometimes damages the lymph vessels, which may lead to lymphedema.
What Causes Weight Gain After A Breast Cancer Diagnosis
Many factors can lead to weight gain after a breast cancer diagnosis. Medicines like chemotherapy and hormonal therapy can speed up some of the natural effects of aging that cause weight gain. They can decrease your muscle mass and slow your metabolism, the process your body uses to convert the calories you eat into energy. When you eat more calories than are used for energy, you gain weight.
Lifestyle is also a factor. Breast cancer treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy, and medicine, can leave you exhausted, in need of recovery, and short on time. For these reasons, many people exercise less after a breast cancer diagnosis, leading to weight gain.
The food you eat can also have an impact. Medicines like chemotherapy can change the way some foods taste, and many women find that bland, fatty foods taste better than other, healthier foods while their sense of taste is different. And, for some people, food can be a huge comfort during a stressful situation like cancer. But if you start eating a lot of foods that are high in fat, sugar, and calories, you will probably gain weight.
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How Can Weight Gain During Cancer Treatment Be Managed
Many people will gain weight during treatment for cancer. There are a number of reasons why patients may gain weight during cancer treatment. Some people may become less physically active during cancer treatment. Others may receive medications that change their metabolism. This is especially true for people being treated for breast cancer or prostate cancer. Sometimes, medications that contribute to weight gain are given as part of the treatment plan, such as steroids.
Before starting any kind of diet or changing your eating habits, talk with a member of your health care team. You may find it helpful to talk with a registered dietitian . They can provide nutritional guidelines or a customized diet plan.
General suggestions about good nutrition during cancer treatment include:
Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Limit fat, sugar, and refined flour.
Drink plenty of water.
Use healthier cooking methods whenever possible.
Regular physical activity can also be helpful during and after cancer treatment. Check with your doctor before starting a new type of exercise or increasing your physical activity.
Try different physical activities, such as walking or bicycling, to find one that you enjoy and will do regularly.
Explore exercise classes designed for people diagnosed with cancer, either in-person or online.
Try strength-building exercises. These can be especially helpful if you have lost muscle.
What Are The Symptoms Of Cancer
yellowing of the skin. fatigue. persistent hoarseness. worsening or persistent pain. change in bowel habits. gastrointestinal bleeding. Again, while these can all be early cancer symptoms, they can also be caused by a range of other conditions, most of which are much more common and less serious than cancer.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer
Spotting cancer at an early stage saves lives, so tell your doctor if you notice anything that isnt normal for you.
You dont need to try and remember all the signs and symptoms of cancer listen to your body and talk to your doctor if you notice anything that isnt normal for you.
Signs and symptoms are more often caused by something less serious than cancer – but if it is cancer, spotting it early can make a real difference.
This page covers some of the key signs and symptoms of cancer, which could help you spot cancer early. We have separate cancer type webpages if you are looking for information about symptoms of a specific cancer type.
Does Inflammation Cause Breast Cancer
Chronic inflammation has been linked to a higher risk of breast cancer recurrence the proteins secreted by the immune system seem to stimulate breast cancer cells to grow, especially estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. We also know that women who gain weight after being diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely
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How Can I Be Sure That My Cancer Will Be Detected Before It Has Spread
While you cant prevent breast cancer altogether, there are certain things you can do to reduce your risk of discovering it at an advanced stage. For example:
- Get routine mammograms. The American Cancer Society recommends having a baseline mammogram at age 35, and a screening mammogram every year after age 40.
- Examine your breasts every month after age 20. Youll become familiar with the contours and feel of your breasts and will be more alert to changes.
- Have your breasts examined by a healthcare provider at least once every three years after age 20, and every year after age 40. Clinical breast exams can detect lumps that mammograms may not find.
Does It Occur How Much And In Whom
Weight gain following treatment for early stage breast cancer is a global concern with the phenomena described by investigators spanning the continents. Table Table11 provides an overview of studies describing weight gain following a diagnosis of early stage breast cancer selected based on a focus on factors impacting weight gain after diagnosis rather than obesity at diagnosis and includes reports from a diverse selection of nations. Studies focusing on prognosis related to weight gain are discussed later in the text.
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The Breast Cancer Centers At Ctca
At the Breast Cancer Centers at each of our CTCA® hospitals, located across the nation, our cancer experts are devoted to a single missiontreating breast cancer patients with compassion and precision. Each patients care team is led by a medical oncologist and coordinated by a registered oncology nurse, who helps track the various appointments, follow up on tests and answer questions that come up along the way. Your care team also may include a breast surgeon, radiation oncologist, radiologist, pathologist and a plastic/reconstructive surgeon with advanced training in helping patients restore function and appearance. Fertility preservation and genetic testing are also available for qualifying patients who need them.
Our pathologists and oncologists are experienced and trained in tools designed to diagnose, stage and treat different types of breast cancer, from early-stage ductal carcinoma in situ to complex diseases such as triple-negative and inflammatory breast cancer. As part of our patient-centered care model, which is designed to help you keep strong during treatment, your multidisciplinary care team may recommend various evidence-informed supportive therapies, such as naturopathic support, psychosocial support, nutritional support, physical and occupational therapy and pain management. The entire team works together with a whole-person focus, which is at the heart of our centers dedication to personalized and comprehensive care.